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REPORT of the MINISTRY 

Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada 

1918 




LONDON : 

PRINTED BYiAUTHORITY OF THE MINISTRY, 
OVERSEAS MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. 



CzASf 



A JAN 6 1239 ■ 

ft. 

3^* 0F toro 1 



Ill 



Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada : 
The Honourable Sir Edward Kemp, K.C.M.G., M.P. 

Deputy Minister ; 
Colonel G. F. Harrington, . 

Assistant Deputy Minister .:• ■ ■■ ,^ . 
Lieut. -Colonel T. Gibson, D.S.Q. 

Chief of the General Staff ; 
Lieut. -General Sir R. E. W. Turner, - 
V.C., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.G. • 

Adjutant-General : 
Major-General P. E. Thacker, C.B., C.M.G. 



Quartermaster-General ; 
Brigadier-General D. M. Hogarth, C.M.G. , D.S.O. 

Accountant-General ; 
Colonel W. R. Ward, C.B.E. 



Director-General of Medical Services ; 
Major-General G. L. Foster, C.B. 

Paymaster -General ; 
Brigadier-General J. G. Ross, C.M.G 



(642) \ A 2 



IV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The Glory tb Ypres. ~:ece.\ 

Canadian Troops in Training 

Canadian Cadets in Training 

The King and the Young Canadians 

The Taking of Vimy Ridge 

An Army Marches on its Stomach " 
Canadian Diet was the Best in any Army 
An Abomination of Desolation- 
Canadian Troops were kept Fit and in Good Spirits by Sport 

Aeroplane Photograph. Panoramic View of Wire Drocourt- 
Queant Li: 

Near View of Wire. Defences Drocourt-Queant Line 

Going into Battle. — Arras 

An Abiding Record of the Enemy's Wanton Destruction 

The Hand of the Hun in Cambrai 

One of the Last Stages on the Road to Victory 

A Great Welcome to the Canadians at Mons 

With the Canadians on the Rhine 

" Waste Xot, Want Xot " on the Battlefield 

Enter the Cavalry 

Canadian Air-Fighters in France 

Canadian Light Railways had many Uses 

The Triumph of the Canadian Light Railway System . . 

Canadian Lumbermen in France 

With the Canadian Army Medical Corps in France 

Entraining Wounded Canadians for " Blighty " 

Dental Parlour in the Field 

Canadian Chaplain on Duty in the Field 

Field Paymasters' Open Air Office 

Educating Canadian Troops for Re-entry into Civil Life 

Canada Sends her Aid to the Allies 

The Y.M.C.A. followed the Troops to the Line 






_ 
15 
24 

71 

7-L 

101 
125 

144 

144 

147 

169 
178 

1S5 
192 
324 

346 
355 

368 

-_ 

4 _ 

410 

424 

485 



LIST OF SKETCHES, MAPS, ETC. 



Facing 
Page 

Sketch No. 1. — -Showing Sectors held by the Canadian Corps. 

Jan. 1— March 24, 1918 102 

Sketch No. 2. — Showing Northern Coal Fields and Communi- 
cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 06 

Sketch No. 3. — Showing Defence Scheme, Vimy- Arras Sector .. 10S 

Sketch No. 4. — Showing Area of Operations, 1st C.M.M.G. Bde. 

March, 1918 ~ 110 

Sketch No. 5. — Showing Situation of Canadian Troops at Noon, 

30/3/18 .. .. 114 

Sketch No. 6. — Showing Situation of Canadian Troops. 8/4 IS . . 116 

Sketch No. 7. — Situation on Western Front. 20/3/18 — 15/7/18 . . 126 

Sketch No. S. — Move of Canadian Corps to Amiens Front . . . . 132 

Sketch No. 9. — Showing Ground Captured by Canadian Corps. 

Aug. S— Aug. 17, 1918 . . 142 

[ No. 9a.— 

toward Rove.. .. 142 

Sketch No. 10. — Showing Attacks of Canadian Corps, and Hinden- 

burg Defence System . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 54 

Sketch No. 11. — -Advances made by Canadian Corps. Aug. 26 — 

Oct. 11, 1918 .. .. 170 

Sketch No. 12. — Advances made by Canadian Corps. Oct. 11 — 

Nov. 11, 1918 .. .. 186 

Sketch No. 13. — The Advance to the Rhine .. .. .. .. 192 



Vll 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 

Introduction 

Control of Canadian Forces (Canadian Section, G.H.Q 

The General Staff. (See separate Index, page 7) 

The Adjutant-General's Branch. (See separate Index, page 25) 

The Quartermaster-General's Branch. (See separate Index 
page 69) 

Operations of the Canadian Corps, 1918 . . 

Part I. 

January 1 to March 21 

March 21 to May 7 . . 

May 7 to July 15 
Part II. 

July 15 to November 11 
Part III. 

November 11 to December, 1918 .. 

The Organisation, Administration and Functions of the 
Canadian Corps. (See separate Index, page 193) 

Proposed Re-Organisation of the Canadian Corps 

Operations of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade (1918) . . 

Canadians in the Royal Air Force 

Canadian Air Force . . . . . . . . 

Canadian Railway Troops 

Canadian Forestry Corps 

Canadian Troops Outside the Canadian Corps 

Canadian Tank Battalion 

Canadian Army Medical Corps. (See separate Index, page 379) 

Canadian Army Dental Corps 

Chaplain Services 

Accountant-general's Branch 

Canadian Army Pay Corps 

The General Auditor's Department 

Canadian Record Office 

Estates Branch 

Overseas Purchasing Committee 



page 

ix 

xi 

1 

9 



71 
99 



101 
108 

120 

126 

185 

195 
333 

335 

345 
349 
355 
363 
373 
377 
381 
405 
409 
413 
417 
429 
433 
437 
441 



viii 



CONTENTS— continued. 



PAGE 



The Canadian Military Funds Trust 

Navy and Army Canteens 

Canadian War Records 

Oyerseas Disposal Board 

Interned Prisoners of War (Holland) 

Inter-Allied Permanent Committee for Disabled Soldiers 

Khaki University of Canada 

Distribution of Information relating to Civil Re-Establish 

MENT 

The Canadian Red Cross Society 
YM.C.A 

Non-Military Organisations 
Demobilisation. (See separate Index, page 515) 



447 
449 
453 
461 
465 
469 
473 

483 
485 

497 
507 
515 



IX 



PREFACE. 

During the years in which the Empire was at War, 
Canada's share steadily increased until the little Force 
which crossed the Atlantic in 1914 had developed into a 
mighty organization whose activities extended into 
every sphere of military effort. 

I have, therefore, thought it proper to submit a 
report of these activities to Parliament, and through it 
to the people of Canada, in the hope that it may prove 
of interest to them. 

The report which follows does not presume to be 
an exhaustive account of all such activities. These are 
so numerous and so varied in their nature that it would 
be an almost impossible task to prepare a complete 
record of them at this stage. An endeavour, however, 
has been made to make a general survey of many 
matters which came under the surveillance of this 
Ministry, chiefly during the year 1918. In view of the 
purpose of the report, details and language of a technical 
nature have been avoided as much as possible. 

I welcome this opportunity of expressing to the 
Forces who have served in all theatres and in all 
capacities my heartfelt appreciation of their magnificent 
achievements. Wherever a stern or difficult task had 
to be performed, wherever the fight was fiercest, Canadian 
troops were in the forefront, by their valour, patience 
and skill, upholding and increasing a renown which will 
endure for all time. 

Further, I would express my thanks to those in 
charge of the administration and training of our Forces, 



both in France and in England. By their efficiency and 
wholehearted endeavour our victories were made possible, 
and they conclusively proved to the world that the 
citizen soldier, imbued with the spirit of loyalty and self- 
denial, could be the equal of those who had made war a 
life-long study. 

Finally, on behalf of the Overseas Forces, I wish to 
convey to Parliament and to the people of Canada, the 
grateful thanks of the Forces for all that has been done 
on their behalf, and for the constant solicitude which has 
ever been displayed in their welfare. The many sacrifices 
cheerfully undertaken so that our soldiers might not lack 
the wherewithal to enable them to carry the war to a 
successful conclusion did not pass unnoticed, but, on the 
contrary, were ever an inspiration urging them to still 
greater deeds. 

A. E. KEMP. 



XI 



INTRODUCTION, 



The activities of the Overseas Forces of Canada have been 
so manifold and have spread themselves over so wide a field of 
effort that it is no easy matter to publish a report which may 
be confidently stated to cover every aspect and phase of them 

To obviate as much as possible the possibility of omission, 
this report has been constructed and arranged in sections, a 
section being allotted to the work performed by each adminis- 
trative Branch or Department. So also, sections are allotted 
to the activities of the combatant and non-combatant troops, 
special sections being devoted to those matters which it is 
thought will be of particular interest to the Canadian people. 

Before proceeding to deal with these in detail, it seems 
proper in this Introduction to explain generally the system 
under which our Overseas Forces are administered, and to make 
a brief review of some of the outstanding features of the year 
1918. 

The Overseas Forces are administered by the Minister, 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, the offices of the Ministry 
being situated in London. 

To assist him in his duties the Minister has his military 
staff, consisting of the heads of the various Branches and 
Departments of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, who, for 
the greater part, are accommodated in London. This staff, 
along with the Ministry, practically constitutes an Overseas 
Canadian War Office ; for it should be borne in mind that with 
the exception of active operations in the Field, which, of 
necessity, come under the direction of British General Head- 
quarters, Canada's Forces are an entirely autonomous body, all 
questions affecting their administration, organisation, pro- 
motions, pay, etc., having to receive the sanction of the 
Minister before any action can be taken. 

The year 1918 was one of great activity in the history of 
the Canadian Forces, and will for ever stand out as one which 
witnessed the culmination of Canada's claim to military 
greatness. The year 1917 had seen the Canadian Corps 
achieve the seemingly impossible in the capture of Vimy Ridge, 
Hill 70, and the Passchendaele Ridge. The year 1918 saw 



xii Introduction. 

them initiate the final counter Offensive in front of Amiens, and 
lead the way to ultimate victory through the "impregnable" 
Hindenburg line. The history of the Offensives will be found 
in the chapters relating to the Corps and Cavalry Brigade, 
and it is not necessary to enlarge upon this engrossing 
subject here. 

Benefiting from the experience of former years, the Overseas 
Administration instituted in the year 1918 a considerable 
number of changes in organisation, tending towards a greater 
efficiency in the conduct of Canadian affairs Overseas generally, 
in the methods of training and maintaining the troops, and 
towards a reduction of the personnel necessary for that purpose. 
Important among these were the reduction in the number of 
Reserve Battalions, Regimental Depots, and Reserve Training 
Brigades in England, and the release of the Staffs of the Units 
so dispensed with for other purposes. For example, out of 
the 57 Infantry Reserve Battalions which existed on January 1, 
1917, only 15 remained on June 1, 1918. The saving in Staffs 
effected by these reductions is self evident. 

So also the number of Officers and Other Ranks employed 
at Headquarters was, in the last two years, cut almost in half, 
notwithstanding the continuous increase in Canada's Overseas 
Forces ; and in the same spirit Canadian military establishments 
have been steadily reviewed and amended, no less than 111 
establishments having been reviewed and 128 amendments 
dealt with. 

One of the most noteworthy innovations of the past year 
was the creation of the Overseas Military Council. This 
was, on the submission of the Minister, authorised by 
an Order in Council, dated April 11, 1918. The purpose of 
this Council is through its meetings and deliberations to bring 
into closer co-operation the different departments of the 
Administration and to advise the Minister upon any subjects 
on which he may ask its advice. It is constituted as follows : 
Chairman, the Minister ; Vice-Chairman, the Deputy Minister ; 
Members, Chief of the General Staff, Adjutant-General, Quarter- 
master-General and the Accountant-General, with the Director- 
General of Medical Services and the Paymaster-General as 
Associate Members. 

Another important change was the establishment of a 
Canadian Section at British General Headquarters, France. 
This Section is a branch of the Ministry situated at the Head- 
quarters of the General Officer Commanding the British Forces 



Introduction. xiii 

in the Field, and its purpose is to represent the Minister there. 
It consists of a General Officer in Charge, who has under him 
such staff as is necessary to enable him to carry out his duties. 
In addition to being the representative of the Minister at 
General Headquarters and the channel of communication 
between him and those Headquarters, the Section is also the 
channel of communication between the heads of Canadian 
Formations in the Field and the Minister in certain matters. 
It is responsible under the Minister for such supervision, as 
it may be charged with, over the various Canadian Adminis- 
trative Services and Departments in the Field, and is empowered 
to check such executive administration as may be determined 
on from time to time by the Minister, with regard to the control 
of the personnel of the Canadian Forces in the Field in accordance 
with arrangements made between the Ministry, the War Office, 
and General Headquarters. As. a result of the establishment 
of this Section, matters which were previously referred to 
General Headquarters, and dealt with by them, are now, with 
a few exceptions, dealt with by the Canadian Section. The 
establishment of this Section has been the means of saving 
much time and correspondence. Another important result 
of the creation of this Section is that supervision can now 
be exercised over the various Canadian Organisations, not part 
of the Canadian Corps, which are widely distributed throughout 
France and Belgium. 

A further change in organisation was the re-organisation of 
the system under which purchases were made in England on 
behalf of the Canadian Forces. The purchase of supplies was, 
during the year 1918, placed under the supervision of an 
Overseas Purchasing Committee, consisting of three officers. 
By providing that all proposed purchases must be approved 
by this Committee before final action could be taken, it ensured 
everything being done to effect the utmost economy in this 
direction. A full report on the work of this Committee will be 
found in a later part of this report. 

A separate report on Canadians in the Royal Air Force 
and on the Canadian Air Force will also be found in the pages 
which follow. Owing to the various channels through which 
Canadians have entered the Royal Air Force it has been difficult 
to obtain absolutely accurate information with regard to their 
numbers. No doubt the numbers will come as a surprise to many, 
and it should be extremely gratifying to Canadians to learn 
of the important part played by Canada's sons in this brilliant 



xiv Introduction. 

Service, and also to know that steps have been taken to 
perpetuate the spirit and traditions of Canadians in the Royal 
Air Force by the formation of a distinct Canadian Force. 
Some may wonder why such a Force has been limited to its 
present size, but on consideration it will be realised that if any 
attempt had been made to withdraw a large percentage of 
Canada's Airmen from the Royal Air Force, it would have had a 
disastrous effect on the efficiency and striking power of that 
Force at a time when the maximum was required. 

The establishment of a Canadian Bureau of Aeronautical 
Information was also effected in 1918. This Bureau is collecting 
a vast amount of information which, although at present available 
to all the Allies, is not likely to be so after the declaration of 
Peace, and should prove of great value to Canada. 

With regard to changes made in the organisation of the 
Training Camps, an interesting feature was the establishment 
of Segregation Camps. Previous to the establishment of these 
camps* troops arriving from Canada proceeded direct to their 
Regimental Depots, and if any infectious disease broke out, 
great inconvenience was caused. By segregating all newly 
arrived troops in special camps for the necessary period of 
quarantine before allowing them to proceed to their Reserve 
Battalions, the cause of this inconvenience was removed. It 
was also found that the thorough preliminary training given 
the troops while at such camps was the means of saving much 
time when the men arrived at their Reserve Battalions. 

The experiment of establishing an Officers' Casualty Com- 
pany at Bexhill proved an unqualified success, as by its creation 
a long-felt want was supplied, convalescent officers being thus 
given an opportunity to become fit before returning to their 
Reserve Battalions. 

The question of the disposal of Casualties as a whole received 
the close attention of the Overseas Administration during 1918. 
In view of the great demand for men, it was felt that every 
effort should be made to ensure that the best possible use was 
being made of the numbers available, and for this purpose a 
Board, known as the " Allocation Board," was established in 
April, 1918. Its duties consisted in examining all Low Category 
Men, and in allocating them to the branch of the Service in 
which they would be most useful, and generally in making 
sure that the right men were in the right place. 



Introduction. xv 

A further innovation of great interest was the inauguration 
of a policy which, by providing for a systematic exchange of 
Officers between England and France, ensured that the training 
methods in England would be kept up to date and, at the same 
time, that a change would be provided for those who had served 
a long term in France. 

Our Prisoners of War interned in Holland were not forgotten, 
and the conditions under which they were living was the subject 
of special investigation during the past year. After considerable 
negotiation with the War Office, permission was obtained 
for a Canadian officer to proceed to Holland, and as a result of 
his investigation, it was found that, on the whole, their lives were 
as comfortable as could be expected under the circumstances. 
As a result of the investigation, however, some improvements 
were arranged for. 

With the signing of the Armistice many new problems had 
to be faced, and consequently considerable re-organisation 
was required to be done. In addition to demobilising the 
troops, the question of the disposal of large quantities of material 
had to be considered, and this was met by the creation of a 
Disposal Board for the purpose of disposing to the best advantage 
of the stores in the hands of the Canadians in England and 
France, which it was not desired should be taken back to Canada. 
A full report on this subject will be found in a later section. 

Attention is also drawn to the work of the Khaki University, 
which, since the cessation of hostilities, has assumed very large 
proportions. This organisation is a branch of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada and every effort has been made, by 
the provision of the necessary personnel for its staff and by 
general encouragement, to bring it up to the highest pitch of 
efficiency. 

It will be observed that some space in this report has been 
given to certain organisations which are not, strictly speaking, 
branches of the Overseas Forces, but it was felt that as these 
organisations had been so closely associated with the Overseas 
Administration, a brief summary of their magnificent efforts 
should be included in this report, especially as these bodies 
are, in practically all cases, maintained by the efforts of the 
Canadian public. 



Control of Canadian Forces. 

CANADIAN SECTION, G.H.Q. 

During the progress of the War many incidents indicated 
that the method of control exercised by the Ministry over the 
Canadian Forces was capable of improvement. The desira- 
bility of a clear definition of the powers and responsibilities of 
the Canadian Government on the one hand, and the Imperial 
Government on the other, became evident. In addition to 
the Canadian Corps there were about 40,000 other Canadian 
troops in France, the supervision of whose welfare had been 
conducted from England. The methods of communication 
between the Ministry in England, the Canadian Corps, General 
Headquarters of the British Armies in France, and troops on 
the Lines of Communication, had been cumbersome and 
unsatisfactory. Purely Canadian matters were sometimes 
dealt with by those not intimately interested therein, and it 
was felt that in matters affecting the organisation and adminis- 
tration of the Canadian Forces, Canadians should manage 
their own affairs. 

Correspondence passed between the Ministry and the War 
Office relative to this subject, and a conference was held with 
representatives of the Army Council and later with the Field- 
Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, at his Headquarters in France. 

The outcome of these negotiations was a complete agree- 
ment between the Imperial Government and the Canadian 
Authorities upon the matter. 

Broadly, the statement made by Canada of her position, in 
which the Imperial Government concurred, was that for matters 
•of military operations the Canadian Forces in the Field had been 
placed by the Canadian Government under the Commander-in- 
Chief, British Armies in France ; in matters of organisation 
and administration, the Canadian Government still retained 
full responsibility in respect to its own Forces. 

It was clear that matters of organisation and administration 
would frequently have a direct bearing upon military operations 
and discipline, and vice versa, and it was agreed that in such 
cases these matters should be made the subject of conference 
between the Canadian and Imperial Authorities. 

(642) B 



2 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

To meet this situation in France in the most effective manner, 
a Canadian Section of General Headquarters of the British 
Armies in France was formed in July, 1918, after full discussion 
and agreement. In forming such a Section it was not intended 
to interfere in any way with the responsibility of General 
Headquarters and the Supreme Command, in relation to matters 
affecting military operations or discipline, but through this 
Section the full control of the Canadian Government over 
matters of organisation and administration within its Forces 
was rendered capable of fruition. Important matters, such as 
the allotment of reinforcements in emergencies, War Establish- 
ments, the appointment of General Officers, and those other 
matters which from their relation to military operations should 
properly receive the consideration of General Headquarters, 
would still be made the subject of conference between the 
Canadian Authorities and General Headquarters. 

The following is a statement of the status, composition, and 
functions of this Canadian Section. 

STATUS, COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS. 

Status. — The Canadian Section at General Headquarters is a 
Branch of the Ministry, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and 
is directly responsible to the Minister for the efficient perform- 
ance of the functions and duties confided to it. 

Composition. — The Canadian Section consists of an Officer 
in charge, who has under him a staff that performs such 
functions of the following Branches, Services, and Departments 
as may be determined by the Minister : 

(a) Adjutant-General. 

(b) Quartermaster-General. 

(c) Military Secretary. 

(d) Medical Service. 

(e) Chaplain Service. 
(/) Pay Corps. 

Functions. — The Section is : — 

(a) A direct channel of communication between the Minister 
and General Headquarters, and vice versa. 

(b) A channel of communication between the heads of 
Canadian formations in the Field on the one side, and the 
Minister and General Headquarters on the other side, and 



Control of Canadian Forces. 3 

vice versa in each case, for such matters as may be designated 
from time to time by the Minister, within the general principles 
specified above and outlined in the attached chart. 

(c) Responsible under the Minister for such supervision 
as may be charged to it by him, over the various Canadian 
Administrative Services and Departments in the Field such as 
Medical, Dental, Pay, Ordnance, Veterinary, Postal. 

(d) Empowered to take such executive or administrative 
action as may be determined from time to time by the Minister 
regarding the control of personnel of the Canadian Forces in 
the Field, in accordance with policies and establishments 
which are agreed upon by the Minister, the War Office, and 
General Headquarters. 

(e) Responsible under the Minister, that when questions of 
policy, organisation, and administration, which from their 
relation to military operations should receive consideration 
by General Headquarters, together with all questions of 
establishment, are referred to it, they are submitted for 
consideration at General Headquarters ; that such matters 
are accompanied by any necessary explanation regarding the 
local Canadian conditions, if any, which make it desirable to 
effect a departure from the existing British regulations and 
establishments ; and to submit to the Minister all such 
questions accompanied by the full views expressed thereon by 
General Headquarters and the heads of Canadian Formations, 
Services, and Departments concerned. 

The following functions of the various Branches are 
performed by the Canadian Section. These conform with the 
general principles controlling the formation of the Section, 
and while they are not exhaustive, they are the working basis 
of the Section. 

(a) Adjutant-General. — Establishments, enlistments, visitors, 
miscellaneous personal services outside the functions of the 
Military Secretary. 

Note. — The Canadian Adjutant-General Section at the 
Base (3rd Echelon) is a subsidiary office of the 
Canadian Section at General Headquarters. 

(b) Quartermaster-General. — Supervision and administration 
of the various " " administrative services and departments, 
remounts, equipment supplied at Canadian expense ; obliga- 
tions outside the capitation agreement, war trophies, damage 

(642) B2 



4 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

claims which are not an Imperial obligation, postings, personal 
services, promotions, reinforcements of " O " personnel, and 
generally to attend to matters of a " Q " nature which may 
result in a charge to Canadian funds. 

(c) Military Secretary. — Routine matters regarding appoint- 
ments, promotions, transfers, secondings, reversions, takings 
into and absorptions into establishments of officers seconded 
to Units or otherwise supernumerary therein, grants of com- 
missions, resignations, acting rank, lists for A. C. and R. List, 
confidential reports. 

(d) Medical Services. — General supervision and administra- 
tion of Canadian Army Medical Corps, including postings, 
personal services, promotions and reinforcements. 

Note. — Also Dental Services. 

(e) Chaplain Services. — General supervision and adminis- 
tration of Canadian Chaplain Services, including postings, 
personal services, promotions, reinforcements. 

(/) Pay Services. — General supervision and administration 
of Canadian Army Pay Corps, including postings, personal 
services, promotions, reinforcements. 

The Minister, by special selection from time to time, fills 
the appointment of head of the Canadian Section, General 
Headquarters, France. 



Development. — The formation of the Section as a means of 
facilitating the conduct of official business was more or less 
in the nature of an experiment, and Canada was the only 
Dominion that made this effort. Every co-operation and 
assistance was rendered by General Headquarters, by the 
Canadian Corps, and by Canadian Units on Lines of Com- 
munication, with results which have proved highly satisfactory 
to all concerned. 

The Headquarters of the Section under the command of 
Brigadier-General J. F. L. Embury, C.M.G., are on the Rue de la 
Chaine at Montreuil, where are the General Headquarters 
Staffs of the British Forces in France. 

On the signing of the Armistice, the Section was fixed with 
greater responsibilities consequent upon the movement of 
troops from the Lines of Communication to England, quickly 



Control of Canadian Forces. 5 

and in large numbers — a new and unexpected task which, with 
the limited staff and the novelty of the movement, made it a 
difficult one. 

The conditions in France did not lend themselves to the 
easy movement of troops, but the Canadian Troops on the Lines 
of Communication were practically all transferred to England 
by the end of February, 1919. During the period of the 
evacuation of Units on the Lines of Communication, the Canadian 
Section has also been responsible for co-operation with the 
Canadian Corps on demobilisation of the Units of the Canadian 
Corps. All this necessitated increases in the Establishment 
and powers of the Section, which were duly authorised in 
December, 1918. Subsequently, Lieut. -General Sir Arthur 
W. Currie, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., was made responsible for the 
demobilisation of all troops in France, and, in addition to its 
other duties, the Section became his Staff for the purpose of 
demobilisation, in so far as general arrangements and the 
movement of troops were concerned. 

The following chart indicates the functions of the Canadian 
Section in relation to the Ministry and the Canadian forma- 
tions in the Field. 




CANADIAN GOVERNMENT 

REPRESENTED BY 

THE MINISTER . O.M.F.C. 

ASSISTED BY 
DEPUT Y MINISTER, STAFF AND MILITARY C OUNCIL 

CANADIAN SECTION AT BRITISH G^.Q.RWCE 
OFFICER /c. ADMINISTRATION . 

REPRESENTATIVES OF A.G..A.M.S 
Q.M.G. .D.M.S.D.C.S. C.A.PC DD.S 



TROOPS IN THE 

UNITED KINGDOM 



-LINES OF COrtMVNICftTION 

UNITS - 

CAVALRY BRIGADE 

HOSPITALS 

All CANADIAN TROOPS 

CANAOVAN CORPS 



I 



CANADIAN 
CORPS 




THE GENERAL STAFF. 



INDEX. 

Brief sketch of the organization and duties of the General Staff 
Branch, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, including — 



Scope and Functions 

Training of Reinforcements 

(a) Segregation Camps . . 

(b) Infantry Training 

(c) Cavalry Training 

(d) Artillery Training 

(e) Machine Gun Training 
( / ) Engineer Training 
(g) Engineer Signals 
(h) Canadian Army Medical Corps 

Canadian Camps and Training Areas 

Training of Officers 

Training of Instructors 

(a) Canadian Instructors' Pool . . 

(b) Canadian Trench Warfare School 

(c) Canadian School of Musketry 

(d) Canadian Gymnastic Staff . 

Canadians at Imperial Schools . 

Retraining Casualties 

Intelligence 

Athletics 

Canadian Parties Loaned to 
Authorities for Special Duty . . 



MPERIAL 



Canadian Instructors for the American Army 
Young Soldiers' Battalion 



PAGE. 

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The General Staff. 

SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS. 

Up to the date of the Armistice, the chief functions of the* 
General Staff of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada in 
England were the organization and direction of all branches 
of the Service in the British Isles, and the training of the 
personnel for their duties in the field. 

It is of interest to record that prior to the beginning of 
1917 there was no purely Canadian organization for the training 
of Canadian Forces in England. The training of such Canadian 
troops as were then in England was directed by the staffs of 
the Imperial Command in which the troops happened to be 
stationed. 

It was in December, 1916, that it was pointed out to the 
Imperial Authorities that it would be a far more satisfactory 
arrangement if the Canadian Authorities in England assumed 
the entire responsibility for the training of their own reinforce- 
ments. To this suggestion the Imperial Authorities agreed, 
and the present General Staff organization (now under the 
direction of Lt. -General Sir R. E. W. Turner, V.C.) was 
thereupon created. It has directed and supervised the whole 
of the work since that time, the personnel of the Canadian 
General Staff being entirely drawn from the Canadian Forces. 

TRAINING OF REINFORCEMENTS, 

Early in the history of the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada it was realised that the conditions under which training 
was carried out in Canada made it difficult for full advantage 
to be taken of the time allotted for training there. Climatic 
conditions, harvest leave, and the proximity of the men to 
their homes, all militated against obtaining the essential 
standard of efficiency within the requisite period. Urgent 
representations were therefore made that troops should be 
despatched Overseas as soon as possible after enlistment, in 
order that their training might be carried out undisturbed in 
England. 

This system was then adopted ; and thereafter, to ensure 
the best method of training recruits and securing for their 



10 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

units in the Field the reinforcements they required, the Canadian 
Military Forces in the British Isles were organised into 
Reserve Units corresponding to the arm of the Service they 
*were designed to reinforce. 

For the Infantry, the Reserve Units were constituted as 
Battalions ; for the Cavalry, the Reserve Unit was a Regiment ; 
while the other arms of the Service were reinforced from special 
Depots. 

In each case these reserve units first received the recruit 
from the Segregation Camp, then trained him, and eventually 
despatched him to the Unit in the Field for which he had 
specially qualified. 

Reinforcement for the Infantry was carried out as far as 
possible on a Territorial basis, i.e., a recruit enlisted in any 
particular part of Canada was trained in a Reserve Unit 
originating in that part of Canada, and subsequently served in 
the Field in a Unit with similar associations. 

For the other arms of the Service recruits were mainly 
selected on account of their physical or mental suitability, or 
because their training and experience in civil life qualified them 
ior some particular type of service. 

An adequate supply of trained reinforcements for many 
special branches entailed the maintenance of numerous 
•establishments in addition to those mentioned above, the 
provision of special schools and, in some cases, the utilisation of 
Imperial Schools. A brief summary of the whole system of 
-training recruits in England is given in detail as follows : — 

(a) Segregation Camps. — Although under the new system 
the recruit arrived in England with practically no military 
training, it was impossible to despatch him forthwith to his 
Reserve Unit. This was due to the fact that experience in the 
past showed that the placing of troops newly arrived from 
Canada in established camps, frequently introduced infectious 
diseases among troops ready for draft. This, with the resultant 
period of quarantine, had at times seriously affected the 
reinforcing power of the Reserve Units. 

The recruit, therefore, had first to spend a period determined 
by the Medical Authorities (normally 28 days) in a Segregation 
Camp. This system practically eliminated infectious epidemics 
in the training camps, while it did not interfere with the progress 
of the recruit, as the whole of his preliminary training was carried 
out while he was in segregation. The period in the Segregation 



General Staff. 1 1 

Camp was used to establish the man's health and to instil in him 
the essentials of smartness and military discipline, objects which 
were attained by concentration on physical training, close order 
drill and athletics. Thus, when the time came for a man to 
join his Reserve Unit, he was able at once to take his place in the 
r anks and proceed with the more technical details of his training. 

The first Segregation Camp was opened at Frensham Pond, 
a spot about equi-distant from Witley and Bramshott, in the 
Spring of 1918. The great influx of troops from Canada in that 
year, however, necessitated the opening of a second camp at 
Bourley Wood. These camps, being tented, were not suited for 
winter occupation and in the autumn they were closed, after a 
large hutted Camp had been secured at Rhyl. This was in 
reality a more suitable spot, being in close proximity to Liverpool, 
where the great majority of Canadian troops were disembarked. 
The same reason marked the camp for use in the future when 
the cessation of hostilities would demand concentration camps 
near the principal port of embarkation for home. 

{b) Infantry Training. — During his 14 weeks of training 
the Infantryman was required to become proficient in numerous 
subjects. Among them were : Musketry, Hand Grenades, 
Rifle Grenades, Bayonet Fighting, Anti-Gas Precautions, 
Entrenching — including Revetting, Draining and the construc- 
tion of dug-outs — construction of barbed wire entanglements and 
Lewis Gunnery. Experience had shown that a large percentage 
of Infantrymen should be familiar in the use of the Lewis Gun, 
and latterly 50 per cent, of the reinforcements proceeding 
to France were required to qualify in the use of this weapon. 

When the recruit had become efficient in each of the separate 
branches of training he was advanced to the co-ordination of the 
various subjects. To this end, before proceeding to France, the 
Infantryman was trained in attack practices, comprising all 
phases of attack in the field, from the formation of the line in 
which he goes forward with the advance under cover of fire to 
the assault on the trenches, to the final consolidation of the 
captured position. 

No man was permitted to proceed to France until he had 
passed adequate tests, and when he was embarked as a 
reinforcement he carried with him, in his Pay-Book, a complete 
summary of his training, so that the Officer under whom he was 
destined to serve in the field was able to place him where his 
abilities could be used to the best advantage. In addition to 



12 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

fighting troops it was, of course, necessary to furnish such 
details as cooks, stretcher bearers, transport drivers, clerks and 
signallers, for all of whom special training had to be provided. 

Signalling was of particular importance and the Canadian 
School of Signalling was established at Seaford Camp to provide 
Instructors for Infantry Battalions. It was opened in January, 
1917, and was closed immediately after the signing of the 
Armistice. During the period of its existence 1,550 Officers and 
1,930 Other Ranks qualified at its courses. 

(c) Cavalry Training. — The training of reinforcements for 
the Canadian Cavalry Brigade and the Canadian Regiment of 
Light Horse was carried out by the Canadian Reserve Cavalry 
Regiment, which was stationed at Shorncliffe until the autumn 
of 1918, when it was moved to Bordon Camp in Hampshire. 
Owing to the conditions of warfare, the Cavalry had frequently 
been called upon to undertake the duties of Infantry, and it was 
therefore necessary that all Cavalrymen should be first given a 
condensed course of training similar to that undergone by the 
Infantry soldier. The Cavalryman, however, was of course 
called on to carry out his mounted training and instruction in 
the Hotchkiss Machine Gun as well. 

These varied subjects were covered in a 16 weeks' course as 
the adaptability of the Canadian recruit made it possible to turn 
out adequate Cavalry reinforcements in this limited period. 

(d) Artillery Training. — The Canadian Reserve Artillery, 
situated until the Autumn of 1918 at Witley, when it was moved 
to Bordon, was one of the largest and most important of the 
Canadian Training units in England. It provided reinforce- 
ments for the Royal Horse Artillery, Field Artillery, Siege 
Artillery, Heavy Artillery, Anti- Aircraft Artillery, together with 
Signallers for Artillery Units and Formations. 

The Canadian Reserve Artillery was organized into a Reserve 
Brigade for the Field Artiller}/, and into a Composite Brigade to 
supply reinforcements for the other branches of this Arm of the 
Service. The actual instruction of recruits was carried out in 
the Canadian School of Gunnery, which was provided with 
wings responsible for gunnery, riding and driving, musketry, 
anti-gas measures, signalling and physical training. 

Apart from the Infantry training, which it was necessary to 
give all recruits, it took from five to six weeks to turn out an 
efficient gunner or driver, and about two weeks to qualify a man 
as a signaller. 



General Staff. 13 

(e) Machine Gun Training. — The increased arming of Infantry 
Battalions with the Lewis Gun and the development of the 
Vickers or heavy Machine Gun, with a resultant change in 
tactics, necessitated the creation of the Machine Gun Corps, and 
the Canadian Machine Gun Corps was specially established to 
meet the needs of the Canadian Forces in the Field. 

The personnel was trained at the Canadian Machine Gun 
Depot which was established at Seaford Camp, where there was 
excellent accommodation and suitable country for training in 
manoeuvres, the latter being a highly necessary consideration. 
The same Depot also furnished Instructors for the Infantry, 
Cavalry and Motor Branches of the Canadian Machine Gun 
Corps, which, since its creation, has played a most important 
part in the operations of the Canadian Corps. 

(/) Engineer Training. — The importance of efficient 
Engineer Units in the field cannot be over-estimated. The 
greater the knowledge and skill of their personnel the more 
vital their value to the fighting troops. Skilled workmen are 
essential, and carpenters, bricklayers, masons, iron-workers 
and men drawn from similar trades, were selected for the 
Canadian Service. The Engineer for service in the field must, 
however, first be made a fighting man, and the military 
efficiency of the Canadian Engineer was established at the 
Canadian Engineers' Training Centre at Seaford. Here his 
technical knowledge was adapted to his military duties and 
he was given instruction in such special subjects as the con- 
struction of trenches, dug-outs, headquarters, gun-emplace- 
ments, wire entanglements and concrete and timber shelters. 
Road repairing, water supply, bridge building, pontooning 
and the rehabilitation of devastated areas, were also included 
in the training of the Canadian Engineers. In the mounted 
wing, recruits were taught to ride and drive and to operate 
the transport equipment of the unit. 

(g) Engineer Signals. — Signals constitute a highly technical 
branch of the Engineers' Service and Engineer Signallers 
occupy an important position in the military organization, 
their duties being quite distinct from those of the Battalion 
Signallers. 

It is their business to provide communication between the 
higher units and formations, * and the personnel must be 
efficiently trained in the construction and use of telephones 
and telegraphs. The training of the reinforcements for the 
Corps and Divisional Signal Companies was carried out at the 



14 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

signal wing of the Canadian Engineers' Training Centre. Here 
there was erected a complete set of instruments representing 
the system employed in France, from General Headquarters 
to Brigades and Battalions, and it was upon this installation 
that the recruit received his instruction before proceeding 
Overseas. 

A similar unit, for which the Canadian Engineers' Training 
Centre acted as a reserve, was the Anti-Aircraft Searchlight 
Company, at which recruits were trained in the work of 
detecting hostile aircraft and so on. 

(h) Canadian Army Medical Corps. — In addition to pro- 
fessional attainments a Medical Officer must have a thorough 
knowledge of military routine to enable him to carry out his 
duties in the field. This military training of Medical Officers 
was carried out at the Canadian Army Medical Corps Training 
Depot at Shorncliffe, where the Other Ranks of the Canadian 
Army Medical Corps were also trained in drill and discipline, 
as well as the routine work of handling the wounded and the 
evacuation of casualties. 

CANADIAN CAMPS AND TRAINING AREAS. 

The principal Canadian Camps in England were : 

Bramshott, Witley, Seaford and Bordon. 

These Camps were on the Downs of Surrey, Sussex and 
Hampshire, in close proximity to the great Imperial Training 
Centre of Aldershot, and housed the great bulk of the Canadian 
Forces in England. 

Bramshott and Witley were primarily Infantry Camps, 
while Bordon was latterly assigned to the Artillery, Cavalry 
and Canadian Army Service Corps. Musketry courses were 
carried out in the neighbouring Camp of Mytchett, which was 
equipped with complete target accommodation of the most 
modern type. Seaford, the other large Canadian Training 
Area, while it provided accommodation for a number of Reserve 
Battalions, also served as the Headquarters of the Canadian 
Engineers' Training Centre and the Canadian Machine Gun 
Depot. 

TRAINING OF OFFICERS. 

From the time the Canadians first went into action at the 
Second Battle of Ypres* the supply of properly trained Officers 
for Units at the Front was one of the most urgent considerations 
of the Military Authorities in England. 




£ 



but) 



c 
o 




General Staff. 15 

It was decided early in the War that Commissions should be 
granted to non-commissioned officers and men who showed that 
they possessed the requisite qualities for leadership ; but while 
service in the Field was a valuable apprenticeship, special 
training was of course absolutely necessary. 

Infantry Officers. — To ensure this the Canadian Training 
School for Infantry Officers was established at Bexhill-on-Sea in 
Sussex. Here candidates for commissions were given instruction 
in all branches of practical military knowledge, while junior 
Officers who needed additional instruction were given special 
courses and advanced training. The School, which was noted 
for its precision in drill movements, its espr it- de- corps and general 
efficiency, was an object of great interest to Imperial Officers, 
among whom Field-Marshal Lord French, when Commander-in- 
Chief of the Home Forces in Great Britain, placed it on record 
that he was much impressed by the establishment's smartness,, 
keenness and efficiency. 

Machine Gun Corps. — Candidates for commissions in the 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps, after completing the Infantry 
course at Bexhill, were given further instruction in the use of 
the Machine Gun and the tactics of that Arm of the Service 
at the Canadian Machine Gun Depot at Seaford. 

Artillery. — Officers and Cadets for the Artillery were 
given a special five months' course of training at the Canadian 
School of Gunnery at Witley Camp and later at Bordon Camp. 

TRAINING OF INSTRUCTORS. 

{a) Canadian Infantry Instructors' Pool. — The maintenance 
of large drafts of officers necessitated a constant supply of highly 
trained and competent instructors, both of commissioned and 
non-commissioned rank. The varying strengths of the Reserve 
Battalions, however, made it difficult for Commanding Officers 
to maintain a suitable instructional cadre, and to meet the 
difficulty in respect to instructors of non-commissioned rank, it 
was decided to establish an Instructional Pool of non-commis- 
sioned officers. Accordingly, in association with the Canadian 
Training School, an establishment of 300 Sergeant Instructors 
was provided to meet the needs of Units. These Sergeant 
Instructors were carefully selected and carefully trained, 
their instructional ability being developed to the highest possible 
degree. They were then available for any Unit in which the 
influx of recruits necessitated a temporary increase in the 
number of instructors. 



16 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

{b) Canadian Trench Warfare School. — The object of the 
Canadian Trench Warfare School was not to train reinforce- 
ments but to train instructors to deal with recruits. It was 
situated at Bexhill-on-Sea, and, acting in close association with 
the Canadian Training School, provided instruction for officers 
and non-commissioned officers in special branches of Infantry 
training. Different wings of this school dealt with Bombing, 
Rifle Bombing, Anti-Gas Measures, Entrenching and the employ- 
ment of light Trench Mortars (Stokes Gun). Opened early in 
1917 and closed immediately after the signing of the Armistice, 
this School trained upwards of 500 officers and 3,508 other ranks 
as instructors. It was a strict condition that only Overseas 
•casualties could be accepted for instruction. 

The rapidly changing conditions of warfare and the new 
devices which were constantly being brought out, rendered it 
necessary for instructors to receive "refresher" courses at 
comparatively short intervals. The school, therefore, not only 
maintained the instructional power in the Reserve Battalions 
but consistently kept instruction up to date. 

(c) Canadian School of Musketry. — In spite of the com- 
plication of warfare by all manner of fresh mechanical devices, 
the rifle has maintained its position and the marksmanship 
of the Canadian Infantry has been notably excellent. 

The importance of Musketry in the training of all Arms of 
the Service, indeed, made it desirable that a separate School 
-should be available for the provision of instructors in this 
branch, and the Canadian School of Musketry was opened at 
Mytchett in November, 1916. 

This Camp, about equi-distant from Witley and Bramshott, 
and in close proximity to up-to-date ranges, provided thorough 
courses of instruction in the use of the rifle, revolver and Lewis 
Gun. It was closed on the signing of the Armistice, 2,142 
officers and 4,657 other ranks having up to that date qualified 
as instructors on its ranges. 

(d) Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff. — The Canadian Army 
Gymnastic Staff provided a cadre of highly qualified instructors 
in physical training, bayonet fighting, recreational training 
and remedial gymnastics. The school at which these instructors 
were rendered proficient was originally situated at Shorncliffe, 
but subsequently moved to Bordon. Up to November, 1918, 
1,300 officers and 2,966 other ranks had attended its courses. 



General Staff. 17 

CANADIANS AT IMPERIAL SCHOOLS. 

While every effort has been made to render the Canadian 
Forces self-supporting it has, on occasion, been considered 
advisable to take advantage of the facilities offered by some 
of the schools of instruction provided by the Imperial 
Authorities in England. In some cases this procedure was 
adopted in order to effect economy, notably in regard to 
Camouflage and Wireless Telegraphy, as there was not a 
sufficient number of Canadians requiring instruction in these 
subjects to justify the establishment of separate schools. In 
other cases attendance at Imperial Schools was desirable in 
order to standardise instruction in special subjects. 

One of the most important schools of instruction established 
by the Imperial Authorities during the War was the Senior 
Officers' School at Aldershot, which was designed to prepare 
suitable officers for the position of Battalion Commanders. 
The course was of three months' duration and the 135 Canadian 
Officers who passed through this school were all reported on 
very highly. 

During the year prior to the Armistice, 1 1 Canadian Officers 
also attended the Senior Staff Course and 27 Officers the Junior 
Staff Course at Clare College, Cambridge, and in every case 
these officers were subsequently recommended as competent to 
fill appropriate staff positions. 

It is, indeed, a matter for congratulation that Canadian 
officers and non-commissioned officers attending Imperial 
Schools have throughout acquitted themselves with credit. 
This was particularly notable in the case of the School of 
Gymnastics at Aldershot, which trains the Gymnastic Staff of 
the British Army. 

RE-TRAINING CASUALTIES. 

Officers. — It was found that in many cases Canadian officers 
who had become casualties did not progress towards recovery 
as rapidly as might have been hoped for on account of the 
lack of facilities for taking recuperative exercise on properly 
conducted and scientific lines. 

The Officers' Casualty Company was therefore established 
in a comfortable house with spacious grounds at Bexhill-on- 
Sea, and here officer casualties were given every opportunity 
of achieving fitness by means of physical training, athletic 
sports and special drills carried out under expert and careful 

(642) C 



18 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

direction. In addition the Authorities did everything possible 
to create an atmosphere of cheerfulness, encouragement and 
enthusiasm, which did as much to rehabilitate the mind as 
physical means did to rehabilitate the body, with the result 
that this institution was an unqualified success. 

Other Ranks. — As in the case of the officers the Canadian 
Authorities took every possible measure to re-establish both 
the morale and the physical fitness of casualties among 
Other Ranks. 

At the various Convalescent Hospitals members of the 
Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff who were possessed of a know- 
ledge of anatomy and physiology, were detailed to supervise 
the physical training in general and remedial gymnastic training 
in particular. The latter had a most important place in the 
retraining of the casualties as the removal of physical dis- 
abilities by remedial gymnastics not only fitted great numbers 
of the men to return to the field but also effected the cure of 
disabilities which would otherwise have formed the basis of 
claims for pensions. 

From the Convalescent Hospital the casualty went to a 
Command Depot, where his remedial treatment, if any were 
still needed, was concluded, and where by means of a carefully 
graduated scale of training he was scientifically "hardened" 
to a point which enabled him to return to his Reserve Battalion. 

As a result of this systematised and carefully graded method 
of retraining a very high percentage of Canadian Casualties 
was so completely reconstituted that numbers of men were 
enabled to return to the Front as entirely fit as when they had 
first proceeded to France. 

INTELLIGENCE. 

An important part of the work of the Intelligence Department 
consisted of protective intelligence and counter espionage work. 

Every body of troops is liable to the incursion of undesirable 
and even dangerous characters, and the enemy did not scruple to 
attempt to make use of the Canadian Forces as a means of 
introducing their agents into England, as the carefully controlled 
ports of Great Britain left the Overseas Forces practically the 
only channel for such efforts. 

The responsibility for protecting the British War Office in 
this direction was, therefore, at times considerable ; but the 



General Staff. 19 

vigilance with which all doubtful characters in incoming drafts 
were scrutinised, and prompt and definite action taken as 
occasion demanded, successfully defeated all such enemy 
attempts. 

ATHLETICS. 

Since its formation, the Canadian General Staff has regarded 
athletics as a most important branch of military training, as it 
was noticeable that the soldier who entered with vigour into 
athletic contests invariably displayed courage and resource in 
battle. 

The Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff was, therefore, utilised 
to promote athletic sports throughout the various training areas 
in England, special attention being paid to new recruits in the 
Segregation Camps. The policy followed was to foster those 
forms of sport which enabled the largest number of men to 
participate, rather than to encourage those forms of athletics 
which appealed to the highly trained and specialised few. It 
was to further this end that the Canadian Military Athletic 
Association in the British Isles was established under the direction 
■of the General Staff, and that championship contests were 
arranged between the different Areas. These championship 
meetings, which have aroused the greatest interest and 
•enthusiasm throughout the Canadian Forces in England, and 
done so much to advance the physical fitness of the men, included 
Association Football, Boxing, Cross Country Running, Wrestling, 
Tennis, Swimming, Athletics and Baseball. 

On September 7, 1918, a British Empire and American 
Services' Athletic Meet, comprising eight teams, was held at 
Stamford Bridge, London. The Canadian Forces were repre- 
sented by 40 athletes, chosen from the winners of their own 
championship units, and received third place. 



CANADIAN PARTIES AND PERSONNEL LOANED TO 
THE IMPERIAL AUTHORITIES FOR SPECIAL DUTY. 

Among the most interesting developments in the Canadian 
Forces have been the requests which have been received from 
time to time from the War Office for parties of specially trained 
and selected officers and non-commissioned officers for duties 
of an important nature. 

(642) C 2 



20 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Mesopotamian Party. — Early in January, 1918, a request 
was received from the War Office for the services of a number of 
officers and non-commissioned officers to proceed to the 
Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, for the purpose of organising, 
training and leading native troops to be raised from the tribes of 
Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. 

Fifteen officers and 27 non-commissioned officers, all 
volunteers with excellent records in the field, were selected from 
the Canadian Forces, and left England during the same month, 
for Baghdad. At that place they joined the Force known as the 
" Dunster Force," and were distributed among the natives of 
the country. As need for organisation has now disappeared, 
this personnel has been given the opportunity of returning for 
demobilisation. Only 14 of the party remained to be returned 
to England at the end of March, 1919. 

Northern Russia. — There are Canadian Volunteer Parties 
including approximately 41 Officers and 563 Other Ranks 
attached to the Allied Forces, the object of which is to protect 
the people in the Northern part of Russia against the Bolsheviks 
and to maintain the prestige of the Allies. 

One of the two main bodies of the Allies is operating south- 
wards from the Murmansk Coast and the other south from 
Archangel. Cable and wireless communication is maintained 
with Archangel. According to the latest available reports 
the inhabitants of these parts of Russia are in entire sympathy 
with the Allies and the general position is encouraging. On 
the Archangel Front, though there has been considerable 
artillery activity on the part of the Bolsheviks, the military 
situation had remained practically unchanged for some time 
up to the end of March. 

On the Murman Front the morale of the Bolsheviks is reported 
as bad, and this is accounted for by the growing dissatisfaction 
with the Bolshevik regime at Petrograd. 

The following are details of the general conditions and 
circumstances attaching to the Canadian Volunteers who, 
according to reports received at the beginning of March, 
1919, were fit and well and in good spirits. Leave is given in 
rotation as it becomes possible to grant it. Application has 
been made to the War Office for the release of all Canadian 
troops in Northern Russia, and the reply has been received 
that, owing to the natural winter conditions prevailing in the 
Russian theatre of operations at that time, and also 
having regard to the tactical situation, it is not possible to 



General Staff. 21 

state any definite time for release of Canadian personnel. 
However, it is expected that all Canadian parties at present 
doing duty in Russia, loaned from the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada, will be released for repatriation to Canada at the 
earliest possible date. 

The troops are being supplied with special comforts through 
the Canadian Red Cross Society. 

Archangel Force. — There is a considerable body of Allied 
Troops, including British, French, Americans and Russians, on 
the Archangel Front, operating from Archangel, which serves 
as the Base. 

These Forces are serving on a front roughly 120 miles 
south-west, south and south-east of the Base along the River 
Dwina. In this zone of operations there are two distinct 
Canadian Sections : — 

(a) A small instructional and constructional party at 
Archangel itself. 

(b) The 16th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery, serving 
with the Dwina and Vaga Columns. 

It was in May, 1918, that the War Office approached the 
Canadian Authorities with a view to securing the services of 
a number of officers and non-commissioned officers to under- 
take duties similar to those which the Canadians had been 
asked to carry out in Mesopotamia. Accordingly a Volunteer 
Party of five officers and 11 non-commissioned officers 
proceeded to Archangel in June. This party has since then 
been co-operating with the Allied Forces in administrative 
work, in the reconstruction of such Units of the Russian Army 
as are still loyal to the Allies, and in securing the co-operation 
•of the local inhabitants in the defence of that theatre of war. 
This party is reported to have done excellent work. 

It was shortly after the organisation of the above pany 
that the War Office asked whether the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada could furnish two Batteries of Canadian 
Field Artillery. Volunteers were called for from the Canadian 
Reserve Artillery and the 16th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery, 
consisting of the 67th and 68th Batteries, with a strength of 
18 officers and 469 Other Ranks was organised at Witiey 
and embarked for Russia on September 17, 1918. This Force, 
which consisted almost entirely of personnel with experience 
on the Western Front, was placed under the command of 



22 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Colonel C. H. L. Sharman, C.B.E., who had commanded the 
Canadian Reserve Artillery at Witley. The 67th Battery is 
under the command of Major F. F. Arnoldi, D.S.O., and the 
68th Battery is under the command of Major W. C. Hyde, 
D.S.O. These two Batteries were in much of the recent hard 
righting near Shenkursk, and have been specially mentioned 
by the G.O.C. Archangel as having materially assisted in 
repulsing the Bolsheviks. 

On November 11, 1918, the Brigade fought a notable action, 
when, though apparently outnumbered, the drivers, cooks and 
batmen fought with such courage and stubbornness that they 
saved the Canadian guns. Up to April 1, 1919, the only 
casualties suffered by the party were — one Officer died of 
wounds, live Other Ranks killed, and several Other Ranks 
wounded and sick. 

Murmansk. — The Allied Forces on the Murmansk Front 
have been, and are still, engaged in holding the Murman 
Peninsula and Railway to a point some distance south of 
Soroka, in order that communication with the Archangel Force 
may be kept up by land. To assist in this measure the 
Canadian Overseas Ministry was asked in August, 1918, whether 
it could furnish a number of Officers and Non-Commissioned 
Officers to act as instructors for a Special Mobile Force at 
Soroka. It was particularly requested that only personnel 
familiar with Arctic conditions such as exist in this district should 
be selected. Volunteers were again called for, and 18 officers and 
74 non-commissioned officers arrived in Northern Russia under 
the command of Colonel J. E. Leckie, C.M.G., D.S.O., in October, 
1918. This party has since been engaged upon administrative 
work and in the organisation of the defence of the country in con- 
junction with the Allied Forces. Some of the Instructors have 
been formed into a Special Super-Mobile Company, which 
consists entirely of Canadian officers and Other Ranks. It 
is divided into 15 Sections, each with one officer and five Other 
Ranks, six sledges, and 18 dogs, and two large and two small 
tents, together with special rations and equipment. This 
Super-Mobile Company is employed on any particular mission 
which necessitates long journeys across country. A march 
was recently carried out by British troops from Soroka to 
Onega, a distance of some 200 miles over a winter track. The 
entire transport for this journey was supplied and organised 
by the Canadian Mobile Force, which in no small measure 
contributed to the success of this arduous march. 



General Staff. 23 

The remaining Canadian Instructors are regarded as having 
been invaluable in training the various Companies which make 
up the Special Mobile Forces, in the use of dogs, sledges, ski 
and snow-shoe work under Arctic conditions. The personnel 
of the Companies is drawn from every Battalion, whether 
British, Serbian, Italian or Russian, on this Front. This 
party, up to the end of March, had suffered no casualties. 

Strengths. Northern Russia : — 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

Instructional Party . . . . . . 5 11 

(Archangel). 

16th. Bde. C.F.A 18 478 

(Serving with Dvina Column). 

Special Personnel and Special 

Mobile Force 18 74 

(Murmansk-Murman Peninsula) , 

Total Strengths . . 41 563 



Palestine Party. — In the Summer of 1918, General Allenby 
requested the War Office for a Company of expert Bridge 
Builders whose services were urgently required in Palestine. 
Volunteers were called for from among the Canadian Railway 
Troops in France, and six officers and 250 Other Ranks pro- 
ceeded to Palestine on September 28, 1918. The whole of this 
party arrived back in March, 1919, and was returned to the 
Railway Depot in England. 

INSTRUCTORS FOR THE AMERICAN ARMY. 

In January, 1918, a request was received from the War 
Office for the services of a number of Officer Instructors to 
proceed to the United States, together with a number of non- 
commissioned officers, to advise and assist in the training of 
the American Army for the Field. 

A party of Specialist Instructors, consisting of twenty-five 
officers and twenty-five non-commissioned officers, was 
accordingly selected and despatched to the United States to 
work under the direction of the British Military Mission. 



24 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

These officers were distributed amongst the various training 
Camps of the American Army and were attached to American 
Formations then in process of organization, their services in 
every case giving the highest satisfaction. 

YOUNG SOLDIERS' BATTALION. 

The number of boys under 18 years of age who enlisted in 
the Canadian Forces during the period of voluntary recruiting 
constitutes a remarkable tribute to the patriotism of Canada's 
youth. The presence, Overseas, too, of these enthusiastic 
young soldiers was in reality of considerable service as, owing 
to the measures taken to deal with them in the manner and in 
the spirit they so entirety deserved, they were, when they 
reached the statutory age, not merely so many raw recruits, 
but trained soldiers thoroughly fit and qualified for service in 
the field. 

It was to secure not only their training but their best welfare, 
that the Canadian Young Soldiers' Battalion was established 
at Bramshott in the summer of 1917. Into this Unit were 
drafted all boys under 18 years of age who were then Overseas, 
many of them being withdrawn for this purpose from Units 
in the field. In this Battalion, under carefully selected officers 
and non-commissioned officers, the boys were put through a 
graduated course of training and by means of a most careful 
system of special exercises, special feeding and close supervision, 
every effort was made to build up their physique and health. 
They were afforded special recreational facilities, while their 
education was improved under the direction of a competent 
schoolmaster and in co-operation with the Khaki University. 

The Battalion was demobilised on December 7, 1918, and 
the personnel returned to Canada. Throughout the period 
of its existence it had maintained a strength of from 600 to 700 
and had provided 568 soldiers for service in France as the lads 
became of a suitable age. Apart, however, from its Military 
uses as a Reinforcing Unit, the Young Soldiers' Battalion did 
much good work for numbers of young Canadian citizens. 



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25 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH. 



INDEX. 





PAGE 


Introduction 


27 


Establishments 


27 


Taking on the Strength of Officers . . 


28 


Promotion and Appointment of Officers 


29 


Staff Appointments, England 


29 


Officer Reinforcements 


29 


Exchange of Officers 


30 


Return of Students to Canada 


32 


Seconded Officers 


33 


Officers' Record Section 


34 


Medals, Honours and Awards 


35 


Discipline and Military Law 


37 


Employment of Civilians 


37 


Ceremonial 


38 


Compassionate Leave 


38 


Categorisation 


39 


Return of Personnel to Canada 


42 


Enlistments in England 


43 


Discharges 


44 


Transfers 


46 


Allocation and Employment of Low Category 




Men 


47 


Care of Soldiers' Graves.. 


49 


Statistics 


53 



27 



Adjutant-General's Branch, 

INTRODUCTION. 

The duties which fall to the Adjutant-General's Branch 
of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada are so multitudinous 
and complex that it is impossible to do more than include a 
brief review of its principal functions in the present report, 
which summarises the work of the Branch for the year ending 
December 31, 1918. 

The principal duties of the Adjutant-General's Branch 
may be divided as follows : — 

1. Organization, Establishments, Mobilisation, and De- 

mobilisation. 

2. Supply of Military Personnel for the maintenance 

of the Forces in the Field. 

3. Casualties and Invaliding. 

4. Personal Services, Discipline, Personal questions re- 

garding Officers and Other Ranks, Records, Issuing 
and editing of Adjutant-General's Orders, etc. 

In addition, the Medical, Dental, Chaplain and Record 
Services come under the Adjutant-General's Department for 
General Administration, though the actual administration is 
exercised by the Director at the head of each of these Services. 

Some idea of the volume of business transacted by the 
Department may be gathered from the fact that the daily 
files of correspondence which it handled during the year 1918, 
average approximately 7,500 a week. 

ESTABLISHMENTS. 

Every Unit and Formation of the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada is on an Approved Establishment, i.e., the detail 
of the numbers and ranks of officers, non-commissioned officers 
and privates, and the numbers of animals and vehicles which 
make up the Unit are all laid down in what is known as its 
Establishment. 

All Establishments, whether new or amended, are submitted 
to the Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, in Council 
for approval and the approved Establishment is then forwarded 
to the Governor-General in Council, Canada, for confirmation. 



2S Overseas Mil iimy Forces of Canada. 

It will thus be seen that the whole basis of the organization 
strength and the various ranks to be held by officers and non- 
commissioned officers is contained and controlled by the 
Establishment as authorised or amended from time to time, 
and that no promotions or increases are permitted without 
further authority. 

During the year 1918, 59 Establishments for Great Britain 
and 52 Establishments for France were reviewed and approved 
and 128 amendments to Establishments (44 in Great Britain 
and 84 in France) were also dealt with. 

TAKING OF THE STRENGTH OF OFFICERS. 

The supply of officers for the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada was found from the following sources : — 

1. Officers despatched from Canada as reinforcements 

in response to specific demands. 

2. Non-commissioned officers and men granted com- 

missions in the field or at the conclusion of service in 
the field. 

3. Selected Draft Conducting Officers (officers placed 

in charge of Drafts from Canada). 

With reference to category 1, demands were sent to Ottawa 
as required for officers of reinforcements : — - 

(a) Canadian Army Medical Corps. 

(b) Canadian Army Veterinary Corps. 

(c) Canadian Army Dental Corps. 

(d) Canadian Army Chaplain Services. 

With reference to category 2, as detailed elsewhere an 
arrangement existed with the Canadian Corps whereby a 
regular supply of cadets was despatched from France for 
training at the Canadian Cadet School, Bexhill. 

With reference to category 3, officers who arrived in charge 
of drafts were in the normal course returned to Canada. These 
officers, however, could be retained for service with the Overseas 
Military Forces if required. The majority of conducting 
officers were keen to serve in the Field, and it was necessary 
to give preference to those who had already seen service and 
who had been evacuated to Canada suffering from wounds or 
sickness, but had afterwards become fit for duty. In all cases 
it was necessary that they should be under 35 years of age 
and fit for General Service. 



Adjutant-General' s Branch. 29 

PROMOTION AND APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS. 

All appointments and promotions are dealt with by the 
branch of the Assistant Military Secretary and submitted to 
the Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada in Council, 
for final approval. 

All appointments and promotions of officers of the Canadian 
Forces in England and France are promulgated in the " London 
Gazette." 



STAFF APPOINTMENTS, ENGLAND. 

A certain number of officers were attached to each Command 
Headquarters in England for training in Staff Duties. These 
officers were specially selected from among those with long 
service in the Field with a combatant Unit, and who had been 
well reported on by the various Commanding Officers under 
whom they had served. 

These officers were known as Staff Learners, and those 
who did not possess the qualifications essential for staff work 
were returned to regimental duty. Those who showed promise 
were sent on for their training for Staff Duties to take the 
Staff Officers' Course at Clare College, Cambridge. Candidates 
for these courses were almost invariably selected from among 
those who already held Junior Staff Appointments. 

Upon vacancies arising for staff appointments, the first 
consideration was given to those officers who had been most 
favourably reported on while learners and had satisfactorily 
passed the Staff Course at Cambridge. 

A similar system generally was carried out as regards staff 
appointments in France. 

OFFICER REINFORCEMENTS. 

Apart from officers who had been evacuated from France 
owing to wounds or sickness and who were subsequently passed 
as fit again for General Service, practically no exceptions were 
made to the general policy which provided that officer rein- 
forcements for the Canadian Corps should be drawn from the 
rank and file serving in France. In the case of the latter it 
was required that candidates should be recommended for 
commissions by the officers commanding their respective 
Service Units in the field. 



30 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

For the more technical Arms of the Service, such as the 
Artillery and Engineers, graduates of the Royal Military College 
of Canada and Undergraduates of Canadian Chartered Uni- 
versities were accepted periodically from Canada. It was 
also for technical reasons that further exceptions to the general 
policy were made in respect to the Canadian Forestry Corps 
and the Canadian Railway Troops. 

Organized on a territorial system, each Infantry Service 
Unit in France had its affiliated Reserve Battalion in England, 
and with each of these Reserve Units a small reinforcement 
pool of officers was maintained to meet the demands from 
France. For all Arms or Branches of the Service, other than 
the Infantry, it was only necessary to maintain one Central 
Reinforcement Pool of officers for each service or branch. 

With a view to the conservation of personnel and other 
obvious economic reasons, these pools had to be kept as low 
in number as was consistent with safety. The pools, therefore, 
contained a five months' supply of officers, based on the carefully 
compiled statistics of the normal monthly demands for each 
Arm or Branch of the Service. 

In addition to the Reinforcement Pools maintained in 
England, there was also a fixed number of fully trained officers 
for each Unit in the field available from the Canadian Corps 
Reinforcement Camp. When casualties occurred they were 
immediately replaced from the Reinforcement Camp, which in 
turn drew upon the Reinforcement Pools in England. 

EXCHANGE OF OFFICERS. 

It was decided that one means of securing a better co- 
ordination between all Formations of the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada would be to arrange for an exchange of officers 
between Formations serving in England and in France, and a 
settled policy in this respect was finally laid down as follows : — 

Brigadier-Generals. — It was decided that the Commands 
of First Class Canadian Training Areas should be open to 
Brigadier-Generals in the Canadian Corps, the normal 
tenure of such a command to be from four to six months, 
when they would be replaced by other Brigadiers from the 
Front. The qualifications for a good commander of a 
Brigade in the Field differ from those requisite in the com- 
mander of a training area. Provision was, therefore, made 



Adjutant-General's Branch. 31 

that where a Brigadier returned from France proved unsuitable 
in the command of a training area, the question of his disposal 
should be made the subject of a Conference between the Chief 
of the General Staff and the Corps Commander, the object 
being to ascertain whether it were desirable in the best interests 
of the Service that the case of the Brigadier under discussion 
should be treated as exceptional. 

Battalion Commanders. — The Command of all Second Class 
Training Areas and all Reserve Battalions in England was open 
to officers who had commanded Battalions in the Field and held 
appointments of a similar nature, and whose services had proved 
satisfactory. Normally the tenure of such a command was 
from four to six months, at the end of which time these officers 
again became available for return to France in exchange for 
further suitable officers from the Field. 

The case of an officer who proved unsuitable for such 
commands in England was dealt with in the same manner as 
that of Brigadiers who were considered unsuitable for the 
Command of First Class Training Areas in England. 

Administrative Appointments. — Where administrative and 
staff appointments were open in England, the Chief of the 
General Staff conferred with the Corps Commander on the 
question of filling them, and every effort was made to come 
to an arrangement which was mutually satisfactory. 

Provisions of Exchange. — It was obviously unlikely 
that efficient service would be rendered in England by an 
officer who felt that his appointment was merely a stepping 
stone to Canada ; and it was also recognised that an officer 
returned from the front, merely for reasons of health, should 
have the right, after a period of rest, to a position equal to that 
which he had left, provided that his stay in England had not 
been prolonged beyond reasonable limits. 

It was, therefore, laid down that commands in England 
should be rilled by officers whose services in France had not 
only been reported on as satisfactory but whom the Authorities 
in France declared to be acceptable for return there. 

Still further to increase the co-ordination between all 
Formations, whether in France or in England, it was in addition 
decided, that all officers employed in the British Isles who 
were fit for General Service, but had not seen Service in France, 
were to be replaced at the earliest possible moment by those 



32 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

who had. It was at the same time laid down that the term 
" Service in France " signified : — 

(a) Service on the Establishment of a Unit in France 
for at least six months. 

(b) Service as a supernumerary officer attached to a Unit 
in France for a similar period, where, through no 
fault of his own, the officer, though reported on as 
efficient by the Head of the Department to which 
he was attached, had not been absorbed in the 
Establishment. 

Other Ranks. — Subject to the necessity of re-training in 
England, non-commissioned officers and men who were medically 
unfit for Service in France, or whose special qualifications 
rendered their services more valuable in England, and 
their replacement especially difficult, the general policy as 
outlined in respect to officers was extended in a similar manner 
to Other Ranks. 

The whole policy which was found to meet practically 
every contingency, worked with smoothness and achieved 
most satisfactory results. 

RETURN OF STUDENTS TO CANADA. 

After the War had been in progress for some time it became 
apparent from the number of University students who had 
enlisted in the middle of their courses, or as they were about 
to begin them, that the country was likely to suffer from 
scarcity in the Medical, Dental, and Veterinary professions 
unless some steps were taken to remedy the situation. 

Accordingly it was decided to return to Canada, for the 
purpose of continuing their studies, students of the above 
professions who had at the time of enlistment completed one 
year of their courses at a recognised University or College. 
This step was taken, not with a view to benefiting the students 
in question, or giving these professions any preference, but 
with a view to meeting the needs of Canada. Such students 
as were qualified to be returned under the scheme were kept 
with their Units Overseas until it was time for them to return 
to resume their studies at the opening of the Fall term. 
Up to the end of November, 1918, the following had been 
returned : — 

Medical Students 184 

Dental Students 46 

Veterinary Students . . . . . . 26 

Total Students returned . . 256 



Adjutant-General's Branch. 33 

SECONDED OFFICERS. 

The number of Canadian officers attached or seconded 
to the Imperial Troops or other Forces outside the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada was 1,281, at the date of the Armistice. 
Of these 824 were seconded or attached to the Royal Air Force, 
of which number, 511 were Flying Officers, 57 were Administra- 
tive, Technical or Instructional Officers and 256 were under 
instruction in aviation. 

Every facility has been granted to Canadian officers desiring 
to serve with the Royal Air Force as Flying Officers, but service 
on ground duties has not been encouraged except in the case 
of officers specially qualified, or in the case of Flying Officers 
unfit for further service in the air. 

Also at the date of November 11, 1918, 384 officers were 
seconded to the War Office for Military duties. Of these 133 
were seconded for duty on the Lines of Communication, 8 
were employed with the Salvage Corps and 18 with the Labour 
Corps. Twenty officers were holding other appointments 
with Imperial Formations, 9 were employed as Instructors 
at Army Schools and 27 were with the Railway Transport 
Service. Fifty-seven officers were with the special Military 
Mission, including the British Military Mission to the United 
States of America, and the North Russian Mission. Four- 
teen were serving with the Royal Garrison Artillery, and 25 
Medical Officers were on loan to the Royal Medical Corps. 
Seventy-three officers were employed on various other duties. 
Eight officers were attached to the Admiralty and 67 officers, 
possessing special qualifications, were employed in various 
other Departments of the British Government. 

The cost of pay and allowances to officers seconded or 
attached for purely Military purposes is borne by the Canadian 
Military Funds ; but pay and allowances of officers seconded 
for semi-military or civil duties is refunded by the Imperial 
Government. The general question of the incidence of the 
cost of the pay and allowances of Canadian officers, seconded 
or attached to the War Office, is now the subject of negotiations 
between the Imperial and Canadian Governments 

In view of the cessation of hostilities, the War Office has 
been requested to return all Canadian officers seconded or 
attached to the Imperial Forces, other than those serving 
with the Royal Air Force, as soon as their services can be spared, 

(642) D 



34 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and no further attachments or seconding will be carried out. 
The whole question of those officers who wish to remain in the 
Royal Air Force is receiving special consideration. 

OFFICERS' RECORD SECTION. 

The " Record of Service " and all documents concerning 
each officer and Nursing Sister who leaves Canada for duty 
with the Overseas Military Forces of Canada is dealt with by 
the Assistant Military Secretary's Branch. The Assistant 
Military Secretary's Branch does not directly form part of the 
organisation of the Adjutant General's Branch, but as the 
section dealing with records is closely allied to Personal Services 
(Officers), it is considered desirable to include its activities 
in this section of the report. 

For the sake of convenience this section is housed at the 
Canadian Record Office in London, and the " Record of 
Service " it maintains includes all entries affecting an officer's 
movements, promotions, honours and awards. His next-of-kin 
is on record and casualties are also entered. 

In addition to maintaining a " Record of Service " for 
each officer, this department is charged with the compilation 
and maintenance of a Gradation List of officers of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada by Regiment or Corps. 

This list shows the seniority of each officer, together with 
the Unit within the Regiment or Corps to which he is posted, 
and further gives particulars of any appointments which may 
be held by him. The Gradation List, which is further used 
for recording the Establishment of each Unit within the Regiment 
or Corps, is also employed for checking and maintaining the 
Canadian Section of the Army List in which all changes are 
recorded monthly. 

The number of officers allotted to each Unit is laid down 
under War Establishments, and the promotion or appointment 
of an officer cannot be made unless there is a vacancy on the 
Establishment of the Unit in which the promotion or appoint- 
ment is proposed. 

The procedure in relation to the Record Section of the 
Assistant Military Secretary's Branch is similar to that followed 
in the records of Other Ranks, which is dealt with under the 
section relating to the Canadian Records Office in London. 



Adjutant -General's Branch. 35 

MEDALS, HONOURS AND AWARDS. 

It is gratif3'ing to record that since the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada first went into action they have been awarded 
upwards of 17,000 Medals, Honours and Awards, including 
53 Victoria Crosses, 1,885 Military Crosses, 19 Distinguished 
Flying Crosses, 1,204 Distinguished Conduct Medals and 
6,610 Military Medals. 

Medals. — At the present time the general question of Service 
Medals is under the consideration of the Authorities. Up to 
date, the services of soldiers who have served in a theatre of 
war previous to certain dates mentioned below have received 
recognition by the grant of distinctive decorations known as 
the Mons Star and the 1914-15 Star respectively. All Canadians 
who served in a theatre of war previous to November 22-23, 
1914, are entitled to the Mons Star, while those who served 
between that date and December 31, 1915, are entitled to the 
1914-15 Star. 

Owing to the distance of Canada from the scene of active 
operations and the time involved in transporting her troops to 
England and France, the number of Canadians entitled to the 
Mons Star is largely confined to those who saw service with 
Imperial Units. 

Amongst those entitled to the 1914-15 Star are those who 
crossed to France with the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light 
Infantry the First and Second Divisions, the Cavalry Brigade 
and certain Lines of Communication and Artillery Units, 
A few members of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
are in possession of the Mons Star, having served in a theatre 
of war with a Medical Unit within the prescribed period. 

Gold Wound Stripe. — The Gold Wound Stripe is issued to all 
ranks who have been wounded, gassed, or shell-shocked, in the 
presence of the enemy ; it is also being issued in the case of 
wounds, etc., resulting from enemy air raids in the British 
Isles. The condition for the award of this stripe is that the 
name and casualty are published in the Official Casualty List. 

Chevrons for Overseas Service. — These Chevrons are issued 
to all ranks, and in the case of members of the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada the date of leaving Canada is the date for 
the award of the first Chevron. An additional Chevron is 
issued 12 months from this date, and so on. All those members 
of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada who left Canada 

(642) D 2 



36 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

prior to midnight, December 31, 1914, are entitled to a Red 
Chevron as the first Chevron, and a Blue Chevron for each 
additional 12 months served out of Canada. Those who left 
Canada since December 31, 1914, do not receive the Red 
Chevron. 

Good Conduct Badges.— Briefly, a Good Conduct Badge is 
awarded to a member of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
after having served two years in the Canadian Expeditionary 
Force, and a second Good Conduct Badge after the completion 
of five years' service. Former service in the Permanent Force 
or in the Imperial Forces is allowed to reckon towards these 
Badges, and men are also allowed to wear any Good Conduct 
Badges they may have earned by previous service in either of 
these Forces. 

Silver War Badge. — Broadly speaking, the Badge is awarded 
to any member of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada on 
resignation or discharge from the Service on account of wounds 
or sickness caused by service, and on retirement or discharge 
as over age, the age limit being fixed at 45 years. In the case 
of surplus officers, it has not been possible to fix a definite age 
limit, and each case is treated on its merits. Service in a theatre 
of war is not necessary for the award of this Badge, it having 
been approved that service outside Canada is equivalent to 
service Overseas from England, which is the qualifying factor 
in the case of the award of this Badge to Imperial soldiers. 
In Canada the Silver War-Badge is known as the " B " Badge. 

Badges known as " A," " B," " C," and " D " Badges are 
issued in Canada, and the conditions for the award of these 
Badges are laid down by Order in Council P.C. 1296. The 
" B " Badge (Silver War Badge) is the only Badge issued in 
England. 

The King's Certificate on Discharge. — This Certificate is 
awarded to officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers 
and men who have served since August 4, 1914, Overseas in a 
theatre of operations with an Expeditionary Force in the present 
war, and been discharged under para. 392 (XVI.) or (XVI. a) 
King's Regulations, and whose disablement has been certified 
to have been caused or aggravated by Military Service, 
provided disablement or ill-health was not due to misconduct. 
It is also awarded to all ranks, who, not being included in 
provisions as above, were discharged under para. 392 (XVI.) 



Adjutant-General's Branch. 37 

or XVI. a) King's Regulations, whose disablement has been 
certified to be directly attributable to the action of the enemy 
in air or naval raids. 

DISCIPLINE AND MILITARY LAW. 

The discipline of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada for 
the year 1918 was distinctly satisfactory, and this was largely 
due to the efficient administration and discipline by Command 
ing Officers and to the esprit de corps which has been nourished 
and developed among all ranks of the Canadian Forces 

Originally, the administration of Military Law affecting 
the Canadian Troops in this country was carried out solely by 
the Imperial Authorities acting through the Army Council 
and the General Officers commanding the different Imperial 
Commands. Since December, 1916, however, this position was 
carefully but steadily modified by the adoption of the principles 
of control of Canadian troops in England by the Canadian 
Government through the Minister, Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada and his Military Advisers. 

The first modification arose in connection with the applica- 
bility to Canadian Troops of the Royal Warrant for their pay, 
etc., and early in 1917 it was established that Canadian Orders 
in Council and Canadian Pay Regulations should govern this 
subject exclusively. 

Since then the principle has been extended to all dis- 
ciplinary regulations. King's Regulations (Imperial) are still, 
it is true, in general use, but this is for the most part a matter 
of convenience and it is recognised that they are only applicable 
where they are consistent with Canadian Regulations bearing 
on the same subject. Army Council Instructions and Routine 
Orders are only made applicable to the Canadian Forces when 
considered desirable by the Canadian Authorities. No Imperial 
Order or Army Council Instruction is applicable to the 
Canadian Overseas Military Forces unless made so in Head- 
quarters Canadian Routine Orders. 

EMPLOYMENT OF CIVILIANS. 

The policy of employing women on clerical work connected 
with the Overseas Military Forces of Canada was governed by 
the consideration that it released Low Category men employed 
on clerical work for return to Canada, and the replacement of 
these men by women clerks further resulted in a considerable 
financial saving by the Canadian Government. 



38 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Women were also employed in Canadian Military Hospitals, 
Convalescent Homes, and Nursing Sister Homes in Great 
Britain, and a certain number were also employed in France. 
In the case of women employed as indicated above in the 
British Isles their administration was under the Director- 
General of Medical Services, Canadian ; in France their 
administration came under the Assistant Adjutant General, 
Canadian Section, British General Headquarters. 

CEREMONIAL. 

The Overseas Military Forces were, and are, called on to 
furnish Escorts, Detachments, Bands, etc., for notable events 
taking place in London, such as the Opening of Parliament, the 
Lord Mayor's Show, and the War Loan Campaign. In addition, 
Detachments, Guards of Honour, Bands, etc., are furnished for 
any Canadian Celebration which may take place in England 
such as the Annual Commemoration Service. 

COMPASSIONATE LEAVE 

When the First Contingent left Canada in 1914 the majority 
of officers and men had made, what seemed at the time, adequate 
provision for the management of their affairs and the well-being 
of their families during their absence, but with the unexpected 
prolongation of the War many unforeseen difficulties arose. 
There were many cases in which an officer or a man urgently 
required to return home temporarily, and to meet these cases 
it became necessary to lay down a policy under which a soldier 
could be granted leave to Canada for the purpose of adjusting 
his affairs, this particular form of leave being known as 
" Compassionate Leave." 

The administration of this policy has involved a very 
difficult and delicate task, because after several years of war 
there were few families left in Canada who had not suffered 
in some degree, through illness or death of a member of the 
family, or from some unexpected financial or other disaster. 
The number of applications received for the return of men to 
Canada on the grounds of distress at home made it quite impos- 
sible to grant them all without completely disorganising the 
Forces in the Field. To meet this contingency, therefore, an 
additional policy was laid down giving the cases in which such 
leave could be granted. Many cases have from time to time 
come to the attention of the Overseas Authorities, who have 
reluctantly been compelled to refuse the applications as not 



Adjutant-General's Branch* 39 

coming within the scope permitted by the general policy, but 
it will be realised that in a matter of this kind it was absolutely 
essential to draw a distinct line and to adhere strictly to the 
policy which had been authorised. 

The Canadian public, however, may rest assured that this 
question has always received the most earnest and sympathetic 
consideration, and that when applications have been rejected 
it has been, not on account of any lack of sympathy, but only 
by reason of the exigencies of the military situation. Each 
individual application was most carefully gone into and studied 
before a final decision was arrived at. 

The only proper method of instituting proceedings under 
the policy laid down was for a relative or friend of the soldier 
whose return was desired to make application to the General 
Officer Commanding the Military District in Canada in which 
the soldier's family resided, or in which the circumstances on 
which the application was founded had arisen. 

The case was then investigated by the local Military Authori- 
ties, and if it was considered by them to fall within the scope 
of the general policy, their recommendations to that effect 
were forwarded to the Military Authorities at Ottawa who, in 
turn, forwarded their recommendations to Canadian Head- 
quarters, London. 

The cessation of hostilities and the commencement of the 
return of Canadian troops to Canada have done much to 
mitigate the problem of Compassionate Leave, although where 
it has been conclusively proved that a soldier was most urgently 
required at home in order to avert a great financial or domestic 
hardship from himself or his dependants, Compassionate Leave 
has been granted. At the same time, while there has been 
every desire to assist genuine cases, the most scrupulous care 
has been taken to prevent any abuse of the privilege. 

CATEGORISATION. 

For the purpose of knowing each soldier's medical condition 
and availability as a reinforcement, a system of medical 
categorisation, somewhat on the lines in use in the Imperial 
Forces has been in force since 1917. 

Medical categorisation may, shortly, be described as the 
sorting of soldiers into groups in accordance with their medical 
fitness for Service. 



40 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

This system created four distinct Medical Categories as 
follows : — 

Category A. Fit for General Service. 

Category B. Not tit for General Service, but fit for 
certain classes of Service Overseas or in the 
British Isles. 

Category D. Temporarily unlit for Service in Category 
A or B, but likely to become fit within six months. 

Category E. Unfit for Service in Category A or B, 
and not likely to become fit within six months. 
Awaiting discharge. 

These Categories were general classification of medical 
conditions, and the first three were sub-divided as follows : — 

Category A into — 

A 1. Men actually fit for Service Overseas in all 
respects, both as regards training and physical 
qualifications. 

A 2. Men who have not been Overseas, but should 
be fit for A 1 as soon as trained. 

A 3. Overseas casualties on discharge from Hospital 
or Command Depots, who will be fit for classifi- 
cation as A 1 as soon as hardening and training 
is completed in Reserve Units. 

A 4. Men under 19 years of age, who will be fit for 
A 1 or A 2 as soon as they attain that age. 

Category B was sub-divided in accordance with the nature 
of the work it is considered by the Medical Authorities the 
men classified in the sub-divisions are capable of performing. 

B 1. Capable of employment in Railway, Canadian 
Army Service Corps, Forestry and Labour 
Units, or upon work of a similar character. 

B 2. Capable of work in Forestry, Labour, Canadian 
Army Service Corps, Canadian Army Medical 
Corps (Base Units), and Veterinary Units, 
and on Garrison or Regimental outdoor employ- 
ments. 

B 3. Capable of employment on sedentary work as 
Clerks, Storemen, Batmen, Cooks, Orderlies, etc., 
or, if skilled tradesmen, in their trades. 



Adjutant-General 1 s Branch. 41 

Category D into — 

D 1. Soldiers discharged from Hospital to Command 
Depots who are not considered physically fit 
for Category A, but who will be so upon 
completion of remedial training or hardening 
treatment. 

Note. — The role of Command Depots is to harden men 
discharged from Hospital before they join their Reserve Units 
for regular training. Under a trained staff, physical exercises 
and training are carried out at these Depots and supervised 
by a Medical Officer. When the Commandant and Medical 
Officer are satisfied that a man is sufficiently hardened he is 
despatched to his Reserve Unit and placed in Category A. 

D 3. A temporary Category, and denotes other ranks 
of any Unit under, or awaiting, medical treat- 
ment who, on completion of such treatment, 
will rejoin their original Category. 

In order to obtain a uniform classification throughout, the 
following standards were laid down as a guide in placing men 
in the various Categories : — 

Category A . Able to march, see to shoot, hear well and 
stand Active Service conditions. 

Category B. Free from serious organic disease, and, 
in addition, if classified under — 

B 1. Able to march at least five miles, 
see and hear sufficiently well for ordinary 
purposes. 

B 2. Able to walk to and from work a 
distance not exceeding five miles, see 
and hear sufficiently well for ordinary 
purposes. 

B 3. Only suitable for sedentary work, 
or on such duties as Storemen, Batmen, 
etc., or, if skilled tradesmen, fit to work 
at their trades. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that Category A was the 
highest medical condition. The difference between Category 
A 1 and Category A 2 was purely one of training, and the 
responsibility for raising a soldier from A 2 to A 1 rested with 
the Officer Commanding the Unit in which the man was in 
training. The difference between Category A 1 and Category 



42 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

A 3 was jointly one of training and medical condition, and the 
responsibility for raising men from Category A 3 i;o Category 
A 1 rested with the Officer Commanding the Unit in which 
the soldier was in training, in conjunction with the Medical 
Officer of that Unit. 

The differences in all other Categories were of a medical 
nature, and a soldier could only be raised from Category B or 
Category D to Category A by the Medical Authorities. For 
this purpose all soldiers who were placed in any of the sub- 
divisions of Category B were medically re-examined every 
month after having been placed in a sub-division of Category B, 
with the exception of men who were employed in certain offices 
or with Administrative Units, who were medically re-examined 
every tw T o months. The Medical Officer making this re-examina- 
tion had power to raise any soldiers in the sub-grades of 
Category B or into Category A, but if, in his opinion, the soldier 
was not physically fit for the Category in which he had pre- 
viously been placed, arrangements were made for the soldier 
to appear before a Medical Board composed of three or more 
Medical Officers, and his Category was determined by that 
Board. 

All Canadian casualties, except local casualties admitted to 
British hospitals and discharged in the same Category as they 
were when admitted, were discharged, through Canadian 
Hospitals, and on being discharged from Hospital were placed 
in one of the foregoing Categories. The officer in charge of 
the hospital might place a casualty in Category A or in Category 
B, or might declare the casualty fit to be discharged in the 
same Category as that in which he was admitted to Hospital, 
but if the soldier could not be classified by the Officer Com- 
manding the Hospital, he appeared before a Medical Board 
at the Hospital, and was placed in a Category by that Board. 

RETURN OF PERSONNEL TO CANADA. 

Discharge Depot : Invaliding. — As it became necessary, from 
time to time, to despatch to Canada parties of men, principally 
those being returned by the Allocation Board, i.e., men in a 
low category whose services were not required, as well as men 
who were being returned for special reasons, such as instruc- 
tional purposes, it was essential that these men should be 
uniformly prepared and held for embarkation at short notice. 
A Unit was, therefore, organised and known as No. 1 Canadian 
Discharge Depot, and, in view of the fact that the majority of 



Adjutant-General's Branch. 43 

sailings took place from Liverpool, it was located at Buxton. 
During the year ending December 31, 1918, the Buxton Discharge 
Depot handled 21,622 men returning to Canada, of which number 
1,152 were proceeding on furlough. 

In the early part of 1918 permanent Transatlantic Con- 
ducting Staffs were appointed by the Militia Authorities in 
Canada. These Conducting Staffs, who were in charge of 
reinforcements from Canada, reported at the Discharge Depot, 
Buxton, on arrival. They were then detailed by the Officer 
Commanding the Depot to take charge of whatever party was 
returning to Canada, and, in addition to this Staff, an officer 
was detailed by Headquarters, Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada, to take charge of each district party under the command 
of the Officer Commanding the permanent Conducting Staff. 

In addition to personnel returning to the Discharge Depot, 
Buxton, there were men who, on account of their wounds or 
sickness, had been marked by the Medical Authorities as soldiers 
who should be invalided to Canada for further treatment. 
These men were known as Invaliding Cases, and until June, 1918, 
such men were returned to Canada in regular hospital ships 
which had been taken over by the Canadian Government 
and were making periodical crossings from England to Canada. 
After the sinking of H.M.H.S. Llandovery Castle, the practice 
of using hospital ships was discontinued, and vessels known as 
Ambulance Transports were employed. These vessels travelled 
under escort up to the time of the Armistice. 

ENLISTMENTS IN ENGLAND. 

Applications for enlistment into the Canadian Forces in 
England were constantly being received. Some of these were 
from persons who alleged themselves to be Canadians, and who 
had been called up for Service by the Imperial Authorities 
and who desired to serve with the Canadians rather than with 
the Imperial Forces ; others were from Canadians, who, for 
various reasons, happened to be resident in England and who 
desired to join the Canadian Forces there. Requests were 
also received from Canadians who had, voluntarily or otherwise, 
enlisted and were serving with the Imperial Forces. 

The last class of applicant was advised that he must apply 
through his Imperial Unit for transfer to the Canadian Forces, 
and where the Imperial Authorities saw T fit to forward his 
request for such transfer, together with the statement that there 
was no objection to his discharge from his Imperial engagement 



44 Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

and his re-enlistment in the Canadian Forces, his application 
was approved, provided that the man concerned satisfactorily 
passed a medical examination by the Canadian Authorities and 
was found in Category A as fit for General Service. All 
individuals applying for enlistment in England were advised 
that their applications could not be considered unless they 
furnished a Certificate of Canadian Citizenship issued by the 
High Commissioner for Canada in London. This Certificate 
was only issued by the High Commissioner after he had satisfied 
himself that the man's claim as to Canadian citizenship was 
well founded. In addition, all applicants had to submit to 
examination by the Canadian Medical Authorities and be found 
lit for General Service. 

The applicant having fulfilled these conditions was sent to 
a territorially affiliated Reserve Unit. There he was again 
medically examined, and if considered fit, was enlisted. His 
completed documents were returned to the Adjutant-General's 
Branch and a record kept of his enlistment. The documents 
were sent to the Canadian Record Office, London, and a copy 
of the Attestation Paper sent to the Department of Militia 
and Defence, Ottawa, for custody. The man's Certificate of 
Canadian Citizenship was kept on file in the Adjutant-General's 
Branch. 

The number of enlistments completed in England from the 
beginning of the War to December, 1918, was 1,733, representing 
approximately 10 per cent, of the applications actually received, 
the balance of applications having been rejected either as a 
result of medical examination or through inability to produce 
the requisite Certificate of Citizenship. 

In some cases applicants were unwilling to persist in their 
applications after they had filed them. 

Except in special circumstances applications for enlistment 
in England were only accepted for service in the Infantry. 

DISCHARGES IN ENGLAND. 

Prior to the Armistice the discharge of Canadian Other Ranks 
in England might be roughly divided into two classes — those 
who were discharged in order that they might accept commissions 
or be re-engaged on some branch of the Imperial Service, and 
those who were discharged to civil life or to engage in work 
of National Importance. Those of the first class included 
soldiers whose applications for training with a view to com- 
missioned rank in the Imperial Service had been favourably 



Adjutant-General's Branch* 45 

considered and those who had undergone a course of training 
at a Cadet School and had been granted a commission in the 
Imperial Army. It also included those who had been granted 
commissions under the Admiralty and those who had been 
appointed Flight Cadets in the Royal Air Force. 

The second class consisted of men who might have been 
asked for by the Imperial Authorities for work of National 
Importance in such departments as the Ministry of Munitions, 
the Ministry of Food and the Ministry of Shipping. Such 
men were usually in a low category, and in most cases it was 
considered that they would be of greater value if they were 
employed on such work rather than if they continued to serve 
in a Military capacity. In the same class also came the very 
infrequent cases of men who were discharged in England on 
compassionate grounds and also those cases of soldiers boarded 
for discharge or invaliding to Canada on account of medical 
unfitness, who had applied for discharge in England. 

In respect to the last-named cases it was the settled policy 
of the Canadian Government that members of the Canadian 
Forces found no longer fit for War service should be discharged 
in Canada, and that discharge would not be permitted in 
England except under very exceptional circumstances and 
where grave hardship would otherwise be caused to the individual 
concerned. Applications under this heading were not numerous, 
but they were very carefully scrutinised as it was not con- 
sidered advisable that the Canadian Government should allow 
disabled Canadians to remain in England. In all such cases 
the application had to be put forward by the man himself, 
and it should be clearly understood that before the application 
was allowed it was necessary to prove that very great hardship 
would be entailed if the applicant were returned to Canada. 
In addition the man was required to provide written guarantees 
by a responsible citizen in England to the effect that he would 
not become a charge upon the public, and it was also necessary 
that he should furnish a Magistrate's Certificate to the effect 
that the person acting as guarantor was able to fulfil his 
obligations. 

All discharges in England were carried out through the 2nd 
Canadian Discharge Depot in London, and on being discharged 
the soldier was required to sign a waiver of any claim against 
the Canadian Government for free transportation to Canada. 
He was also required to sign a statement that he understood 
that by being discharged in England he would not be entitled 



46 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

to receive the three months' bonus of pay under the arrangement 
which was then in existence. He was given the usual Discharge 
Character Certificates, and when his documents were completed 
they were sent for custody to the Officer in Charge of the 
Canadian Record Office, London, by the Officer Commanding 
the 2nd Canadian Discharge Depot. 

Present Policy re Discharges in British Isles. — Since the 
Armistice, it has been laid down that a soldier may only receive 
his discharge in the British Isles provided — 

(a) He was born in the British Isles. 

(b) He has no dependents in Canada. 

(c) He has dependents or relatives in the British Isles 
in such circumstances as warrant his retention here 
for financial or domestic reasons. 

(d) He has a bona-fide offer of employment or has in- 
dependent means of support irrespective of any pay 
or gratuity payable by the Government. 

TRANSFERS. 

Provided that the Commanding Officer of the Unit from 
which the soldier desired to transfer and the Commanding 
Officer of the Unit to which he desired to be transferred were 
in concurrence, no objection was raised to such transfer, provided 
it was from one combatant Unit to another. 

Did a soldier fit for general service desire to transfer from 
a combatant to a non-combatant Unit, his application, if it 
had been duly recommended by the Commanding Officers of 
both Units, had to be submitted to the Adjutant-General's 
Department, and the application was not granted unless weighty 
reasons were shown for its being approved. An example 
of such a reason would be in the case of a man highly qualified 
in a technical way for work in a non-combatant Unit, such as 
the Forestry Corps or the Railway Troops, provided that there 
were a shortage of technical men in the Unit which required 
his services. It was, however, in any case, if the application 
were granted, the duty of the Commanding Officer of a non- 
combatant Unit to return the soldier so transferred to his 
combatant Unit as soon as his place could be filled by a man 
unfit for General Service. 



Adjutant-General's Branch. 47 

MAN-POWER. 
Allocation and Employment of Low Category Men. 

Bearing in mind the fact that only men of the highest 
medical condition were of value as fighting troops, and as it 
early became apparent that the War would be of long duration, 
the question of the economic use of men became one of a 
pressing nature. It was, therefore, necessary to liberate from 
Units other than those Units actually engaged in fighting, 
all men who, under the system of Medical Categorisation, 
were marked Category A, and to use to the best advantage 
men of the lower categories for any Units which might be 
termed " Non-Fighting Troops." 

Economy in man-power, too, made it necessary to ensure 
that the right man was doing the right work. With this object 
in view, experiments were made with several schemes and 
eventually it was decided to form a special Branch, under a 
selected officer in the Adjutant-General's Department, to under- 
take this work. Under the direction of this officer was a Board 
composed of officers who, in civil life, were themselves em- 
ployers of labour or who were engaged in work similar to that 
which was being done by those Branches of the Service which 
were not classed as " Fighting Troops," such as the Forestry 
Corps, Labour Units and Railway Troops. This Board com- 
menced its work in April, 1918. 

No set rules for the allocation of men could be laid down, 
but in collaboration with the Medical Service the type of work 
which men in the various categories were capable of was fairly 
clearly defined, and the Board was given discretionary powers 
to allocate men to those branches of the Service to which 
it was considered such men would be most valuable. 

The first duty of the Board was to review all the Low Category 
men employed in England to ensure that each man was em- 
ployed according to his trade qualifications, and in accordance 
with the work which his medical condition allowed him to do. 
The Board, therefore, visited all Canadian Areas and Formations 
in England and carried out inspections and made recommenda- 
tions for transfers, which were effected as expeditiously as 
possible ; and for substitutions, which were carried out more 
or less gradually and methodically in order that none of the 
Services concerned should be dislocated. 



48 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Having- completed this work, the next phase was the disposal 
of men who, through wounds or sickness were lowered in 
category and became available for disposal on completion 
of their hospitalisation. It was at this time decided that 
great benefit would be derived from giving all men, regardless 
of the category in which they might have been discharged 
from Hospital, a course of " hardening " treatment at the 
Command Depots. Previous to this, " hardening " treatment 
had been confined to men who were discharged from Hospital 
as potential Category A men, such as men placed in the 
Temporary Category of Dl. With the exception, therefore, 
of those men engaged on clerical or administrative work in 
England, or those who had been admitted to Hospital as local 
casualties, and who on completion of hospitalisation were fit 
to return to their former employments, arrangements were 
completed for hospital patients to be discharged from Hospital 
to the Command Depots. 

On arrival at Command Depots, these men were graded for 
training according to their medical condition, and arrangements 
were made for the Allocation Board to visit the Command 
Depots periodically and inspect the men who were expected 
to be discharged from the Command Depots in a Low Category. 
Such men were brought before the Board one week prior to 
their expected discharge. 

The Board allocated the men to whatever duty it was 
determined they were capable of carrying out, and on discharge 
from the Command Depot the men were sent direct to their 
new Unit, the Command Depot arranging with the Regimental 
Depot or Reserve Unit upon whose strength such men were 
carried, to complete their transfer so far as the necessary Order, 
entries and documentation were concerned. Under this ar- 
rangement no time was lost in disposing of the soldier, as he 
was no longer returned to the Unit carrying him on its strength, 
there to await allocation by the Board. 

In addition to this source of supply of Low Category men, 
there were also the men who broke down in category whilst 
undergoing training, or who broke down in category whilst 
carrying out their duties (other than training) in England. 
These men were immediately posted to their Regimental Depots 
and were again brought before the Allocation Board on the 
Board's first visit to that Area. 

In the process of examining Low Category men, the Board 
continually had to dispose of men who were not fit for any 



Adjutant-General' s Branch. 49 

work in England upon the economic basis laid down. This 
provided that a man must be able to do 60 per cent, of the day's 
work required of a Category A man. Men who could not 
reach this standard were regarded as uneconomic to the Canadian 
Military Forces in England, and arrangements were therefore 
made for their immediate return to Canada. 

It sometimes happened that a man allocated by the Board 
for duty with one of the Units or Services in England was 
found to be unfit to carry out the work which he had been 
given to do. He was then again brought before the Allocation 
Board when the Commanding Officer of his Unit stated why 
he did not consider the man to be fit for duty. The Board 
then allocated the man to some other Unit for duty or marked 
him for return to Canada, the Board basing its final decision 
on the new facts placed before it. 

It will be seen that the duties of the Board were of an 
exceedingly difficult nature, but it carried out its work with 
great efficiency and fairness, and its labours resulted in effecting 
a saving of the greatest possible amount of Man-Power in the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

CARE OF SOLDIERS' GRAVES. 

France. — The War had not been long in progress before 
it was realised that the care of soldiers' graves and the erection 
of suitable memorials for them would be a matter of vital 
interest to the whole Empire, and, in order to ensure that it 
would receive the careful consideration and attention it deserved, 
a National Committee was formed under the presidency of the 
Prince of Wales in 1916. 

During the War, graves were under the control of the 
Directorate of Graves Registration and Enquiries (War Office). 
It was intended that this Committee should be responsible for 
these graves after the War. 

In the early part of 1917 the Imperial War Conference 
decided that there ought to be some permanent Commission 
entrusted with the above duties, and recommended that 
application be made for a Royal Charter. This was granted 
in May, 1917, to the Imperial War Graves Commission. 

The function of the Commission is to take over graves 
from the Directorate when the graves are in proper condition, 
and to erect memorials and to arrange for their care. The 

(642) E 



50 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

French Government acquired the land necessary for cemeteries, 
and have made a perpetual concession of such lands to the 
British Government. 

The Commission went most thoroughly into the whole 
question, and appointed Sir Frederick Kenyon, the Director 
of the British Museum, as its adviser. In November, 1918, he 
submitted his report compiled after a most exhaustive enquiry 
and consultation with representatives of the principal interests 
involved, the Army, the relatives of the fallen, the religious 
denominations and the artists and others whose judgment 
might be of value in a work demanding imagination and tact. 
While it is not possible in this report to republish Sir Frederick 
Kenyon's report and recommendations, almost all of which 
were adopted by the Commission, it is possible to assure the 
Canadian public that the matter will be treated in a manner 
worthy of the subject. 

Wherever possible, isolated graves of Canadian soldiers 
will be collected into the larger cemeteries. A uniform head- 
stone of suitable material and appropriate design will be placed 
over each grave. Each headstone will have engraved on it 
the particulars of the soldier whom it commemorates, and a 
large cross will be erected in each cemetery to indicate the 
nature of the cemetery. The Commission has already laid 
down one principle of great interest, namely, that there will be 
an absolute equality of treatment, that is to say, that there 
will be no distinction between the headstones of officers and 
Other Ranks or of rich and poor. 

There will be some cases in which bodies cannot be identified 
and many bodies have never been found. These, however, 
will not be neglected, and some memorial will be erected to 
the unknown, but not forgotten, dead. 

Photographs of graves in France and Belgium may be 
obtained free of cost by the next-of-kin on application to the 
Director-General Graves Registration and Enquiries, Winchester 
House, St. James's Square, London, S.W. 1. 

United Kingdom.— Canadian soldiers who have died in the 
United Kingdom are buried either in military cemeteries or in 
churchyards or corporation cemeteries. Altogether there are 
3,492 graves of Canadian soldiers in the United Kingdom 
distributed over 634 cemeteries. The large number of cemeteries 
is due to the fact that in many cases the relatives of the deceased 
have had the soldier buried in a cemetery chosen by themselves. 



Adjutant-General' s Branch. 51 

The great majority of the graves, however, are situated in 
military cemeteries near the large camps, where special plots 
have been assigned to Canadian graves. In the case of civil 
cemeteries soldiers' graves are grouped together wherever 
possible. All graves, however, wherever situated, are under 
the care of the Canadian Military Authorities, who see to it 
that they are attended to, except where they are satisfied that 
the relatives may be trusted to undertake this duty. 

As soon as a soldier is buried, an oak cross is erected over 
the grave. While this is not intended to be the permanent 
memorial, it will endure until a more substantial one is erected. 
The question of the permanent memorial is receiving the atten- 
tion of the Imperial War Graves Commission. 

In the purely military cemeteries such as Brookwood, 
where a large number of Canadians are buried, the intention is' 
that the headstones shall be uniform, as is intended in France. 
Photographs of graves are forwarded to relatives on request 
being made to Canadian Headquarters, London, the money 
for this purpose being furnished by the Canadian Red Cross 
Society. 

Battlefields Memorial Committee. — This is an off-shoot 
of the Imperial War Graves Commission. Its duties are to 
erect memorials of battles, and to decide for which battles 
such memorials will be erected, and which Units will be men- 
tioned on such memorials. 

The Committee, which is representative of the various 
theatres of war, includes a member representing Canada. 



(642) E 



BRANCH OF ADJUTANT-GENERAL 


O.M.F. 


OF 


c. 






Maj 


A.G. 
-Gen. P. E. THACKER, C.B., 


C.M.G. 














D.A.G. 
















Col. F. S. MORRISON, C.M.G., D.S.O. ■ 

1 












Organ 


ization. 








Mobilization. 










t 






Establishments. 










k.A.G. 


A.A.G. 






A.A.G. 


| 


I 




1 
AG.1. 


A.G.2. 






A.G.3. 


A.G.4. 


A.G.5. 


i 

Personal Services, Officers. 

1 


Discipline and Financial Matters. 

1 


1 
J.2d. 






Personal Services, O.R. 


Non-Effectives. 


Demobilization. 


KSL. 


A.G.Ib. A.G.2a. 


A.G.2b. A.G.2c. A.( 


A.G. 3a. 

1 




A.G.3b. 


A.G.3c. 


A.G.3d. 




A.G.3a1. 


A.G.3a2. 


Leave. 


Regimental Depots, Military Law. 


Orders and A.C.Is. General Questions on Pay Courts of Inquiry. 


Categorization. 


Enlistments. 


Recalls from France. 


Reinforcements. 


Establishments. 


Canada, Return to, of 


Supervision of Discipline. 


generally. and Allowances. Dishonoured Cheques. 


Hospital Representative 


Transfers (Individual). 


W.O. & N.C.O. Exchange 




Mobilization Orders and 


Officers, except those 


General List. Courts-Martial. 


Adverse Reports on Financial Condition of Suspended Sentences. 


Co-ordination Medical 


Discharges. 


with Canadian Corps. 




Instructions. 


n-turned for disciplinary 


Transfers. Corps of Military Police. 


Officers. Units. Self-inflicted Wounds. 


Services. 


Minors. 


Disposal, Surplus W.Os. 




Notices of Arrival from 


reasons. 


Attachments and Extra- Detention — Prisoners. 


Location and Marking of Claims for Indemnifica- Disposal of A. P.M. 


Co-ordination Dental 


Escaped & Repatriated 


Disposal, N.C.Os. 




Canada, and Allotment 


Strength, Preparation of 


Regimental Employment. Absentees and Deserters. 


Graves. tion for Loss of Kit, Charges. 


Services. 


Prisoners of War (O.R.) 


Ranks, Promotions and 




of Drafts. 


Orders re : — 


Secondings. Appeals and Complaints. 


Dress Regulations. Claims for Loss of 


Employment of Civilians 


Disposal of Casualties 


Return to Canada, 


Reversions. 




Returns. 


Taking on. 


Recalls from France. Discharge <if Had 


Questions re Y.M.C.A. Registered Mail. 


Separation Allowance. 


and others being re- 


Students, etc. 


Return to Canada for 




Preparation of Orders-in- 


Striking off. 


Retentions in England. ( haracters. 


and Maple Leaf Clubs. Claims against All Ranks. Vise-ing and V.D. 


turned to Canada. 




Duty (Individuals). 




Council for Canada, re 


Medical Hoard Proceed 


Replai ement of ( Iffrcers on Resignations referred for 


Ceremonial. Unpaid Regtl. Accounts. 


Substitution Category 




Attachments (Individuals) 




Disbandment of Units. 


ings, ! >isposal of. 


Permanent Cadres by opinion of disciplinary 


Regimental Institutes. 


"A" men. 




Leave. 






Administrative Arrange- 


Overseas Casualties. action. 


Billeting and Subsistence 


Regimental Depots. 




Enquiries (Personal). 






ments Embarkation of 


Supplies of Personnel, 


Allowance, Questions 


Discharge Depots. 










( iiiu er Personnel 


( ifficers 


referred. 


Orderly Rooms. 
Documents and Keeords 

(O.R.). 
Fatigues and Working 

Parties. 











53 



STATISTICS-ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH. 



INDEX. 



The following tables give in statistical form all general 
information as to the Overseas Military Forces of Canada under 
the following heads : — 

Table I. — (Strengths) : — page. 

(a) Headquarters Staffs employed in England . . 55 

(b) Strength of Headquarters Units in England . . 55 

(c) Reduction of Reserve Units in England . . . . 56 

(d) Total number in each arm of the Service as at 
December 31, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917 and 1918 57 

Table 2. — (Casualties) . . . . . . . . . . 58 

Table 3. — (Reinforcements) : — 

(a) Percentage of Reinforcements required to replace 
monthly wastage . . . . . . . . . . 59 

(b) Distribution of Reinforcing Units at date of 
Armistice . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 

(c) Reorganisation of, and increase in, existing Units 

in the field . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

(d) Complete new Units despatched to France . . 65 

(e) Arrivals from Canada and despatched to France, 
1918 66 

(/) Canadian Parties and Special Personnel Loaned 

to Imperial Authorities . . . . . . . . 68 



55 



General Statistics Relating to the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH. 

TABLE I. — Strengths. 

(a) — Headquarters Staffs Employed in England. 

The following schedule shows the reductions which have 
been made in the strengths of the Headquarters, O.M.F.C., 
from December 1, 1916, to November 11, 1918 :- 



Headquarters Staffs. 



Officers. 



Other Ranks 
and Civilians. 



Total. 











December 1, 1916 


134 


566 


700 


April, 1917 


123 


490 


613 


June 6, 1918 


76 


363 


439 


August 10, 1918 


68 


322 


390 


November 11, 1918 


61 


319 


380 



(b)— Strength of Headquarters Units in England. 

The following table giVes the strengths of the Headquarters 
Units in England from November 30, 1916, to June 15, 1918, 
and at November 11, 1918: — 



November Offi- ° "^ 

30, 1916 cers L. anQ 
! Civs. 


October, 
1917 

H.Q. 


Offi- 
cers 


O.R. 
and 
Civs. 


June 15, 
1918. 


Offi- 
cers 


O.R. 
and 
Civs. 


H.Q. 


1 






H.Q. 




Shorncliffe 


101 | 272 


Shorncliffe 


50 


221 


Shorncliffe 


21 81 


Bramshott 


80 214 


Bramshott 


63 210 


; Bramshott 


40 178 


Seaford 


28! 86 


Seaford . . 


23 147 


Seaford . . 


36 149 


Crowboro' 


21 ! 64 


Witley . . 


62 191 


Witley . . 


43 164 


Hastings 


12 i 26 












Shoreham 


10; 82 


Total 






Total . . 




Total . . 


252 744 


198 769 


140 572 



Note. — Strength of Headquarters Units as at November 11, 
1918 :— Officers, 150 O.R. and Civilians, 507. 



56 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(c) — Reduction of Reserve Units in England. 

The progressive reductions of Infantry Reserve Battalions, 
Infantry Reserve Brigade Headquarters, and Infantry Regi- 
mental Depots is shown by the following tables, which give 
the numbers of those Units as they stood on the accompanying 
given dates. 

i. Infantry Reserve Battalions. 

January 1, 1917 . . 57 Battalions. 

January 15, 1917 . . 26 Reserve Battalions. 

January 15, 1918 . . 20 Reserve Battalions. 

June 1, 1918 . . . . 15 Reserve Battalions. 

ii. Infantry Reserve Brigade Headquarters. 

January 1, 1917 . . 12 Brigade Headquarters. 

January 15, 1917 . . 6 Brigade Headquarters. 
January 15, 1918 . . 4 Brigade Headquarters. 
June 1, 1918 . . . . All Brigade Headquarters dis- 

banded. 

iii. Infantry Regimental Depots. 

January 15, 1918 . . 12 Infantry Regimental Depots. 
June 1, 1918 .. .. 11 Infantry Regimental Depots, 

now grouped into 3 Group 

Depots. 



Statistics — Adjutant -General's Branch. 



57 



(d)— Total Number in each Arm of the Service as at December 31, 
1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1918. 



Year. 


Arm of the 
Service. 


Overseas 
from England. 


England. 


To 


tal. 
















Officers. 


O. Ranks 


Officers. 


O. Ranks 


Officers. 


O. Ranks 


1914 .. 


Total 


93 


1,049 


1,401 


28,841 


1,494 


29,890 


1915 .. 


Infantry . . 


— 


33,702 


— 


25,990 


— 


59,692 




Artillery . . 


— 


5,272 


— 


3,520 


— 


8,792 




Cavalry . . 


— 


733 


— 


1,751 


— 


2,484 




Engineers 


— 


1,621 


— 


1,012 


— 


2,633 




C.A.S.C. .. 


— 


3,379 


— 


1,579 


— 


4,958 




C.A.M.C... 


— 


2,579 


— 


2,652 


— 


5,231 




Railway . . 


— 


444 


— 


44 


— 


488 




Forestry . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Other Arms 


— 


1,988 


— 


785 


— 


2,773 




Total . . 


2,676 


49,718 


2,275 


37,333 


4,951 


87,051 


1916 .. 


Infantry . . 


2,734 


65,940 


3,564 


89,879 


6,298 


155,819 




Artillery . . 


547 


14,830 


475 


10,385 


1,022 


25,215 




Cavalry . . 


138 


2,900 


124 


2,040 


262 


4,940 




Engineers 


166 


3,301 


223 


3,380 


389 


6,681 




C.A.S.C. .. 


203 


5,608 


150 


3,918 


353 


9,526 




C.A.M.C... 


439 


5,254 


1,258 


4,534 


1,697 


9,788 




Railway . . 


45 


1,515 


54 


111 


99 


1,626 




Forestry . . 


14 


214 


93 


4,646 


107 


4,860 




Other Arms 


166 


4,689 


1,845 


4,350 


2,011 


9,039 




Total . . 


4,452 


104,251 


7,786 


123,243 


12,238 


227,494 


1917 .. 


Infantry . . 


2,625 


63,187 


3,360 


59,069 


5,985 


122,256 




Artillery . . 


665 


17,546 


326 


6,335 


991 


23,881 




Cavalry . . 


120 


2,597 


82 


1,047 


202 


3,644 




Engineers 


307 


7,247 


209 


4,291 


516 


11,538 




C.A.S.C. .. 


181 


5,187 


193 


4,455 


374 


9,642 




C.A M.C... 


423 


5,085 


1,576 


7,198 


1,999 


12,253 




Railway . . 


426 


13,952 


88 


2,369 


514 


16,321 




Forestry . . 


335 


9,099 


308 


7,914 


643 


17,013 




Other Arms 


1,056 


10,672 


746 


10,651 


1,802 


21,323 




Total .. 


6,138 


134,542 


6,888 


103,329 


13,026 


237,871 


1918 .. 


Infantry . . 


2,008 


49,820 


2,767 


54,636 


4,775 


104,456 




Artillery . . 


769 


18,214 


345 


6,327 


1,114 


25,541 




Cavalry . . 


148 


2,684 


61 


1,565 


209 


4,249 




Engineers 


702 


16,331 


468 


6,986 


1,170 


23,317 




C.A.S.C. .. 


218 


5,672 


100 


2,915 


318 


8,587 




C.A.M.C... 


612 


5,955 


1,762 


6,287 


2,374 


12,242 




Railway . . 


545 


12,789 


88 


1,474 


633 


14,263 




Forestry . . 


379 


11,131 


314 


9,689 


693 


20,820 




Other Arms 


1,264 


15,798 


1,095 


8,497 


2,359 


24,295 




Total . . 


6,645 


138,394 


7,000 


98,376 


13,645 


236,770 



58 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



35 





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Statistics — A djutant-General's Branch. 



59 



TABLE III. — Reinforcements. 

(a)— Percentage of Reinforcements Required to Replace Monthly 

Wastage. 

The supply of reinforcements necessary to maintain the 
Forces in the Field up to war strength is based on the statistics 
of wastage per month for each arm of the Service. 

This wastage from all causes has been found to be as follows 

Wastage per month- 
Per Cent. 
Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 

Cavalry . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

Artillery (Field and Horse) . . . . . . 3| 

Artillery (Siege and Heavy Batteries) . . . . 3 

Machine Gunners . . . . . . . . . . 10 

Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Signallers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Cyclists . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

C.A.S.C 3 

C.A.M.C 3 

Veterinary Corps . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Railway Troops (Construction) . . . . . . 3 

Railway Troops (Operative) . . . . . . 3 

Labour Group and Infantry Works Company . . 3 

Forestry Corps . . . . . . . . . . 2 



(b)- — Distribution of Reinforcing Units at Date of 
Armistice. 

The following schedule gives in detail the distribution of the 
Canadian Troops in England at the date of the signing of the 
Armistice on November 11, 1918, and presents a fair idea of 
the average of distribution of the various Reserve Units of 
the different Arms of the Service during the later stages of 
training. 

Against each Reserve Unit in the Schedule are placed the 
names of the Units in the Field they reinforced. 

Seaford. 

Infantry (Reserve Unit), 1st Reserve Battalion, reinforcing: — 

1th, 29th, and 72nd Infantry Battalions. 
11th Reserve Battalion, reinforcing : — 

16th, 27th, and 43rd Infantry Battalions. 
18th Reserve Battalion, reinforcing : — 

Sth, 78th, and 52nd Infantry Battalions. 



60 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Engineers (Reserve Unit), Permanent Canadian Engineers 
Training Centre and Canadian School of Military Engineering, 
reinforcing : — 

Headquarters, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Brigade Canadian 
Engineers ; 1st Reserve Battalion (mounted), reinforcing 
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 1th, 8th, and 9th C.E.; 2nd 
Reserve Battalion (dismounted) reinforcing 10th, 11th, 
and 12th Battalions, C.E.; 3rd Reserve Battalion (dis- 
mounted), reinforcing 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Pontoon 
Bridging Transport Unit, C.E. 

Canadian School of Signalling, reinforcing : — 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Army Troops Company, C.E.; 
3rd Tunnelling Company, C.E.; No. 2 Construction 
Company (coloured), C.E.; Canadian Permanent Base 
Engineer Units; Canadian Corps Survey Section, C.E.; 
Anti- Air craft Searchlight Company, C.E.; 1st Tramway 
Company, C.E.; 2nd Tramway Company, C.E.; Rein- 
forcing Pool, C.E. Headquarters ; Canadian Corps Signal 
Company; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Divisional Signal 
Companies ; 5th Divisional Signal Company (Artillery 
Detachment) ; Canadian Cavalry Brigade Signal Troops ; 
Canadian Signal Pool. 

Canadian Machine Gun Depot (Reserve Unit), reinforcing :— 
1st and 2nd Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigades. 

Canadian Machine Gun School (Reserve Unit), reinforcing : — 
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Battalions Canadian Machine Gun 
Corps; Canadian Cavalry Brigade Machine Gun 
Squadron; Reinforcing Pool. 

Canadian Reserve Cyclist Company, reinforcing : — 

Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion. 

Witley. 

3rd Reserve Battalion (1st Central Ontario Regiment), 

reinforcing : — 

4th and 19th Battalions and 2nd and 4th C.M.R.'s. 

4th Reserve Battalion (Western Ontario Regiment), rein- 
forcing : — 

1st, 18th, and 41th Battalions. 

6th Reserve Battalion (Western Ontario Regiment), rein 
forcing : — 

2nd, 21st, 38th Battalions and P.P.C.L.I. 



Statistics — Adjutant General' 's- Branch. 61 

8th Reserve Battalion (2nd Central Ontario Regiment), 

reinforcing : — 

54th, 58th, 102nd, and 116th Battalions. 
12th Reserve Battalion (1st Central Ontario Regiment), 
reinforcing : — 

3rd, 15th, 20th, and 15th Battalions. 
13th Reserve Battalion (New Brunswick Regiment), rein- 
forcing : — 

26th and 44th Battalions. 

Bramshott. 

10th Reserve Battalion (Quebec Regiment), reinforcing :— 

22nd Battalion. 

20th Reserve Battalion (Quebec Regiment), reinforcing :— 
13th and 42nd Royal Highlanders, Canada. 

23rd Reserve Battalion (Quebec Regiment), reinforcing : — 

14th, 24th, and 87th Battalions and 5th C.M.R.'s. 

15th Reserve Battalion (Saskatchewan Regiment), rein 
forcing : — 

5th, 28th, and 46th Battalions and 1st C.M.R.'s. 

21st Reserve Battalion (Alta. Regiment), reinforcing : — 
10th, 31st, 49th, and 50th Battalions. 

17th Reserve Battalion (Nova Scotia Regiment), rein- 
forcing : — 

25th and 85th Battalions and Royal Canadian Regiment. 

Bordon. 
Canadian Reserve Cavalry Regiment, reinforcing : — 

Canadian Cavalry Brigade (Canadian Light Horse, Royal 
Canadian Dragoons, Lord Strathcona s Horse, Fort Garry 
Horse, Royal North West Mounted Police Squadron). 

Canadian Reserve Artillery (comprising Reserve Brigade and 
Composite Brigade and Canadian School oi Gunnery), rein- 
forcing : — 

1st Canadian Division — 1st Brigade Canadian Field 

Artillery (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Howitzer Batteries) ; 

2nd Brigade Canadian Reserve Artillery (5th, 6th, 1th, 

and 48th Howitzer Batteries). 

2nd Canadian Division — 5th Brigade Canadian Field 
Artillery (11th, 18th, 20th, and 23rd Howitzer Batteries) ; 
6th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery (15th, 16th, 25th, 
%nd 22nd Howitzer Batteries). 



62 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

3rd Canadian Division — 9/// Brigade Canadian Field 
Artillery (3lst, 33rd, 45th, and 36th Howitzer Batteries) ; 
10/// Brigade Canadian Field Artillery (38th, 39th, 40th, 
and 35th Howitzer Batteries). 

Atli Canadian Division — 3rd Brigade Canadian Field 
Artillery (10///, 11///, 12///, and 9th Howitzer Batteries); 
4th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery (\3th, 19///, 21th, 
and 21s/ Howitzer Batteries). 

5th Canadian Division — 13/// Brigade Canadian Field 
Artillery (52nd, 53rd, 55th, and 51s/ Howitzer Batteries) , 
14th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery (60th, 61s/, 65th, 
and 58th Howitzer Batteries). 

Royal Canadian Horse Artillery — Headquarters 1st Brigade 
Canadian Garrison Artillery (1st, 3rd, 1th, and 9th Siege 
Batteries) ; Headquarters 2nd Brigade Canadian Garrison 
Artillery (2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th Siege Batteries) ; Head- 
quarters 3rd Brigade Canadian Garrison Artillery (8th, 
10///, 11//?, and 12/// Siege Batteries). 

Trench Mortar Batteries — 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th 
Divisional Trench Mortar Groups. 

Anti- Aircraft — Canadian Anti- Aircraft " E " Battery. 

Purfleet. 

Headquarters, Canadian Railway Troops Services (Reserve 
Unit), reinforcing : — ■ 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 1th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 
and 13th Battalions Canadian Railway Troops; 1st 
Bridging Company Canadian Railway Troops ; 85th 
Engine Crew Company ; No. 69, Canadian Wagon 
Erecting Company. 

Canadian Overseas Railway Construction Corps — 58th 
Broad Gauge Railway Operating Company, 13th Light 
Railway Operating Company. 

Sunningdale. 

Headquarters, Canadian Forestry Corps and Corps Depot 
(Reserve Unit), reinforcing : — 

Paris Detachment, Canadian Forestry Corps, Head- 
quarters Central Group No 1 District Headquarters 
(No. 1 DisUict Workshop), Companies Nos. 20, 30, 32, 
41, 42, 43, 44, and 54. No. 2 District Headquarters 
(No. 2 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 14, 19, 23, 
24, 32. and 34, Headquarters Jura Group. No. 5 District 



Statistics — Adjutant-General's Branch. 63 

Headquarters (No. 5 District Workshop), No. 2 Con- 
struction Company, Companies Nos. 21, 22, 36, 39, 40, 
47, 50, 52, 57, 58, 70. No. 6 District Headquarters, 
Companies Nos. 28, 51, 56, 69, and 77, Headquarters 
Bordeaux Group. No. 4 District Headquarters, Companies 
Nos. 27, 55, 78, 79, and 80. No. 12 District Head- 
quarters (No. 12 District Workshop), Companies Nos. 15, 
45, 46, 48, 49, 53, 59, 60, 71, 72, 73, 74. Headquarters 
No. 9 District (No. 9 District Workshop), Companies 
Nos. 1,2 9, 25, 26, 29, 35, and 37, Headquarters Marne 
Group. No. 10 District Headquarters, Companies Nos. 
31, 33, and 70. No. 11 District Headquarters, Nos. 7, 
8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 75 Companies 

(c) — Reorganisation of, and Increase in, Existing Units in the 

Field. 

Over and above the provision of new Units for despatch 
to France it was necessary to provide for the reorganisation of 
various Units in the Field, and in many cases to furnish increase 
in the strength. 

The following shows reorganisations and increases carried 
out between January 1, 1918, and November 11, 1918:— 

Off. O.R. 

1. Organisation of two Corps Tramway 

Companies . . . . . . . . 6 . . 528 

2. Organisation of three Forestry Hos- 

pitals 19 . . 62 

3. Reorganisation of Canadian Engineers, 

involving, in addition to absorption, 
of four Pioneer Battalions, and three 
Field Companies of 5th Division, an 
increase of 163 . . 3,822 

4. Reorganisation of Machine Gun Com- 

panies into Machine Gun Battalions, 

involving increase of .. .. 8 ..1,100 

5. Formation of one additional Company 

for each of the four Machine Gun 
Battalions and necessary increase 
of Battalion Headquarters .. 80 . . 1,953 

6. Organisation Canadian Corps Survey 

Section 4 . . 162 



64 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



7. Organisation two Sections Divisional 

M.T. Company for 5th Canadian 
Divisional Artillery 

8. Reorganisation 1st Motor Machine Gun 

Brigade, and creation of 2nd Motor 
Machine Gun Brigade, involving, in 
addition to absorption of three 
Machine Gun Companies of 5th 
Division, an increase of 

9. Organisation No. 9 Employment Com- 

pany 

10. Organisation H.O. Corps M.T. Column 

11. Increase of 100 O.R/s, per Infantry 
< Battalion 

12. Organisation Canadian Corps Veterin- 

ary Evacuation Station 

13. Organisation Nos. 1 and 2 Forestry 

Companies 

14. Organisation Anti- Aircraft Searchlight 

Company 

15. Organisation Marne Group H.Q., C.F.C. 



Off. 



O.R. 
78 



263 



1 


. 425 


4 


13 




. 4,800 


1 


30 


2 


. 370 


5 


130 


3 


19 


5 


. 13,755 



Statistics — Adjutant-General' s Branch. 



65 



(d) — Complete New Units Despatched to France. 

In addition to General Reinforcements it has been necessary 
from time to time to organise new Units, and the following 
schedule gives in detail the strength of complete Units 
despatched Overseas between January 1, 1918, and November 
11, 1918:— 



Complete Units Despatched Overseas. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Date of 
Despatch. 


10th Canadian Siege Battery 

13th, 14th, and 15th Field Companies 

H.Q. and Signal Sub-Section 3rd H.A. 
Brigade 

17th, 18th, and 19th Machine Gun Com- 
panies 

13th Battalion Canadian Railway Troops 

11th Canadian Siege Battery 

69th Wagon Erecting Company 

5th Canadian Aircraft Section 

12th Canadian Siege Battery 

14th Canadian Field Ambulance 

5th Canadian Sanitary Section 

12th and 13th Companies Canadian Forestry 
Corps 

No. 11 District H.Q. Forestry Corps 

9th, 10th and 11th Companies Canadian 
Forestry Corps 

Squadron R.N.W.M.P 

7th and 8th Companies Canadian Forestry 
Corps 


6 
17 

6 

30 
36 
6 
3 
2 
6 
12 
1 

10 
8 

15 
6 

8 

172 


175 
614 

45 

531 
977 
175 
269 

41 
175 
233 

27 

370 
41 

555 
154 

364 

4,746 


14/3/18 
16/3/18 

19/3/18 

23/3/18 
28/3/18 

2/4/18 
9/4/18 
6/5/18 
31/5/18 
5/6/18 
5/6/18 

27/6/18 
4/8/18 

30/8/18 
6/10/18 

10/10/18 




— 


Total increase in existing Units in the 
Field 

Total complete new Units despatched to 
France 


315 
172 


13,755 
4,746 


Grand Total . . 


487 


18,501 



(642) 



66 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



(e) — Arrivals from Canada and 

Arrivals 
From 1/1/1918 





Infantry. 


Cavalry. 


Artillery. 


Engineers. 


M. Gunrs. 


C.A.S.C. 


Month 
























Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. O.R. 


January- 


12 


706 








11 


658 


6 


451 








— 


February 


65 


4527 


3 


194 


21 


1326 


5 


299 


— 


— 


2 149 


March . . 




71 


6453 


3 


167 


7 


695 


5 


488 


3 


248 


5 399 


April . . 




82 


7849 


2 


178 


18 


1574 


1 


15 


1 


99 


— __ 


May 




39 


2643 


1 


48 


3 


238 


4 


337 


— 


— 


— — 


June 




33 


3250 


16 


689 


5 


423 


5 


499 


— 


— 


1 77 


July .. 




46 


4375 


2 


205 


7 


676 


119 


2897 


— 


— 


— — 


August 




144 


14230 


3 


296 


3 


192 


38 


3241 


5 


477 


3 209 


September 




57 


2398 




— 


6 


500 


4 


400 


— 


— 


1 75. 


October 




11 


854 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


293 


— 


— 


1 72 


November 


























Total . . 




560 


47267 


30 


1777 


81 


6282 


190 


8920 


9 


824 


13 981 



Reinforcements 
From 1/1/1918 





Infantry. 


Cavalry. 


Artillery. 


Engineers. 


M. Gunrs. 


C.A.S.C. 


Month 




















Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


January 




89 


1252 


1 





22 


391 


22 


173 


7 


65 


2 


40 


February 




152 


2713 


5 


83 


20 


393 


12 


173 


9 


85 


9 


177 


March . . 




143 


10042 


5 


— 


12 


528 


8 


126 


9 


479 


20 


171 


April . . 




327 


5664 


24 


399 


61 


1151 


17 


527 


34 


468 


10 


180 


May 




122 


3182 


2 


21 


60 


281 


4 


148 


16 


20 


5 


78 


June 




251 


2712 


5 


10 


39 


273 


18 


821 


— 


84 


9 


203 


July . . 




77 


484 


3 


49 


10 


268 


74 


187 


29 


30 


14 


489 


August 




244 


8136 


2 


301 


48 


889 


16 


661 


28 


1293 


13 


110 


September 




519 


6815 


5 


51 


65 


697 


89 


1674 


31 


45 


15 


90 


October 




304 


4749 


17 


204 


45 


1396 


16 


714 


25 


193 


12 


175 


November 




119 


3553 


15 


70 


20 


21 


7 


823 


76 


842 


8 


2 


Total 


. 


2347 


49302 


84 


1188 


402 


6278 


283 


6027 


264 


3604 


117 


1715 



Arrivals from Canada from 1/1/1918 to 11/11/1918 
Reinforcements Despatched to France from 1/1/1918 to 30/11/191* 



i 



Statistics — A djutant -General' 's Branch. 



67 



Reinforcements Despatched to France. 

from Canada. 
to 11/11/1918. 



C.A.M.C. 


Tanks. 


Railway. 


Forestry. 


Miscel. 




Total 




Off. 


N/S. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


N/S. 


O.R. 


2 


51 


25 




. 


1 


49 


15 


876 


44 


32 


91 


51 


2797 


1 


16 


179 




— 


7 


588 


— 


— 


73 


25 


177 


16 


7287 


— 


3 


— 


— 


— 


3 


309 


5 


395 


14 


14 


116 


3 


9150 


3 


61 


2 


— 


— 


3 


300 


8 


302 


— 




118 


61 


10319 


1 


— . 


70 


. — 


— 


5 


546 


— 


— 


— 


— 


53 




3882 


6 


32 


1 


92 


716 


1 


74 


— 


— 


12 


14 


171 


32 


5743 


42 


66 


— 


— 


— 


9 


902 


— ■ 


— 


2 


2 


227 


66 


9057 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


12 


1260 


— 


— 


6 


— 


218 


— 


19905 


45 


67 


— 


— 


— 


5 


530 


— 


— 


26 


15 


144 


67 


3918 


96 


— 


35 


44 


956 


4 


289 


"~ 


= 


1 


36 


159 
1 


= 


2509 
36 


196 


296 


312 


136 


1682 


50 


4847 


28 


1573 


178 


138 


1475 


296 


74603 



Enlistments in England 



— 183 



1475 296 74786 



Despatched to France. 
to 30/11/1918. 



C.A.M.C 




Tanks. 


Railway. 


Forestry. 


Miscel. 




Total 




Off. 


N/S. 


O.R. 


Off. ' O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Off. 


N/S. 


O.R. 


23 


19 


16 








8 


350 


3 


148 


39 


815 


216 


19 


3253 


22 


28 


131 


— 


— 


4 


131 


5 


— 


35 


341 


273 


28 


4227 


34 


36 


197 


— 


— 


8 


503 


4 


4 


44 


292 


287 


36 


12342 


39 


15 


181 


— 


— 


8 


604 


3 


1 


38 


214 


561 


15 


9389 


23 


50 


134 


— 


— 


3 


235 


1 


225 


29 


123 


265 


50 


4447 


19 


17 


121 


— 


— 


4 


400 


1 


11 


28 


50 


374 


17 


4685 


21 


31 


50 


— 


— 


2 


601 


— 


8 


26 


15 


256 


31 


2181 


33 


42 


25 


— 


— 


— 


320 


5 


6 


27 


164 


416 


42 


11905 


47 


17 


110 


— 


— 


7 


621 


2 


15 


36 


233 


816 


17 


10351 


79 


54 


235 


— 


■ — ■ 


10 


778 


3 


66 


65 


201 


576 


54 


8701 


52 


7 


30 


— 


— 


2 


— 


1 


2 


41 


54 


341 


7 


5397 


392 


316 


1220 


— — 


56 


4543 


28 


486 


408 


2502 


4381 


316 


76875 



Grand Total 
Grand Total 



76,557 
81,572 



(642) 



F2 



68 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



(/) Canadian Parties and Special Personnel Loaned to Imperial 

Authorities. 



Unit. 


Off. 


O.R. 


Mesopotamia 

Northern Russia — 

(a) Archangel 

(b) Murmansk 


Specially selected Per- 
sonnel 

Specially selected Per- 
sonnel 
16th Brigade C.F.A. .. 
Special Party 


15 

5 
18 
18 


27 

11 

478 

74 


Palestine Bridging Party 


1st Bridging Company 
Canadian Railway 
Troops 


6 


250 




62 


840 



69 



QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL'S BRANCH. 

INDEX. 

PAGE 

Introduction .. .. .. .. .. ..71 

Canadian Army Service Corps . . . . 73 

Canadian Ordnance Corps . . . . . . 80 

(a) Organisation. 

(b) Surplus Stores. 

(c) Ordnance Inspection Department, 

(d) Ross Rifles. 

(e) Artillery Vehicles. 

(/) Fifth Divisional Equipment. 

(g) Hospitals. 

(h) Part Worn Clothing. 

(i) Closing of Ashford Depot. 

(j) Officers' Repayment Store. 

Quartermaster-General's Inspection Depart- 
ment . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 

Ocean and Rail Transport Department . . 86 

Canadian Postal Corps . . . . . . . . 87 

Canadian Army Veterinary Corps . . . . 89 

Printing, Stationery and Typewriter Services 90 

Canadian Salvage Corps . . . . . . . . 93 

Canadian Engineers' Services . . . . . . 94 

Quartermaster-General's Board of Officers . . 95 

War Trophies . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 



71 



Quartermaster-General's Branch. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In order to simplify the consideration of the extensive^and 
complex duties of the Quartermaster-General's Branch as a 
whole, the activities of the different Departments will be 
reviewed in detail in the following order : — 

Canadian Army Service Corps. 

Canadian Ordnance Corps. 

Quartermaster-General's Inspection Department. 

Ocean and Rail Transport Department. 

Canadian Postal Corps. 

Canadian Army Veterinary Corps. 

Printing, Stationery, and Typewriting Services. 

Canadian Salvage Corps. 

Canadian Engineer Services. 

Quartermaster-General's Board of Officers. 

War Trophies. 

Every endeavour has also been made in submitting this 
report to reflect the conditions under which the activities of 
the Quartermaster-General's Branch have been, and are still, 
carried on, both in England and in France, and to trace the 
various steps which have made both for efficiency and economy. 
It should be realised that for a very considerable period the 
various Departments of this Branch were required to assume 
duties and responsibilities entirely outside the scope laid down 
by the Military Regulations which defined its responsibilities. 
In the progress of nearly every Department, therefore, it has 
been necessary, at times, to abandon rigid Military Regulations, 
not only to overcome problems of an emergency nature but in 
order to develop methods which seemed best suited to new 
situations. 

The pursuit of this policy, however, has brought about no 
conflict with the Imperial Authorities, nor has it in any way 
jeopardised its harmonious relationships with the various 



72 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Departments of the War Office. On the contrary, it has led 
to a unity of action and produced most beneficial results. For 
instance, the conditions which prevailed at the time of the 
arrival of the first Canadian Troops in England rendered the 
Canadians entirely dependent on the Imperial Forces for 
supplies, but the system had not really become sufficiently 
developed to ensure that rapidity of action so necessary in 
conditions of war. 

It therefore became both urgent and necessary that the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada should be in a position 
to make a direct purchase of commodities not readily pro- 
curable from the Imperial Army Service. This change entailed 
a considerable increase both in personnel and in machinery, 
as, owing to the fact that the Canadians could not command 
the transport they required, local sources of supply had to be 
discovered and exploited. In addition, of course, it was 
necessary to create a proper system of accounting in order 
that the public funds should be safeguarded, and the Quarter- 
master-General's Inspection Department was established to 
ensure a complete check on all stores and ensure the audit 
of all charges. 

In regard to the Canadian Army Service Corps it may be 
said that its administration has developed with its activities, 
that it has adapted itself to every changing condition and that 
under the present Director of Supply and Transport it has 
reached a pitch of efficiency deserving every credit. 

The Canadian Ordnance Corps has also met every need of 
the Canadian Troops in respect to equipment and stores, and 
under the present Director of Ordnance Services has reached 
a high standard of efficiency. One of the most serious problems 
with which it has had to deal was that of surplus stores. It 
will be seen from the special section devoted to the Canadian 
Ordnance Corps that the sum of £1,097,538 8s. 10d., has been 
reclaimed for the Canadian public funds by the disposal of 
surplus stores alone ; and this amount will be considerably 
augmented by similar transactions of which details cannot be 
given at the moment. 

Other departmental work of the Quartermaster-General's 
Branch was invariably carried on with a view to securing the 
highest possible state of efficiency, and special attention should 
be drawn to the Ocean and Rail Transport Department, which 
has had to deal with many difficulties of transportation, 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 73 

difficulties which were immeasurably increased when the sudden 
cessation of hostilities produced the new problems associated 
with Demobilisation. 

The economies detailed in respect to the operations of the 
Stationery, Printing, and Typewriting Services are worthy of 
attention, and it should be pointed out that these economies 
were largely made possible by the authority to instal an adequate 
printing plant, and to increase the Establishment to a strength 
requisite to the growing needs of the Service. 

Very considerable economies have also resulted from the 
activities of the Salvage Corps. The sales of reclaimed material 
have amounted to $190,000.00 during the ten months of 
the Salvage Corps' activities, while the educational measures 
adopted to prevent wastefulness have, undoubtedly, proved a 
valuable asset not only to the Service as a whole, but to the 
individual soldier. 

CANADIAN ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 

Responsibilities. — The Canadian Army Service Corps is 
administered by the Director of Supply and Transport, whose 
Headquarters are located at Argyll House, London, and whose 
administration and responsibility covers the operations of the 
Canadian Army Service Corps both in England and in France. 
In England the Director of Supply and Transport is directly 
responsible to the Quartermaster-General for the provision 
of Supply and Transport and Barrack Services as required by 
the troops in accordance with Canadian Regulations as they are 
promulgated from time to time. In England, too, in addition 
to the general functions of his appointment, the Director of 
Supply and Transport is responsible for the messing of the 
troops, the administration of the sale of food supplies to soldiers 
and their dependants, and the very considerable business 
connected with the sale of tobacco. 

In France, by reason of the Capitation Agreement with 
the War Office, it is unnecessary for the Canadian Authorities 
to exercise Accountant Control over the Army Service Corps 
issues in the Field. In France, therefore, the main duties of 
the Canadian Army Service Corps centre on the Transport and 
Supply Service in accordance with Army Regulations and the 
various other duties laid down by Superior Military Authority. 

Operations in the Field. — The operations of the Canadian 
Army Service Corps in the Field render it necessary to keep in 



74 Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

close and constant touch with all other Branches of the Service. 
This involves an accurate knowledge of the location of all 
Units being served, as the supply and delivery of food, forage, 
and light supplies are its daily responsibilities to all Units. 
The Army Service Corps Transport must also ensure the Artillery 
its supply of ammunition, the Ordnance Corps its requirements 
of equipment and clothing, and the Engineers' Services their 
supply of material. The evacuation of the sick and wounded, 
the transfer of baggage, salvage, lumber, and other stores, are 
also among the many duties of the Transport Service in the Field. 

While, therefore, the Canadian Army Service Corps retains 
its own effective co-ordination as a working Unit it must, 
necessarily, be attached to each Branch of the Service, and, 
obviously, its operations require the provision and maintenance 
of ample transport facilities, while the necessary repairs to 
hundreds of motor cars, lorries, and vehicles are provided for 
by the Establishment of Mobile Workshops, where wastage is 
reduced to a minimum by the practical work of its Mechanical 
Sections. 

Feeding the Troops in England.— The Canadian Army 
Service Corps obtains supplies from the Imperial Supply Depots 
and from the Army and Navy Canteen Board, and these are 
drawn on a daily ration basis in order to avoid all possible 
waste. 

The feeding of the Canadian Troops on a scientific basis has 
received close and special attention, and every effort has been 
made to secure the best results both dietetically and economi- 
cally. An Inspector of Catering, who is a Dietetic Expert, was 
employed to decide the caloric value of various foods and the 
proper manner in which they should be alternated. A School 
of Cookery was established for the systematic training of men 
in the arts of the cooking best suited to the men's needs both 
in England and in France. In the preparation of Diet Sheets, 
too, technical knowledge has been used in the preparation of 
special dishes, the nutritive qualities of which a careful analysis 
has been made and scheduled. In other ways the range of diet 
provided for under ordinary Military Regulations has been 
very considerably extended. The diet of the Canadian Troops, 
for instance, has been supplemented by frozen fish imported 
direct from Canada, and of this three meals are provided weekly. 
In fact, every possible endeavour has been made to ensure that 
a sufficient quantity, variety, and food value are to be found 




K 



a, 
o 6 

Ho 

c S 
.5 o 

rt CO 

c 
o to 

« c 

Si o 

+■> ^ 

u it 

o £ 



Quarter master -General's Branch. , 75 

in every meal, and the system of inspection employed is a further 
guarantee that the system is satisfactorily carried out. 

The economic advantage resulting from the employment of 
these scientific methods is also notable. The preparation of 
the Diet Sheets in advance furnishes a basis on which exact 
calculations can be made of all food required for immediate 
use and in some cases for future use. In this way it is possible 
not only to forestall emergency prices being charged in the 
markets, but it has also been possible to establish a basis of 
claim for the refund of duty on dutiable supplies as they are 
called for from time to time. By reason of this attention to 
! diet cost and the close scrutiny exercised over the value of the 
different foods used, the average daily cost of the ration issued 
to Canadian Troops in England during the year 1917 was 
14.142d., and during 1918 14.9207d. These figures do not 
take into consideration the value of the duty refunded on 
dutiable commodities, or the amount realised by the sale of 
by-products 

Transport.— Efficiency of transport has rightly been regarded 
I as one of the most necessary requirements of the Service, and 
the following details of the Transport Establishments in France 
! and in England are of interest : — 

In France the Establishment has been based on the Imperial 
scale and consisted mainly of : — 

4 Divisional Trains (Horse Transport). 

2 Army Auxiliary Horse Transport Companies. 

4 Divisional Mechanical Transport Companies. 

1 Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company. 

1 Company 5th Divisional Train. 

5th Divisional Artillery Mechanical Transport Detach- 
ment. 

1 Canadian Army Service Corps Engineer Mechanical 
Transport Company. 

1 Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport Company. 

In England, where up to the time of Demobilisation troops 
were more or less stationary, the scale was naturally not so 
high, although on an average there were about 122,000 troops 
to be served. The original horse transport of the Units in 
England was abandoned in 1916, when the whole service was 
undertaken by the Canadian Army Service Corps, which, 
though from that date it had to serve a steadily increasing 



76 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

number of troops, has by means of careful organisation and 
strict economy, contrived to afford an efficient service with 
transport equipment facilities, which have gradually been 
reduced. 

Barrack Services. — These are divided into two distinct 
divisions as follows : — 

(a) Barrack Equipment ; 

(b) Barrack Consumable Stores. 

Barrack equipment is issued by the Imperial Authorities, 
and of this strict account is kept. 

Consumable barrack stores are the charge of the Canadian 
Army Service Corps, which issues them and accounts for them 
as regular or emergency demands dictate. 

In respect to this latter service it was found that greater 
efficiency and economy could be effected by the modification 
of the regular Army scales and system to modern and practical 
business methods. The Imperial scale of issues was adopted as 
far as practicable, though for certain buildings, used as 
Hospitals and not originally designed for the purpose, special 
allowances are authorised. 

Repayment Issues. — In the spring of 1916 a system of issues 
on repayment to the Canadian Troops and their dependants 
was inaugurated at Shorncliffe. 

This system was gradually extended to all other areas in 
order to provide whatever was urgently required and to assure 
the definite supply of necessaries at the least possible cost. 
Food commodities were sold on the War Office Authorised 
Scale to soldiers living out of barracks, and sales were made to 
dependants on the basis authorised by the Board of Food 
Control. 

In all cases sales were conducted on a cash basis, the local 
representative of the Paymaster-General being responsible to 
the Pay Office, and the General-Auditor being subsequently 
responsible for the audit of all accounts. 

In the autumn of 1917, this system was extended to include 
the sale of tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes. This step was not 
only rendered necessary by the growing shortage of local 
supplies, but was also desirable and advantageous to Canada, 
inasmuch as it provided a market for Canadian manufactured 
goods. It further conferred a boon on the Canadian soldier 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 11 

because not only was he enabled to purchase the brands of 
tobacco and cigarettes he preferred, but he was also enabled 
to effect personal economy because, after somewhat difficult 
negotiations, the Imperial Authorities finally consented to 
permit tobacco supplies for the use of the Canadian Troops to 
enter Britain duty free. 

The appreciation of the Canadian soldier of this measure 
may be gathered from the fact that from the commencement 
of these sales up to December 31, 1918, the value of these 
goods sold for cash amounted to £171,635 12s. 3fd. Further, 
as a reduction of from 50 per cent, to 75 per cent, was effected 
in the cost of the various brands of tobacco as compared with 
the prices which would have had to be paid for similar goods 
purchased locally, a total of $787,000 was saved to the Canadian 
Troops in England during the period specified. It must also 
be remembered that by this means four-fifths of the total 
trade in these commodities was transferred to Canadian 
manufacturers. 

Personnel. — The providing and maintaining of trained 
personnel capable of rendering efficient service in every Branch, 
whether it is isolated or in touch with Supply Centres, are also 
part of the Canadian Army Service Corps' duties in the field, 
and this, to ensure capable and efficient service, entails not 
only the careful selection but the thorough training of picked 
personnel. 

In addition to the training of personnel for France the 
Canadian Army Service Corps is also responsible for providing 
the efficient personnel required for Supply Transport and 
Barrack Services in England. 

The strength of the Canadian Army Service Corps is 
approximately 9,500 of all ranks, including a percentage of 
casualties and " learners " employed in subsidiary Departments. 

Personnel was supplied to the Canadian Formations in 
France in accordance with Authorised Establishments and in 
conformity with the physical standard fixed by the Imperial 
Authorities. 

In addition, an approved number of officers and Other Ranks 
were detailed to the Lines of Communication, thereby coming 
under the Imperial Authorities for duty and discipline. There 
was also maintained in France a small Pool from which all 
Branches of the Canadian Army Service Corps is furnished 
with reinforcements or men required to take the place of 
casualties. 



78 



seas Military Forces of Canada, 



Reinforcements to the Canadian Army Service Corps itself 
have boon obtained latterly from three sources — the Allocation 
Board in England, other Branches of the Service, and from 
other Units in France. 

Details as to the numbers employed according to classifica- 
tion in December, 1918, are as follows : — 





Other 


Officers. 


Ranks. 


158 


5,107 


24 


1,065 


46 


1,301 



With Canadian Corps and Cavalry 
On Lines of Communication 
Remainder in Pool 

The personnel of the Horse Transport in France are all " A " 
Category men owing to the severe character of their duty, but 
as far as possible " B " men are employed in the Mechanical 
Transport, at the Base, and on the Lines of Communication. 
Surplus " A " men have been systematically drafted into 
Infantry Battalions and other Units. 

The administration of the Canadian Army Service Corps 
personnel, which formerly was subdivided, came under the 
entire control of the Director of Supply and Transport in 1917, 
and a complete co-ordination of interests at once took place 
between the personnel in France and England. 

The officers of all Units of the Canadian Army Service Corps 
were thus placed on one Seniority Roll and on an equal footing 
for appointments or promotion. 

The following table will show the relation in numbers of 
the Canadian Army Service Corps to the total force of Canadian 
personnel with the Overseas Military Forces of Canada. These 
figures do not include personnel " on command " from the 
" Pool/' 







Troops in 


C.A.S.C. in 


Troops in 


C.A.S.C. in 


Date. England. 


England. 


France. 


France. 




Off. O. R. 


Off. 


O. R. 


Off. 


O. R. 


Off. I O. R. 

1 


June, 1915 . 


. 


1,981 38,139 


— 




1,203 


20,490 


— 


— 


Dec, 1915 . 




2,275 49,948 


91 


1,539 


2,329 


49,025 


105 


3,150 


June, 1916 . 




4,501 74,166 


191 


3,243 


3,211 


68,487 


135 


4,750 


Dec., 1916 . 




7,786 123,243 


171 


4,026 


4,870 


103,659 


183 


5,325 


June, 1917 . 


. 7,653 119,013 


187 


4,881 


5,333 


128,738 


196 


5,558 


Dec, 1917 . 




7,082 99,756 


179 


4,480 


6,614 


136,388 


187 


5,364 


June, 1918 . 




6,102 96,281 


156 


3,824 


7,330 


155,075 


196 


5,391 


Nov., 1918 . 


. j 6,748 122,260 


133 


3,142 


6,640 


142,898 


222 


5,910 



Quarter master -General' 's Branch. 79 

Of the Canadian Army Service Corps in England during the 
month of December, 1917, 37 officers and 967 other ranks had 
become ineffectives ; in June, 1918, 42 officers and 1,079 other 
ranks were ineffectives, and in November, 1918, 21 officers and 
1,033 other ranks were also ineffectives, which, with 15 officers 
and 399 other ranks in training, left 97 officers and 1,711 other 
ranks to perform the Canadian Army Service Corps' duties in 
England 

Training of Personnel. — There was established at Shorncliffe 
a Canadian Army Service Corps Training Depot, the purpose 
of which was to fit Army Service personnel for service in the 
field. The officers, who were drawn from France, were selected 
on account of their experience and. capacities. It had been 
found that the system of training in the Canadian Army Service 
Corps, both in regard to Horse Transport and Supply and 
Mechanical Transport, differed from that of England and 
France, and the Depot therefore drew up a syllabus and put 
into practical operation the training necessary to standardise 
Canadian Army Service Corps' work at the Front. 

The training of the Horse Transport and Supply included 
riding, driving, drill, guards, musketry, gas, physical training, 
marching, march discipline, sick lines, map reading, field 
kitchens, sanitation duties, discipline, billets, encampments, 
supply in the field, care of supplies, care of horses, harness 
wagons, equipment, Quartermaster's work, barrack regulations, 
pack transport, shoeing, movements by rail, care of bicycles, 
the mule, administration. 

The Mechanical Transport Section were trained in all 
branches of the care and handling of motor vehicles of all 
grades, shop repair work, etc. This course was followed by 
a study of much of the training syllabus laid down for Horse 
Transport and Supply. 

The cadre of Horse Transport and Supply consisted of five 
officers, 15 sergeant-instructors, and 14 other ranks. The 
Mechanical Transport cadre consisted of two officers, 16 
instructors, and four other ranks. 

There were about 300 Other Ranks in constant training in 
each section, making possible a reinforcement of 600 men to 
meet any emergency. 



80 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

CANADIAN ORDNANCE CORPS. 

Organisation. — Ordnance Services are necessary to any 
military organisation for the purpose of providing all arms of 
the service with clothing, rifles, equipment, guns and ammunition, 
and maintaining the supply in accordance with the scales laid 
down. Ordnance is also responsible for the supply of personnel 
to maintain the efficiency of this equipment in the Field, and 
the Ordnance personnel with the Canadian formations in the 
Field was in accordance with War Establishments laid down for 
the British Army. For instance, there was an Ordnance 
Armourer Sergeant with each Battalion, and an Ordnance 
Armament Artificer with each Artillery Brigade. 

x\ll equipment, etc., which becomes unfit for use in the Field 
is returned to the Ordnance Corps, and, as far as possible, 
repaired and again made serviceable. This necessitated skilled 
personnel at the Base or with the more advanced workshops, 
such as the Ordnance Mobile Workshops, which deal with minor 
and ordinary repairs to guns in the Field. 

The personnel of the Ordnance Workshops at the Base 
consists of armourers, wheelwrights, technical instrument 
repairers, tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, etc. The Ordnance 
select these men from other Units and trains them for their 
special duties. 

The Canadian Ordnance Corps, Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada, was inaugurated in the autumn of 1914, and then con- 
sisted of two officers and 30 other ranks of the Permanent Corps, 
who were despatched from Canada with the first Canadian 
Contingent, for the purpose of looking after the ordnance 
requirements of that Contingent, and its first operations were at 
Salisbury Plain. On the departure of the 1st Division for France 
in January, 1915, Ashford (Kent) was selected as the Canadian 
Ordnance Base, for the reason that the Canadian troops at that 
time were concentrated in the Shorncliffe area and Ashford was 
the nearest place offering the necessary facilities. 

With the increase in the numbers of the Canadian troops 
in England, the Ordnance Corps grew until, in August, 1917, 
it consisted of 25 officers and 1,291 Other Ranks. This, the 
maximum strength at any time, was subsequently reduced. 
On December 31, 1918, it totalled 20 officers and 642 Other 
Ranks. 



Quartermaster-General's Branch. 81 

On the Canadian troops taking over the Bramshott and 
Witley areas, it became necessary to open a second Ordnance 
Depot at Liphook to provide for the requirements of these two 
camps. 

Under the system pertaining at that time, Units indented 
for stores direct on the Canadian Ordnance Depots either at 
Ashford or Liphook, which resulted in most cases in the accumu- 
lation of very large reserve stocks within the Unit. This 
continued until April, 1917, when it was decided to open a 
small Ordnance Depot to handle clothing, equipment and 
regimental necessaries in each area, and to withdraw the 
excessive stocks from individual Units. The advantages 
derived from this were : — 

1. The carrying of large stocks by individual Units was 
eliminated, thereby preventing the accumulation of 
dead stock. 

2. Difficulties hitherto experienced in equipping drafts 
for overseas at short notice were obviated. 

3. The financial responsibility of Officers Commanding 
Units was considerably reduced. 

4. Wastage in Units was controlled by the presence of 
an Ordnance Officer in the area. 

Ordnance Inspection Department. — Numerous difficulties 
arose and considerable wastage was apparent as the result of 
lack of knowledge on the part of quartermasters of proper 
accounting, chiefly due to the fact that they had never had any 
proper military education or instruction in their duties. To 
overcome this state of affairs and establish a uniform system, 
the Ordnance Inspection Department was organised to keep a 
close supervision on all indents and quartermasters' accounts. 

In the first year of the activities of this Department, 
economies were effected to the extent of a reduction of approxi- 
mately 60 per cent, on the issue of Ordnance to Units. Sub- 
sequently this Department was extended to cover all the 
services of the Quartermaster-General's Branch, including 
supplies and mechanical transport, and is now known as the 
Quartermaster-General's Inspection Department. A separate 
report on the work of this Department is given later. 

(642) G 



82 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Surplus Stores. — For urgent reasons contingent on the 
speedy fitting out of troops for the Field it became necessary 
from time to time to draw equipment from the Imperial 
Authorities. These measures of Military expediency unavoid- 
ably resulted in the accumulation of stores of Canadian origin 
at the Ashford Depot. This accumulation was also in part the 
result of an agreement entered into between the Canadian and 
Imperial Governments whereby the Imperial Government 
became solely responsible for providing accommodation and 
equipment for the Canadian Hospitals and all Canadian Troops 
in England. The surplus of stores was also added to by a further 
arrangement whereby the Imperial Government agreed to 
maintain the clothing and equipment of the Canadian personnel 
in France at a per capita rate. 

It was, therefore, recommended by the Quartermaster- 
General's Branch and approved by the Minister that all surplus 
equipment should be disposed of to the Imperial and Allied 
Forces, especially having regard to the fact that none of the 
surplus stores could be disposed of in Canada. 

5th Divisional Equipment. — On the demobilisation of the 
5th Canadian Division, negotiations were entered into with the 
Imperial Authorities with a view to their purchasing the vehicles 
and other mobilisation stores with which the Division had been 
equipped. At the outset the Imperial Authorities offered 95 per 
cent, of the cost price of Machine Guns and 75 per cent, of the 
cost price of other stores. This was not considered acceptable, 
and therefore it was arranged that the articles in question should 
be taken over at a price to be assessed according to the condition 
they were in. An Inspection was then carried out by the Chief 
Ordnance Officer and a Representative of the Army Ordnance 
Department., with the result that upwards of 50 per cent, of the 
articles were taken over at their full value, while the remainder 
were assessed at three-quarter value, with the exception of a very 
small percentage which were in bad condition and for which only 
a proportionate price was obtainable. 

In view of the fact that these stores had been in use for training 
purposes in the 5th Division for over 12 months the terms obtained 
were considered most advantageous, particularly having regard to 
the fact that the stores were only useful for military purposes and 
of no general commercial value. 

Hospitals. — Under the financial agreement between the 
Canadian and Imperial Authorities, the Imperial Authorities were 
responsible for the supply of Hospital accommodation for Canadian 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 83 

troops in England. This led to considerable difficulty as some 
hospitals had been taken over by the Canadian Authorities before 
the agreement was arrived at. These matters, however, have now 
all been settled by a claim being put in against the Imperial 
Authorities for the value of the stores issued by the Canadian 
Authorities to these Hospitals. 

This refers to all Hospitals in England, with the exception of 
the Park Pre wet t Hospital at Basingstoke, which was taken over 
from the Imperials on March 17, 1917, on the authority of the 
Acting Minister at that time. It was equipped and is still main- 
tained at Canadian expense. 

Part Worn Clothing. — The Imperial Government laid down 
the policy that all part-worn woollen clothing should be turned 
into the Imperial Salvage Department, for the purpose of being 
again used by the Army instead of being sold to contractors and 
dealers as had hitherto been the case. While the disposal of 
part-worn clothing to contractors brought a larger financial 
return, it was, on the other hand, quite clear that the wool was 
being used for unauthorised purposes, and as the requirements of 
the Army as a whole were an Imperial necessity, the following 
agreement was entered into with the War Office : — 

1. The conditioning of clothing returned from troops to be 
carried out by the Canadian Ordnance and divided into 
(a) Unserviceable ; (b) Fit for further use after cleaning 
and repair. 

2. The following ration prices to be allowed : Jackets, 74s. ; 
Trousers, 84s. ; Greatcoats, 60s. ; Pantaloons, 66s. ; 
Puttees, 70s. ; Shirts (woollen), 60s. ; Shirts (flannel), 
60s. ; Drawers (woollen), 60s. ; Socks (mixed), 100s. ; 
Socks (G.S.), 120s. ; Socks (steel), 100s. ; Cardigans, 
120s. ; per cwt. 

3. 40 per cent, of the full value (Dominion Vocabulary 
Rates) to be allowed for articles fit for further wear. 

4. No deductions to be made for working purposes and no 
charges for railage. 

During the year, 1918, £52,025 3s. 2d. has been realised from 
sales of part-worn clothing. 

Closing of the Ashford Depot. — It became latterly increasingly 

apparent that for various economic reasons the Ashford Depot 

should be closed. In August, 1918, therefore, the Minister 

communicated with the British Secretary of State for War, 

642) G 2 



84 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

pointing out that it was considered there was duplication of 
effort and a wastage of space by holding clothing and general 
stores for the Canadian troops in the British Isles separate from 
those of the Imperial Forces. It was suggested that as the 
buildings occupied by the Canadian Ordnance Stores at Ashford 
were provided at Imperial expense that their occupation should 
be resumed by the Imperial Authorities, and that the stores 
contained therein be transferred at a valuation to be agreed on. 
It was further pointed out that as the articles in question were 
standardised with similar stores of Imperial issue it was not 
expected that any difficulty would arise in this connection, and 
further that this arrangement would relieve the transportation 
situation as the tonnage employed in importing some of the 
stores from Canada could be diverted to more essential war 
requirements, such as the conveyance of food. In addition such 
an arrangement would enable the Canadian Military Organisa- 
tion to release 500 or 600 men to the Fighting Forces. 

The Imperial Authorities finally agreed to the proposal as 
outlined by the Minister, and the economic advantage may be 
appreciated when it is realised that the transaction involved 
several millions of dollars in relation to stores which were only 
useful for war purposes and had little commercial value. This 
advantage was emphasised by the abrupt cessation of hostilities, 
as the Imperial Authorities are taking over the major portion of 
the stores, thus saving the Canadian Government the expense 
which would otherwise have been involved in re-shipping them 
and finding them accommodation in Canada. Any Stores which 
could not be taken over by the Imperial Government have been 
disposed of in the open market b}^ Auction Sale under the 
direction of the Disposal Board, whose operations are dealt with 
under a separate section. 

Officers' Repayment Store. — Owing to the continuous increase 
in the price of officers' clothing and equipment, an application 
was made to the Minister for permission to open an Officers' 
Repayment Clothing Store for the purpose of supplying officers' 
requirements. Approval was given for an advance of £5,000 
from public funds for the purpose of securing the necessary 
stock, and it was agreed that officers should be charged 5 per 
cent, over cost price on all purchases. 

The Repayment Store was opened on May 22, 1918, and 
the following statement of sales is ample testimony of the 
success of the enterprise and the extent to which it has benefited 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 



85 



Canadian officers and cadets both in England and in France. 
The only difficulty has been to obtain sufficient stock to meet 
the demand. 



Statement of 


Sales 


£ s. d. 


May 


248 6 9 


June 






1,878 19 


July -. 






3,050 8 9 


August 






6,262 4 3 


September . 






11,468 18 11 


October 






12,447 8 9 


November 






7,974 8 11 


December 






11,801 1 10 



Total 



/55.131 17 2 



QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 



INSPECTION 



The inauguration of this Department is referred to in that 
part of the Report on the Quartermaster-General's Branch 
which deals with the Canadian Ordnance Corps, as the Depart- 
ment was formed primarily to look after Ordnance Services. 

In view of the satisfactory results achieved its operations 
were extended in May, 1918, to cover all departments of the 
Quartermaster-General's Branch, and its administration was 
accordingly transferred from the Canadian Ordnance Corps 
to the Quartermaster-General. 

Previous to this time, Canadian Army Service Corps matters 
were taken care of by an Investigation Department, and other 
Branches of the Service conducted their own internal checks. 

The authorised establishment of the Quartermaster General's 
Inspection Department allows for 15 officers, 58 other ranks, 
and two civilian stenographers, but the work has been carried 
on, so far, by 12 officers, one stenographer, and the full com- 
plement of other ranks. With the consolidation of inspectional 
work and stores audits under one head, a saving of personnel 
was effected almost equal to the entire establishment of this 
Department, a total of 14 officers, 53 other ranks, and two 
civilians being released. 

Apart from this reduction of personnel, the advantages of 
having a uniform system of accounting for all services controlled 



86 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

by one head, soon became apparent ; and the difficulties which 
had formerly arisen through conflict of orders were overcome. 

The principal duties carried out by this Department are 
as follows : — 

1. Periodical stocking and stores audit of all Ordnance 
and Mechanical Transport Stores, Supplies, Barrack 
Equipment, etc., held by Units and Depots, Hospitals, 
and Hospital Ships. 

2. Final audits and closing out of stores accounts of 
Units on absorption or depletion. 

3. Checking up of stores on transfers of Commands. 

4. Checking of all indents from Units, and investigation 
into and recommendations regarding any stores 
demanded over authorised scale. 

5. Adjustment of any irregularities in connection with 
issues, consumption, misappropriation of ordnance and 
other stores. 

6. Boards of Survey on and final recommendations as to 

disposal of accumulations of unserviceable stores. 

7. Inspection of equipment ; all drafts arriving from 
Canada, completion of their equipment to scale ; and 
preparation of Clothing Form D.O.S.2 for each man. 

The results of the work of this Department have been most 
gratifying, and have been fully appreciated by Unit Commanders 
asJVgreat protection to them as well as to the Canadian public. 

OCEAN AND RAIL TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT. 

The officer in charge of Ocean and Rail Transport is respon- 
sible to the Quartermaster-General : — 

1. For the procuring of proper and suitable ships for the 
transportation of Canadian personnel and their 
dependants from England to Canada. 

2. For the shipment of Canadian Government Stores 
and material from England to Canada. 

3. For the clearance of all such stores received from 
Canada. 

4. For Rail Transport in the British Isles of all Canadian 
personnel and freight. 

Prior to the creation of this Department all embarkation 
responsibilities had come under the Adjutant-General's Branch. 
The change was made for the reason that transportation 



Quartermaster-General's Branch. 87 

is essentially a function of the Quartermaster-General, and 
the consolidation of this work under one head allowed of a 
considerable reduction in the staff of the Adjutant-General's 
Branch. 

All shipping is under the direct control of the Ministry of 
Shipping Department of the Imperial Government, and all 
Military Railways in the British Isles are under the control 
of the Director-General of Movements at the War Office. It 
was therefore obvious that there should be the closest 
co-operation between the Canadian Ocean and Rail Transport 
Department and the two Imperial Departments above named, 
and since the creation of the Ocean and Rail Transport Depart- 
ment, relations with the corresponding British Departments 
have been most satisfactory and beneficial. 

Ocean transportation has been most difficult to handle 
owing to submarine warfare, strikes, shortage of labour, and 
various other conditions contingent on times of war. During 
the year 1918, 4,245 officers and 47,927 other ranks were 
returned to Canada, as well as 13,306 civilians, all of whom 
arrived safety at their destination, with the exception of those 
involved in the loss of the hospital ship " Llandovery Castle/' 
which is dealt with under the Section devoted to the Canadian 
A*my Medical Service. 

Railway Transportation has been a most difficult problem 
owing to the shortage of rolling stock and labour, and because 
in addition to the returning of troops who had to be carried 
to their various points of embarkation, the Department has 
also had to provide railway transportation for all troops 
arriving in this country. 

The number of railway warrants issued during the year 
1918 was 310,795, for the accommodation of 419,390 persons, 
and covering a mileage of 102,815,532. The approximate 
amount of freight handled by this Department on the railway 
during the year was 15,825 tons. 

CANADIAN POSTAL CORPS. 

The Canadian Postal Corps, Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada, was organised for the purpose of dealing with all postal 
arrangements for the Canadian Overseas Military Forces, both 
in England and in France. 



88 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In France the Canadian Postal Units were in accordance 
with the War Establishment laid down for Postal Services with 
Units in the Field, while in England the Postal Corps is so 
organised as to perform the necessary postal duties in an 
efficient and economical manner, the establishment earning in 
accordance with the number of troops to be served. 

On December 31, 1918, the strengtli in England was : — 
Officers, 7 ; other ranks, 174 ; and in France — officers, 7 ; 
other ranks, 148. 

All mails for the Canadian troops in the Field, whether 
from Canada or other sources, are first handled by the Canadian 
Postal Corps in London, and eventually placed in bags 
addressed to the various Units. The Canadian Postal Corps 
in France thus carried on the work of distribution. In England, 
a Postal Section is located in each area for the handling of 
both incoming and outgoing mails. 

The Postal Service in France and in England has been most 
efficient throughout the war, and maintained a full general postal 
business in the handling of registered letters, ordinary letters 
and parcels, and the sale of stamps, money orders, etc., as well 
as the considerable undertaking of the re-directing of mails. 

This mail is handled by the Canadian Postal Corps from the 
time of its receipt in England until it is delivered to the Regi- 
mental Mail Orderly of the Unit in the Line. 

The following is a short summary of the mail handled by the 
Canadian Postal Corps during 1918 : — 

Bags. 
Letters and News Mail received, all Areas . . 102,261 

Parcels Mail 351,815 

Letters, News and Parcels despatched . . 659,412 

Total number of registered items handled . . 433,600 

Bags average 56 lbs. in weight and represent the following : — 

Letters 68,174,000 

Newspapers 10,226,100 

Parcels 5,332,670 

Registered 433,600 



Total items .. .. .. 85,166,370 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 89 

CANADIAN ARMY VETERINARY CORPS. 

The Canadian Army Veterinary Corps Overseas is reponsible 
for the supply and maintenance of the veterinary personnel 
required for the Canadian troops, both in England and in France, 
as laid down by War Establishments. 

The War Establishments of the Canadian Army Veterinary 
Corps in France now call for 72 officers and 756 other ranks. 
These officers are responsible for the health and care of the 24,000 
horses employed in the various Canadian Units in France, and 
include the staff of the Veterinary Hospital at the Base, which 
consists of the nine officers and 467 other ranks needed for the 
care of upwards of 1,250 sick horses. 

In the early days of the Veterinary Services the headquarters 
of this Corps consisted of a Director General of Veterinary 
Services and Remounts, with two assistants and a sub-staff of 
three military clerks and one stenographer. 

In England at that time, in addition to the Veterinary per- 
sonnel required to look after the horses, there were a Veterinary 
Hospital employing five officers and 154 other ranks, and a 
Veterinary and Farriers' School employing two officers and 19 
other ranks. 

In 1918 it was decided to reorganise the Veterinary Services 
and an officer with overseas experience was brought back from 
France and appointed Director of Veterinary Services, with a 
sub-staff of two military clerks. 

The Canadian Hospital in England was completely done 
away with, as was also the School of Farriery, arrangements 
being made with the Imperial Authorities for all sick animals to 
be evacuated to Imperial hospitals. 

It was further arranged for the British Army Veterinary 
School to be used for the training of Canadian Veterinary per- 
sonnel for duty with the Units both in England and in France. 

The handling of Remounts by the Canadian Army Veterinary 
Corps was also done away with, and Remounts drawn direct 
from the Imperial Authorities as they were required. 

These arrangements resulted in greatly reducing the expense 
of the Canadian Veterinary organisation, while its efficiency was 
rather enhanced than impaired. The Canadian Army Veterinary 
Corps has, indeed, successfully carried out all the duties which 
it has been called upon to perform, and, in proportion to the 



90 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

number of horses, the wastage in the Canadian Corps has been 
of a considerably less percentage than that in the British Army. 

PRINTING, STATIONERY AND TYPEWRITER SERVICES. 

When Canadian Troops first arrived in England, Stationery 
requirements were purchased from manufacturers direct by Units 
and Departments out of their Imprest Accounts and, even on the 
formation of a Stationery Purchasing Office, certain commodities 
of this description were still so obtained. 

In November, 1915, however, larger warehousing premises 
were obtained in London and all standard stationery supplies 
obtained through the Imperial Authorities at the controlled price, 
a step which greatly lessened this expenditure. Sub-Stationery 
Depots were opened in the Areas as a means of distribution. 

The Stationery Supply Depot came under the administration 
of the Quartermaster-General in August, 1916, when the whole 
of the methods of the operations of this section were investigated 
and new systems put into force, with a view to keeping a close 
check on all purchases and supplies and reducing expenditure on 
stationery requisites to a minimum. 

In October, 1917, the Typewriter Inspection Branch, which 
had been in existence since October, 1916, under the administra- 
tion of the Director of Recruiting and Organisation, was 
amalgamated with the Stationery Services, and the redistribution 
of work permitted of a reduction in strength of these two Depart- 
ments of one officer and seven other ranks. 

In view of the large volume of printing which had to be placed 
with private firms, the delay in securing deliveries and the heavy 
and ever-increasing cost of this work, a recommendation was made 
by the officer in charge of the Stationery and Typewriter Services, 
to instal a printing plant. A small Printing Press, which was 
formerly used by the Catering Department for the printing of 
Diet Sheets only, was therefore handed over to the Stationery and 
Typewriter Services. The machine so acquired could print forms 
up to a size of 11| in. by 17 in. 

In August, 1918, in order to undertake the printing of 
Headquarters' Canadian Routine Orders and to cope with all 
other printing required by the Canadian Overseas Military 
Forces, a double demy Printing Press and Power Paper Cutting 
Machine were installed at a cost of £420. This expenditure 
was amply justified as the saving on the printing of Headquarters 
Canadian Routine Orders alone amounted to over £2,600 a year 



Quartermaster-General's Branch. 91 

The following statement shows the present printing press, 
together with the number of forms printed and staff employed : — 

Plant. Forms. Staff. 

4 Multigraph Machines and 2 Type- 
setters (Jan. to Dec., 1918) . . 

1 Small Haddon Safety Press 

1 Double Demy Bremner Printing 
Press (Aug. to Dec, 1918) . . 

1 Ruling Machine (Feb. to Dec.) . . 

1 Greig Power Paper Cutter 

1 Wire Stitching Machine 

1 Multiple Punching Machine 

1 Perforating Machine 

Jogging, Collating, Padding, etc. 

Complete Compositors' equipment 



40,317,564 


5 men 


3,765,465 


1 man. 


2,534,472 


1 girl, 1 man. 


1,447,120 


1 man, 1 girl. 


— 


1 man. 


— 


2 girls. 


— 


2 girls. 


— 


2 girls. 


— 


2 girls. 




2 men 


48,064,621 


17 men, 4 girls 



Prior to the installation of a printing plant in London, and as 
a result of the large quantities of stationery, etc., drawn from the 
Imperial Authorities, an arrangement w T as arrived at with the 
War Office in 1915 for this business to be dealt with on a per 
capita basis of Is. 6d. per man per quarter. Owing, however, to 
the subsequent higher cost of material and production, the amount 
had to be increased to Is. 9d. in 1916, and 2s. in 1917. In 1918 
the War Office submitted a claim based on the foregoing scales, 
the claim covering the period from October, 1914, to March, 1917, 
and amounting to $269,980.00. It was then pointed out to the 
War Office that a number of Imperial Army Books and Forms 
were not suited to Canadian uses, and as the War Office figures 
were based on a supply of all forms, application was made for a 
rebate of 50 per cent. This was eventually agreed to, and the 
War Office claim was finally passed for $134,999.00. Following 
this, arrangements were made whereby, commencing January, 
1918, monthly accounts should be rendered for supplies so obtained. 

The saving effected by the installation of this printing plant is 
very apparent. During 1917 disbursements to Contractors for 
printing, etc., amounted to £18,322 8s. 7d., whereas, during 1918 
only necessary items such as rubber stamps, cheques, pay books, 
stereos, etc., were obtained on the open market, at the cost of 
£6,158 19s. 2d.— a difference of £12,163 9s. 5d. in one year— 
notwithstanding the fact that the quantity of printing required 



92 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

during 1918 was 50 per cent, over that supplied during 1917, and 
that printing prices had increased 125 per cent, on the open 
market over pre-war prices. 

In view, too, of the shortage of paper the strictest economy has 
been necessary and stocks held by Units and Stationery Sub- 
Depots were reviewed and surpluses withdrawn. As a result, 
approximately 30 tons of stationery were returned to the Imperial 
Authorities and credit obtained therefor. " Dead " corres- 
pondence files and obsolete forms were cut to correct dimensions 
and used for carbon copy work, small forms, etc. Inter- 
departmental forms were reviewed and standardised to meet all 
requirements and others eliminated, and "cut-offs" from printing 
work utilised for scribbling pads, etc. Apart from relieving the 
stationery situation, it is estimated that these measures effected 

a saving during the year, 1918, of over £2,000. 

■ 

The care of and accounting for typewriters form no small part 
of the work of this Department. There is a staff of skilled type- 
writer mechanics in London and in each Area, and machines on 
charge to Units and Departments are inspected monthly. Any 
necessary small repairs and adjustments are also carried out and 
machines are withdrawn for thorough overhaul when necessary. 
In this way the life of the machine is preserved and the maximum 
efficiency obtained. 

On the transfer of the administration of the Printing, Stationery 
and Typewriter Services to the Quartermaster-General, the whole 
typewriter situation was carefully gone into, with the result that 
a large number of machines not in full use by Units and Depart- 
ments were withdrawn and a general re-distribution made. By 
this means the following reductions were made possible : — 87 
Underwoods, on hire at a rental of 12s. 6d. per month,were returned 
to their owners ; 160 typewriters, issued on repayment by the 
War Office in 1915 and 1916, were remodelled and returned in 
such good running order that they were taken back without any 
charge being made for the time they had been in use by the 
Canadians ; and 150 surplus typewriters and 48 duplicators were 
disposed of on the open market at prices considerably above the 
original cost to the Canadian public. 

At the present moment there are 1,161 typewriters and 173 
duplicators on charge in England, and 237 typewriters and 39 
duplicators have been issued to Canadian Units in France. 

The total personnel of the Printing, Stationery, and Typewriter 
Services at the end of 1918 was 2 officers and 40 other ranks. 



Quartermaster-General's Branch. 93 

CANADIAN SALVAGE. 

On the introduction of the varied ration into Canadian 
Camps in England, a Canadian Salvage Company was in- 
augurated for the purpose of handling by-products. It was 
administered at that time by the Inspector of Army Catering. 

Later it became an independent Unit, under the Director of 
Supplies and Transport, and its scope was extended over the 
collection, conservation and disposal of all by-products 
attendant on the Supply and Transport Services. 

Finally, owing to economies effected by the successful 
work of the Salvage Company, its operations were further 
extended to all Branches of the Quartermaster-General's 
services, and the administration accordingly transferred to the 
Quartermaster-General. It then became known as the Salvage 
Department, Q.M.G., and a Salvage Section was established in 
each Canadian Area and a Salvage Officer appointed on each 
Area Headquarters. The personnel employed consisted of 
fatigue parties drawn daily from the various Regimental 
Depots, together with a small permanent fatigue party composed 
of men with the necessary training to supervise the sorting 
and grading of the various articles salvaged. 

Inasmuch as London offered the best market for the sale 
of scrap material, a Central Salvage Yard was opened at once 
in order that articles from the Areas which could not be disposed 
of advantageously locally could be centralised and disposed of 
in bulk to the contractors. This Yard is also used for the display 
of samples and the technical training of salvage personnel. 

On September 1, 1918, the Canadian Salvage Depart- 
ment was merged into the Canadian Salvage Corps, with 
Headquarters in London and a definite establishment in each 
Canadian Area. This course was necessary in order that the 
personnel could be permanently employed and initiated fully 
into their duties. Apart, too, from greatly increasing the 
efficiency of salvage operations, it allowed of a decrease in the 
personnel employed. Under the old organisation, in the six 
Canadian Areas which were then in operation, the average 
number employed was five officers and 140 other ranks, whereas 
with the permanent organisation, the same work is carried out 
in eight Areas with only six officers and 53 other ranks. 

Among the various salvaged commodities, for the super- 
vision, collection, conservation, and disposal or storage of which 
the Canadian Salvage Corps is responsible, can be enumerated 



94 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

the following : — Fish Barrels and Boxes, Rags, Bandages, 
Boxes of various descriptions, Bottles, Meat Wrappers, Jars, 
Tailors' Clippings, Crocks, Horseshoes, Lumber, Lead, Manure, 
Cupro-Nickel, Paper, Brass, Bakery-Sweepings, Horsehair, 
Horse Hides, Rubber, Rabbit Skins, Straw, Tea Chests, Hoof 
Parings, Bones, Corks, Dripping, Cracklings, Rope, Trap 
Grease, Tin, Ashes, Wax, Sacking, Mechanical Transport 
Equipment, Swill, etc. 

These waste materials are centralised in a Salvage Dump in 
each Area and carefully sorted and graded in order that the 
best possible prices may be obtained. A close supervision is 
kept on Units to prevent any misappropriation of Government 
equipment and the leaving of surplus equipment in the lines 
exposed to weather conditions. This results in appreciable 
saving by the conservation of Army Stores, and the cleanliness 
of the Camps is thereby enhanced. 

In the sorting of the various commodities, the requirements 
of each Branch of the Service are considered, in order that 
only such articles should be discarded as Salvage as can be 
put to no further military use. 

During the period January 1 to October 31, 1918, the total 
proceeds of sales of waste materials amounted to $190,510.12 
(an average of $19,051.00 per month). 

CANADIAN ENGINEERING SERVICES. 

The Canadian Engineering Services in England are distinct 
from the Canadian Engineering Training Depot, the latter 
being employed exclusively for the training of engineer reinforce- 
ments for France. 

The Canadian Engineer Services have no authorised 
establishment, with the exception of the London Headquarters 
and permanent staffs in hospitals, all working squads being 
furnished by Units as required, the majority being borrowed 
from the Engineer Training Depot. 

Their duties made them responsible for the provision and 
maintenance of accommodation required by the Canadian 
troops in England, and is the business of the Officer in Charge 
of this Department to see that Canadian interests are pro- 
tected, that buildings are properly maintained and that all 
. regulations concerning the same are complied with. 

Accommodation for the Canadian Forces in England is 
primarily the responsibility of the Imperial Government, but 
in the early stages of the War certain buildings were so urgently 



Quartermaster-General' s Branch. 95 

required by the Canadian Authorities that it was necessary 
to take them over without the delay which must have occurred 
pending a formal agreement with the British War Office. In 
1915, for instance, it had become necessary to take over several 
hospitals at the expense of the Canadian Government. The 
actual rental charge of these hospitals to the Canadian funds 
was, approximately, £7,570 per annum, with rates and taxes 
amounting to £2,500. The alterations and installations carried 
out by the Engineer Services amounted to, approximately, 
£7,000. 

By the end of 1918 the claim of the Canadian Government 
against the Imperial Authorities for accommodation and 
installations in London amounted to £63,768 2s. 9d. The 
Canadian Overseas Ministry had for some time been pressing for 
an adjustment and finally, after several conferences, the Imperial 
Government agreed to accept full financial responsibility for 
all premises in England occupied by the Canadian Troops and 
Services, and further, to make a refund on a basis which, in 
view of all the circumstances, was regarded as both equitable 
and satisfactory. 

Since October 1, 1918, the Imperial Authorities have 
acknowledged the principle that all accommodation for 
Canadians in the British Isles should be the sole charge of the 
Imperial Government, and have accepted the responsibility for 
same. 

Altogether the work of the Canadian Engineer Services has 
been the means of a large saving of expenditure to Canadian 
funds, and, by careful inspection and necessary repairs to the 
buildings occupied, will prevent large damage claims being 
preferred against the Canadian Government on the evacuation 
of such premises. 

QUARTERMASTER -GENERAL'S BOARD OF OFFICERS 

The original Board of Officers on Quartermasters' Stores 
(comprising six officers) was organised on January 27, 1917, and 
dealt mainly with the affairs of Units arriving from Canada 
which were depleted and absorbed on this side. 

On September 23, 1917, the old Board was disbanded and 
the present one, consisting of two officers (additional members 
being detailed as required), was established. 

This Board deals with deficiencies disclosed by the periodical 
and final inspections carried out by the Quartermaster-General's 



96 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Inspection Department on Quartermasters' and Barrack Stores 
in all Areas and hospitals in England. All available evidence 
is taken from all concerned in connection with such shortages, 
which is given careful consideration by the Board, and recom- 
mendations as to adjustment submitted to the Quartermaster- 
General for concurrence and final action. 

This manner of dealing with deficiencies in Quartermasters' 
Stores has many advantages, such as : — 

1. The holding of Brigade and Divisional Boards is 
rendered unnecessary, and much time and money 
thereby saved to the Government. 

2. All Units are dealt with on the same basis. 

3. Prompt adjustment can be made so that clearances 
may be granted Commanding Officers required for other 
duties. 

4. Commanding Officers, as well as the public, are given 
every protection, as they have an opportunity of 
furnishing explanations concerning deficiencies. 

5. Inefficiency in conduct of Quartermasters' Depart- 
ments is brought to light and remedial action taken. 

6. In instances of changes of command (or Quarter 
masters) any necessary charges for deficiencies against 
the retiring Commanding Officer can be promptly 
made and the incoming Commanding Officer starts 
with a clean sheet. 

WAR TROPHIES. 

It was agreed, as a matter of general policy between the 
Imperial Government and the Governments of the various 
Dominions, that War Trophies captured by the troops of the 
different Dominions should ultimately become the property of 
their respective Governments. The Imperial War Trophy 
Committee was appointed to deal with all matters concerning 
trophies captured from the enemy, and on July 11, 1917, 
Sir George Perley arranged for Colonel K. C. Folger, D.S.O., 
to be the representative of the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada on this body. Colonel Folger has continued to look 
after the interests of Canada until the present time. 

The system employed in handling War Trophies is briefly as 
follows : — 

All Trophies captured are labelled on the Field and turned into 
the Ordnance Department in the Field, which ships them to the 



Quarter master -General's Branch. 97 

Ordnance Base in France. The Trophies are then shipped to 
England to the Imperial Ordnance War Trophies Depot, situated 
at West Croydon. In addition to labelling the Trophy, the Unit 
responsible for its capture must put in an application for it to be 
allocated to them. The claim for the Trophy is investigated at 
the War Office, and, if it is substantiated, Colonel Folger receives 
notification that the Trophy in question has been allocated to the 
Unit concerned. 

In accordance with existing regulations, no captured article 
can be considered a Trophy until after it has been examined by 
experts at Croydon, who decide whether or not it can be used in 
action against the enemy or whether it is required for experimental 
or instructional purposes. If the trophy is considered to be of no 
further use for War purposes, it may then be disposed of as the 
representative of the claimant desires. Several Canadian Trophies, 
such as small Field Guns and Machine Guns, have been taken over 
for the use of the British Navy for Coast Defence purposes use 
on Trawlers, etc. Should these vessels be available at the end 
of the War, the articles claimed as trophies will revert to the 
Canadian Authorities. A typical illustration of how this method 
works may be cited in the case of the field guns captured by 
the Canadians from the Germans at Vimy. In the ordinary 
course of events these guns might have been regarded as trophies, 
but military necessity required that they should be turned upon 
the enemy at the time, and they were consistently used against 
the enemy up to the date of the Armistice. 

Shipments of War Trophies to Canada have been made from 
time to time during the past 18 months as sufficient quantities 
became available to justify a shipment, and this transport will be 
continued until all Canadian Trophies have been transported to 
the Dominions. Up to February 28, 1919, the War Trophies 
shipped to Canada were as follows :— 

Machine Guns 239 



Field Guns . . 
Howitzers . . 
Mortars 
Miscellaneous 



32 

9 

129 

356 



(642) H 



99 



CANADIAN CORPS OPERATIONS. 

Synopsis : Interim Report. 

The following interim report covering the operations of 
the Canadian Corps during the year 1918 is submitted by 
Lieut. -Gen. Sir A. W. Currie, G.O.C., Canadian Corps. 

For convenience, this report divides the year into arbitrary 
periods of unequal length extending respectively from : — 

PART I. :— January 1 to March 21. 
March 21 to May 7. 
May 7 to July 15. 

PART II. :— July 15 to November 11. 

PART III. ; — November 11 to December, 1918. 

It is intended to supplement this report at the earliest 
possible moment and to give a detailed narrative of the 
operations of the Corps during the period extending from 
July 15, 1918, to November 11, 1918, on which date hostilities 
terminated. 



(642) H 2 



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101 



Interim Report on the Operations 

of the Canadian Corps during the 

Year 1918. 

PART I. 
1st Period. January 1 to March 21. 

Disposition. — After the Battle of Passchendaele the Canadian 
Corps returned to the Vimy Sector and settled down to the 
routine of trench warfare — the front held on January 1 extended 
from Acheville to Loos (both inclusive), a total length of approx- 
imately 13,000 yards. 

In order to allow the Divisions to absorb more quickly 
the fresh drafts newly received and to make rapid headway 
with the training of the officers and N.C.O's, it was my 
intention to hold the Corps front during the winter with two 
Divisions in the line and to keep two Divisions resting and 
training in reserve. 

The pressure of circumstances and the large amount 
of defensive work to be done caused me to deviate from the 
original intention, and the normal dispositions adopted through- 
out the winter were as follows : — 

In the line — Two Divisions on a two-Brigade front, 
and one Division on a one-Brigade front. 

In reserve — Training and resting, one Division. 

In this way the four Canadian Divisions had each approxi- 
mately one month out of the line, and in addition they had the 
opportunity of doing a certain amount of training by Brigades 
when in the line. 



102 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



The table hereunder gives the disposition of the Divisions 
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SKE TCH SHOWING SECTORS HELD BY 

j^T CANADIAN CORPS 

PL ! JAN l 5t ~ MAR 24-Q 1918. 




Corps Operations. 103 

Organisation. — With the disappearance of the Russian front 
it was easily foreseen that the Germans would be able to turn 
the bulk of their forces against the Allies on the Western front, 
and that their resources in men and material would be such 
that our power of resistance would be severefy tried. 

In order to prepare for the coming test, and with the lessons 
of previous righting fresh in my mind, it was resolved that 
every effort should be made to bring the Corps to the highest 
possible fighting efficiency. 

This I undertook to do in consultation with the Divisional 
Commanders and the heads of the various arms, services and 
branches, by eliminating, as far as was in my power, everything 
which was not conducive to efficiency in administration, 
training or fighting. 

Lessons from previous fighting had shown that certain 
branches of the service should be strengthened and reorganised. 
The Engineers and Machine Guns in particular were not able 
to accomplish their tasks in battle without drawing heavily 
on the Infantry for additional personnel — the more severe the 
battle, the more severe were the losses suffered by the Infantry, 
and at the same time the more men required by the Engineers 
and Machine Guns. 

This diversion of the fighting strength of the Infantry to 
meet the needs of the Engineers and of the Machine Guns, 
and the interference for the same reason with the training or 
resting of Infantry Battalions when out of the line, was most 
unsatisfactory. 

I submitted, therefore, proposals which were designed to 
give sufficient personnel to these services, and which would 
stop the drain on the Infantry. 

At this time the British Army was undergoing far-reaching 
alterations in its organisation. The situation as regards 
man-power appeared to be such that, in order to maintain in 
the field the same number of Divisions, it was necessary to 
reorganise the Infantry Brigades from a four-battalion basis 
to a three-battalion basis. Other changes of less importance 
were also taking place. 

Although the situation of the Canadians regarding reinforce- 
ments appeared to be satisfactory so long as the number of 
Divisions in the field was not increased, a proposal was made to 
adopt an organisation similar to the British, that is, to reduce 
the number of Battalions in the Canadian Infantry Brigades 
from four to three. 



104 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Concurrently with this change, it was proposed to increase 
the number of Canadian Divisions in the field from four to six. 

I did not think that this proposal was warranted hy our 
experience in the field, and I was quite certain that, owing to 
the severity of the losses suffered in modern battles, the man- 
power of Canada was not sufficient to meet the increased 
exposure to casualties consequent on the increased number of 
Canadian Divisions in the field. 

I represented very strongly my views to the Minister, 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and, on further considera- 
tion, it was decided to drop this project, and to accept instead 
my counter-proposal, viz., to increase the establishment of the 
Canadian Infantry Battalion by 100 all ranks, to proceed 
with the reorganisation of the Engineers and Machine Gun 
Services, and to grant the various amendments suggested to 
establishments of other Arms and Branches. 

I am glad to be able to say that my proposals regarding 
the reorganisation of Engineer Services, Machine Guns, etc., 
as well as the increase in strength of the Infantry Battalions, 
received the favourable consideration and support of the 
Commander-in-Chief. 

Defences. — It will be recalled that the ground held by the 
Canadian Corps throughout this period had been captured by 
the Canadians in the Battle of Vimy and subsequent actions, 
and held by them practically since its capture, except for a 
short interval during the Battle of Passchendaele. The area 
had been considerably improved during this time, and a very 
complete system of trench railways, roads, and water supply 
were in operation. Very comprehensive defences had been 
planned and partially executed. 

Behind Vimy Ridge* "lay the northern collieries of France 
and certain tactical features which cover our lateral communica- 
tion. Here . . . little or no ground could be given up . . ." 
(See Sketch No. 2.) 

A comparatively shallow advance beyond the Vimy Ridge 
would have stopped the operation of the collieries, paralysing 
the production of war material in France, as well as inflicting 
very severe hardship on the already sorely tried population. 
In conjunction with the shortage of shipping which practically 
forbade an increase in the importation of coal from England, 
the loss of the northern collieries might have definitely crippled 

* Extract from C.-in-C.'s Despatch, 8th July, 1918. 



Corps Operations. 105 

France. On the other hand, a deep penetration at that point, 
by bringing the Amiens-Bethune railway and main road under 
fire, would have placed the British Army in a critical position, 
by threatening to cut it in two and by depriving it of vital 
lateral communication. 

The tactical and strategical results to be gained by a 
moderate success at that point were so far-reaching in effect 
that, notwithstanding the natural difficulties confronting an 
attack on that sector, it was fully expected that the German 
offensive would be directed against this, the central part of 
the British Front. 

The French knew well the value of the ground here. To 
recapture it in 1915 they had engaged in the most savage 
fighting of the war and sacrificed the flower of their regular 
army. 

Although the British Front had later been extended to the 
south, and Vimy Ridge had become the centre sector of the 
British Army, the French always manifested the deepest 
interest in this sector, and it was often visited by their Generals 
and other officers of high rank. 

With the prospect of a German Offensive now confronting 
us, I ordered that the defences should be revised, to take 
advantage of the lessons recently learned and to embody the 
latest methods. Moreover, instructions had been issued by 
the First Army defining the policy of defence to be adopted and 
the methods to be followed. 

The completion of the revised Corps defences and the 
execution of the new Army programme resulted in the organisa- 
tion of a very deep defended area, consisting of successive 
defensive systems, roughly parallel to the general line of the 
Front and linked together by switch lines sited to protect 
both flanks. 

Each defensive system was designed to protect definite 
topographical features, the loss of any one of which would 
considerably handicap the defence by uncovering our artillery. 

As planned, the main framework of the defence in depth 
was based upon Machine Gun positions, protected by belts 
of wire entanglement so placed, in relation to the field of fire 
of the Machine Guns, that they were enfiladed over their 
entire length. The whole area was compartmented in such a 
way that the loss of ground at any one point could be localised 
and would not cause a forced retirement from adjoining areas. 
(See Photo-Map No. 3.) 



106 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Machine Gun emplacements of the Champagne type were 
constructed, and dug-out accommodation for the Machine Gun 
Detachments was provided in the deep tunnels of these 
emplacements. 

This framework was confpleted as rapidly as possible by 
trenches and by defended localities organised for all-round 
defence. 

A great many dug-outs were made to accommodate the 
garrisons of these localities, and for Dressing Stations and 
Battle Headquarters. Advantage was taken of the possibility 
of utilising the subways tunnelled in 1916-17 for the attack 
on Vimy Ridge, and in addition steps were taken to create 
an obstacle on the southern flank of Vimy Ridge by the con- 
struction of dams to enable the Valley of the Scarpe to be 
flooded as required. Trial inundations were made to ensure 
the smooth working of these arrangements. 

A great deal of care was given to the distribution of the 
artillery in relation to the policy of defence. Three systems 
of Battery positions were built so as to distribute the guns in 
depth and sited so as to cover the ground to the north-east, 
east, and south, in case the flanks of the Corps should be turned. 
These Batteries were protected with barbed wire entanglements 
and Machine Gun positions against a sudden penetration of the 
enemy, and they were designed to become the natural rallying 
points of our Infantry in this eventuality. 

Successive lines of retirement were also prepared, battery 
positions were selected, organised, and marked, cross-country 
tracks were opened up, and observation posts, echeloned in 
depth, were located and wired in. 

On Vimy Ridge alone, seventy-two new battery positions 
were built and stacked with ammunition : these positions 
could be used either for the distribution of the Corps Artillery 
in depth, or as positions which reinforcing Artillery could 
immediately take up in the event of a heavy attack. 

The greatest energy, enthusiasm, and skill was employed in 
the prosecution of the work by all concerned, and I am greatly 
indebted to Major-General P. de B. Radcliffe, then B.G., G.S., 
for his untiring and devoted efforts. 

The weather being much finer during the months of January, 
February, and March than is generally the case, very good 



SKETCH INo.2. 

SHOWING NORTHERN COAL FIELDS 

AMD 

COMMUNICATIONS. 




Corps Operations. 107 

progress was made, and the following defensive works were 
completed in rear of the main front line defensive system : — 

250 miles of trench. 

300 miles of barbed wire entanglements. 

200 tunnelled Machine Gun emplacements. 
In addition to the above, existing trench systems, dug-outs, 
gun positions and Machine Gun emplacements were strengthened 
and repaired. Each trench system was plentifully marked with 
signboards and many open Machine Gun positions were sited 
and marked. 

Machine Gun positions, defended localities and certain por- 
tions of trenches were stored with several days' supply of 
ammunition, food, and water for the use of the garrisons. 

The importance attached by the French to the Vimy Ridge 
sector was further emphasised by the visit of General Roques, 
formerly Minister of War, and at that moment attached to 
the Cabinet of the Minister of War. 

Having thoroughly inspected the defences of the Canadian 
Corps, he expressed himself as satisfied that every effort had 
been made to secure the Vimy Ridge against any surprise 
attack. 

Activity.— The Front held remained comparatively quiet 
during January and, except for minor patrolling encounters 
and occasional shoots, nothing beyond the usual activity ever 
prevailing on a Front held by this Corps occurred. 

In the months of February and March little or no work 
was being done by the enemy on his actual defences, but roads 
and disused trench railways were being repaired. In the 
rear areas his ammunition and Engineer supply dumps were 
increasing in number and in size, while fresh Battery positions 
were appearing almost daily. Furthermore, hostile aircraft 
and anti-aircraft guns were very active in preventing recon- 
naissance by our aeroplanes. 

Early in March it was considered that the enemy's Front 
opposite us was ready for offensive operations. No concentra- 
tion of troops had been observed, but the numerous towns and 
villages in close proximity to the Front provided extensive 
accommodation and made it possible for him to conceal such 
concentrations. Conditions so favourable to the Germans 
required relentless vigilance on the part of the Corps Intelligence 
Organisation, as we were dependent on the efficiency of this 
branch of the service for timely warning against surprise attacks. 



10S Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

In addition to the preparations above mentioned, the 
enemy assumed early in February a very aggressive attitude, 
raiding our lines very frequently, using for the purpose specially 
trained storm troops. His destructive shoots and intense gas 
shelling were also of frequent occurrence. 

I decided to quell this activity, and numerous counter- 
raids, retaliation shoots and gas projections, especially in the 
Lens Sector, soon had the desired effect. 

Prisoners captured in our raids stated that all their Divisions 
had been brought up to strength and were undergoing hard 
training in the tactics of semi-open warfare. They stated, or 
left it to be understood, that the forthcoming German attacks 
were based on a very deep initial penetration and the rapid 
exploitation of success. No indications were given as to the 
points at which attacks would be launched, but they stated 
that every one of their sectors was prepared and practically 
ready. It was also definitely established that the enemy 
reserve divisions were kept near railways, ready to be moved 
quickly to the parts of the Front selected for the coming drive. 

Second Period. 21st March— 7th May. 

Battle of Amiens. — In the early morning of March 21 the 
enemy launched a violent attack on the fronts of the Fifth and 
Third British Armies. 

It was soon evident that the opening stages of the battle 
were going in favour of the Germans, and that, notwithstanding 
the strenuous resistance offered, our defences were being over- 
run, more particularly the southern portion of the British line 
on the front of the Fifth Army. 

The Canadian Corps was not directly involved in the battle 
and my dispositions on that date were as follows : — 

3rd Canadian Division — (Maj.-Gen. L. J. Lipsett), 
in the line, Mericourt-Avion Sections. 

4th Canadian Division — (Maj.-Gen. Sir D. Watson), 

in the line, Lens-St. Emile Sections. 

1st Canadian Division — (Maj.-Gen. Sir A. C. Macdonell), 

in the line, Hill 70 Section. 

2nd Canadian Division — (Maj.-Gen. Sir H. E. Burstall), 

resting, Auchel Area. 

At 3.50 p.m. on the 21st, First Army ordered Canadian 
Corps to take over the front of the 62nd Division (left Division 







m -Mite 









Corps Operations, 109 

of XIII. Corps) in the Acheville Sector, the relief to begin on 
the night 21st/22nd and to be completed on the night 23rd/24th. 

The 2nd Canadian Division was warned immediately for 
this relief, but at 4.04 p.m. First Army ordered Canadian 
Corps to keep one complete Division in Army Reserve. The 
warning order to the 2nd Canadian Division was, therefore, 
cancelled. 

The 3rd Canadian Division was then ordered to extend 
its frontage and relieve the 62nd Division in the Acheville- 
Arleux Sector. 

A little later, a further order arrived from First Army 
instructing Canadian Corps to be prepared to relieve the 56th 
Division (right Division of XIII. Corps), and in accordance 
with this the 2nd Canadian Division was warned by wire at 
7.40 p.m. In the evening this order was cancelled. 

On the 22nd, at 9.00 p.m., I ordered the relief of the 1st 
Canadian Division, then holding the Hill 70 Sector, by the 4th 
Canadian Division, so as to have a reserve in hand. 

During the same night, 22nd/23rd, at 11.00 p.m., following 
a telephonic conversation with General Headquarters, the 
1st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade, then in the line 
on the Vimy Sector, was withdrawn and ordered to be prepared 
to move south to the Fifth Army area. 

On confirmation of the order by telephone through the 
regular channels, this Unit left Verdrel at 5.30 a.m. on the 
23rd to report to the Fifth Army. By midnight all batteries 
were in action on a 35 mile front east of Amiens, having 
travelled over 100 miles during the day. 

"The 1st C.M.M.G. Brigade (Lt.-Col. W. K. Walker), 
under orders of the Fifth and later of the Fourth 
Army, was ordered to fight a rearguard action to delay 
the advance of the enemy and to fill dangerous gaps 
on the Army fronts. For 19 days that Unit was 
continuously in action North and South of the Somme, 
fighting against overwhelming odds. Using to the 
utmost its great mobility, it fought over 200 square 
miles of territory. [See Sketch No. 4.) It is difficult 
to appraise to its correct extent the influence, material 
and moral, that the 40 machine guns of that Unit 
had in the events which were then taking place. The 
losses suffered amounted to about 75 per cent, of 
the trench strength of the Unit, and to keep it in being 



110 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

throughout that lighting, I authorised its reinforce- 
ment by personnel of the Infantry branch . of the 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps." 

On the 23rd, at 10.50 a.m., the 2nd Canadian Division was 
ordered to concentrate at once west of Arras in the Mont St. 
Eloi area, and having carried this out passed into General 
Headquarters Reserve. The 1st Canadian Division, in process 
of relief by the 4th Canadian Division, passed therefore into 
Army Reserve in compliance with the First Army order of 
the 21st, referred to above. 

The relief was completed on the 24th, and my dispositions 
were then as follows : — 

In the line — on a total front of 17,000 yards : — 

3rd Canadian Division, Acheville-Mericourt-Avion 
Sections. 

4th Canadian Division, Lens-St. Emile-Hill 70 Sections. 

In Army Reserve — 1st Canadian Division, Chateau 
de la Haie area. 

In General Headquarters Reserve — 2nd Canadian 
Division, Mont St. Eloi area. 

On the night of the 25/26th, at 12.40 a.m., I was ordered 
to extend my front to the north, and preparations were made 
accordingly to relieve the 11th and 46th Divisions with the 
1st Canadian Division. The intention was to concentrate 
an Army Corps on the southern flank of the First Army for 
action on the northern flank of the German attack, which 
was still progressing rapidly. 

This order was, however, cancelled at 10.20 p.m. on the 
26th, and instead the following dispositions were substituted, 
with effect from the night 27/28th :— 

(a) The 3rd Canadian Division in the line to come under 
orders of the G.O.C. XIII. Corps at noon, March 27. 

(b) The 1st Canadian Division to move to the area to be 
vacated by the 2nd Canadian Division, west of a line 
Maroeuil-Carency, and to pass into General Head- 
quarters Reserve. 

(c) The 4th Canadian Division to be relieved by the 46th 
Division (I. Corps) and pass into General Headquarters 
Reserve. 

(d) Canadian Corps Headquarters to pass into General 
Headquarters Reserve. 



Corps Operations. Ill 

Meanwhile, under instructions from First Army, the 2nd 
Canadian Division was ordered by telephone at 3.30 p.m., 
26th, to move as soon as possible to the area Pommier- 
Bienvillers-Bailleulval, with Headquarters at Basseux. On 
completion of the move, the 2nd Canadian Division would 
cease to be in General Headquarters Reserve and be trans- 
ferred to Third Army. Accordingly, during the night 
26th/27th the 2nd Canadian Division moved by bus and march 
route to the Basseux area. 

On the 27th, at 4.05 p.m., the 1st Canadian Division was 
ordered to move to Couturelle area. 

Both these Divisions were transferred from General Head- 
quarters Reserve to Third Army. 

" The 1st Canadian Division was moved by buses to 
Couturelle area, embussing at about midnight, 
27th/28tb. At dawn, March 28, the enemy struck 
heavily astride the River Scarpe, and the 1st Canadian 
Division was ordered at 10.30 a.m. to retain the 
buses by which they had moved south and to move 
back to the Arras-Dainville area at once, coming 
there under orders of the XVII. Corps. 
This move was very difficult because some buses had 
already been sent back to the Park, many Units 
were still en route to the Couturelle area, and the 
mounted Units and transport were in column on the 
road Haute ville-Saulty-Couturelle. The Division, 
however, extricated itself, and on the night of the 
28th, under orders of the XVII. Corps, placed two 
Battalions in the forward area in support of the 46th 
Infantry Brigade, 15th Division. At daybreak on 
the 29th, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade moved 
to support the 15th Division, and' during the night 
29th/30th 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade relieved 
the 46th Infantry Brigade in the Telegraph Hill 
Sector, that brigade front being transferred from the 
15th Division to the 1st Canadian Division on March 
30/' 

" The 2nd Canadian Division passed under orders of 
the VI. Corps on March 28, and moved forward in 
support of the 3rd (British) Division in the Neuville 
Vitasse Sector. On the night of March 29th/30th, 
it relieved the 3rd (British) Division in the line, and on 



112 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

the night of March 31/1 April extended its front south- 
wards by relieving the left battalion of the Guards' 
Division. 

The front held by the 2nd Canadian Division extended 
from south of the Cojeul River, east of Boisleux St. 
Marc, to the southern slopes of Telegraph Hill (where 
it joined with the 1st Canadian Division), a total length 
of about 6,000 yards. The 2nd Canadian Division 
held this front for an uninterrupted period of 92 days, 
during which time it repulsed a series of local attacks 
and carried out no less than 27 raids, capturing three 
officers, 101 other ranks, 22 machine guns, two trench 
mortars, and inflicting severe casualties on the enemy. 
The aggressive attitude adopted by this Division 
at such a critical time and under adverse conditions 
had a most excellent effect on our troops, and it 
certainly reduced to the lowest point the fighting 
value of two German Divisions, namely, the 26th 
Reserve Division and the 185th Division. The 2nd 
Canadian Division returned under the orders of the 
Canadian Corps on July 1. 

In compliance with First Army Orders, I had handed over 
command of the 3rd Canadian Division in the line to the XIII. 
Corps at 12 noon, March 27. 

The 4th Canadian Division was warned for relief by the 
46th Division on the hight 27th /28th, and would then come 
into General Headquarters Reserve. 

The 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions had been placed under 
orders of the Third Army. 

Thus, under the pressure of circumstances, the four Canadian 
Divisions were to be removed from my command, placed in 
two different Armies (Third and First), and under command of 
three different Corps (VI., XVII. and XIII.). 

This disposition of the Canadian troops was not satisfactory, 
and on receipt of the orders above referred to I made strong 
representation to First Army, and offered suggestions which 
to my mind would reconcile my claims (from the standpoint 
of Canadian policy) with the tactical and administrative 
requirements of the moment. 

Battle of Arras. — The Germans launched a very heavy 
attack at dawn on the 28th from Gavrelle to Puisieux, and 
were successfully repulsed by the 3rd, 15th, 4th and 56th British 



Corps Operations. 113 

Divisions. The attack was renewed in the afternoon, north 
of the Scarpe, on the front of the 56th Division, but did not 
there meet with greater success. A certain amount of ground 
had, however, been captured by the enemy. 

The troops of the Canadian Corps were not directly engaged 
in this fighting. 

The renewed attack on the 56th Division had considerably 
lowered its power of resistance. German prisoners captured 
in the morning were insistent that the attack would be renewed 
again on the 29th, by storm troops which had been held in 
reserve for the purpose of capturing the Vimy Ridge by 
attacking it from the South. It was most urgent that the 
56th Division should be supported without delay. * 

I received instructions from the First Army at 8.15 a.m., 
March 28, to the effect that the 4th Canadian Division, then 
holding the Lens-St. Emile-Hill 70 Sector, would be relieved 
on the night of the 28th /29th by the 46th British Division, 
I. Corps, and would in turn relieve the 56th British Division 
in the Oppy-Gavrelle Sector. 

On the completion of this relief the Canadian Corps would 
relieve the XIII. Corps, and I would assume command of the 
3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions. 

In the meantime, all the battalions which the 4th Canadian 
Division could spare were to be sent at once by the quickest 
way to the support of the 56th Division. 

The 4th Canadian Division, therefore, immediately organised 
a Composite Brigade, under Brigadier-General V. W. Odium, 
consisting of the three reserve battalions of the 10th, 11th 
and 12th Brigades, and the support battalions of the 11th and 
12th Brigades. This Composite Brigade was moved in haste 
by light railway and lorry to the vicinity of Mont St. Eloi, 
from whence it marched into reserve positions during daylight 
on the 28th. 

On the night of the 28th/29th the Units of the 56th Division 
which had been most heavily engaged were relieved by these 
five Canadian battalions, which came under orders of the 3rd 
Canadian Division. 

It was not until about 10.00 p.m. on the night of the 
28th/29th that the leading troops of the 46th Division arrived 
and began to relieve the 4th Canadian Division. 

In view of the seriousness of the situation, Units of the 
4th Canadian Division were moved, as the relief progressed, 

(642) I 



114 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

by lorry and light railway to Neuville St. Vaast, and marched 
quickly into the line to relieve elements of the 56th Division. 

Due to the energy shown by the G.O.C., 4th Canadian 
Division (Maj.-Gen. Sir D. Watson), and his staff, and to the 
initiative and discipline of his troops, this difficult three-cornered 
relief, under the menace of an impending attack, was quickly 
and smoothly carried out. 

On the morning of the 29th, at 8.00 a.m., the G.O.C., 4th 
Canadian Division, handed over command of the Lens-St. Emile- 
Hill 70 Sector to the G.O.C., 46th Division, I. Corps, and the 
I. Corps took over this sector from the Canadian Corps at 8.30 
a.m. on the same day. 

At 6.45 a.m. on March 30, the relief of the 56th Division 
by the 4th Canadian Division having been completed, the 
command of the XIII. Corps front passed to Canadian Corps. 

This was the first result of my representations regarding 
the removal of the Canadian Troops from the control of the 
Canadian Corps. 

The situation of the Canadian Divisions at noon, March 30, 
was as follows (see Sketch No. 5) : — 

Third Army. 

Under VI. Corps — 2nd Canadian Division : Neuville Vitasse 

Sector. 
Under XVII. Corps — 1st Canadian Division : Telegraph 

Hill Sector. 

First Army. 

Under Canadian Corps — 3rd Canadian Division : Acheville- 

Mericourt-Avion Sector. 
Under Canadian Corps — 4th Canadian Division : Gavrelle- 

Oppy Sector. 

In furtherance of those of my suggestions which had been 
accepted, it was arranged that the 1st Canadian Division should 
relieve the 4th British Division astride the Scarpe on the 7th/8th 
April, and come under orders of Canadian Corps ; the Army 
boundaries being altered so as to include the sector taken over 
by the 1st Canadian Division in the First Army front. 

In the meantime, on the night 28th/29th, owing to operations 
astride the River Scarpe, the front line system had been 
abandoned under orders of the XIII. Corps and the troops with- 
drawn to the Blue Line in front of the Bailleul-Willerval- 
Chaudiere-Hirondelle Line, as far north as the Mericourt Sector. 



Sketch N° 5. 
Situation of Canadian Troops 
at Noon - 30.3. IS. 
tirifteh Front Line. ZO. 3. /S. ■« 
JO. 3./S. -■ 




Corps Operations. 115 

This Blue Line was originally sited and constructed as an 
intermediate position, and consisted in most parts of a single 
trench none too plentifully supplied with dug-outs. This meant 
that until a support line was dug and made continuous the 
troops had to be kept in strength in the front line, subject to 
heavy casualties from hostile shelling and to probable annihila- 
tion in case of an organised attack. 

Any advance beyond the Blue Line on the 4th Canadian 
Division front would have brought the Germans within 
assaulting distance of the weakest part of the Vimy Ridge, 
and the severity of the shelling seemed to indicate that a renewal 
of their attacks was probable. 

I therefore directed that every effort should be made to 
give more depth to our new front line system by pushing forward 
a line of outposts and by digging a continuous support line, 
as well as by constructing reserve lines at certain points of 
greater tactical importance. Switch lines facing south were 
also sited and dug or improved. 

Every available man was mustered for this vital work, 
and the need of properly organised Engineer Services was 
very keenly felt. 

To increase the depth of our defences, Machine Gun Detach- 
ments were extemporised by borrowing men from the Machine 
Gun Battalions, who had then completed their organisation 
on an eight-battery basis. Some 50 extra machine guns were 
secured from Ordnance and other sources, and also a number 
of extra Lewis guns. 

Personnel from the Canadian Light Horse and the Canadian 
Corps Cyclist Battalion were organised in Lewis and Hotchkiss 
Gun Detachments and sent forward to man the defences in 
Vimy and Willerval localities, under orders of the 3rd and 4th 
Canadian Divisions. 

The Machine Gun Companies of the 5th Canadian Division 
had arrived in France on March 25, and in view of the extreme 
urgency of the situation the personnel and armament had been 
moved by lorries, sent specially by Canadian Corps, from 
Le Havre to Verdrel, where they were in Corps Reserve. 

Their horse transport, having now arrived, these Machine 
Gun Companies (17th, 18th, and 19th) were moved to the 
Vimy Ridge and allotted definite positions of defence on 
March 30. 

The relief of the 4th British Division by the 1st Canadian 
Division was completed at 7.00 p.m., April 8, and at that hour I 

(642) 1 2 



116 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

took command of this additional sector astride the River 
Scarpe. 

The Front held by the Canadian Corps on April 8, 1918, 
was approximately 16,000 yards in length. It will be remem- 
bered that the 2nd Canadian Division under the VI. Corps (Third 
Army) was holding 6,000 yards of front, making a total of 
22,000 yards of front held by Canadian troops. [See Sketch 
No. 6.) 

Battle of the Lys. — On April 9 the Germans attacked on 
the Lys Front between La Bassee and Armentieres. Making 
rapid progress, they crossed the Lys River on the 10th, and on 
the following days advanced west of Merville-Bailleul. They 
were well held at Givenchy by the 55th Division and their 
attack made no progress southwards. 

The Canadian Corps was not involved in this fighting, but 
it now found itself in a deep salient, following with anxiety 
the development of the Battle of the Lys. 

Orders had been issued (9/4/18) for the 2nd Canadian 
Division to be relieved from the line on the VI. Corps front and 
to then come into Canadian Corps Reserve in the Chateau 
de la Haie Area. These orders were now cancelled. 

The Battle of the Lys added a new burden to the already 
sorely tried British Army, and it was imperative that troops 
should at once be made available to stop the German advance. 

On the 10th, at 8.40 p.m., I received orders from First Army 
to extend my front by taking over from the I. Corps the line 
held by the 46th Division (Lens-St. Emile-Hill 70 sector), the 
relief to be commenced on April 11 and to be completed 
as soon as possible. This relief was completed on the 
night of the 12th/ 13th by the 3rd Canadian Division ; 
concurrently with it, the inter-Divisional boundaries were 
readjusted and the Artillery redistributed to meet as well as 
possible the new conditions. 

The Front held by the three Divisions then in the Canadian 
Corps had a length of approximately 29,000 yards ; and of 
necessity the line was held very thinly and without much 
depth. 

To deceive the enemy regarding our dispositions and 
intentions, we adopted a very aggressive attitude. The 
Artillery constantly harassed the enemy's forward and rear 
areas and our Infantry penetrated his line at many points 



SKETCH M2 ©. 
Situation of Canadian Troops 

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CANADIAN CORPS \°. 
FIRST ARMY. \ \ 

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ARRAS 

VMISVILLE 



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ur?der VI Corps. 
Third .Arm Y. 



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Corps Operations. 117 

with strong fighting patrols and bold raiding parties. Gas 
was also projected on numerous occasions. 

This activity on the immediate flank of the Lys salient 
greatly perturbed the enemy, who gave many indications of 
nervous uncertainty. 

The situation was critical, and extensive steps were taken 
at once to increase the ability of the Canadian Corps to with- 
stand hostile attacks. 

The success of the German offensives emphasised the need 
of greater depth for defensive dispositions, which depend very 
largely on the stopping power of the machine gun. Unfortunately 
the number of machine guns with a Division was inadequate 
to give the required depth of defence on a front exceeding 
4,000 yards in length. Each of my Divisions was now holding 
a front approximately 10,000 yards in length, and the 
extemporised Machine Gun Detachments formed previously, 
added to the Machine Gun Companies of the 5th Canadian 
Division, in my opinion were far from sufficient for the task. 

I decided, therefore, to add a third Company of four Batteries 
to each Battalion of the C.M.G. Corps, thus bringing up to 96 
the number of machine guns in each Canadian Division. This 
entailed an increase in personnel of approximately 50 per cent, 
of the strength of each Machine Gun Battalion. 

These Companies were formed provisionally on April 12 
by withdrawing 50 men from each Infantry Battalion. Of 
these men a portion was sent to the Machine Gun Battalion to 
be combined with the trained personnel, so that each machine 
gun crew would include at least four trained gunners. The 
remainder of the Infantry personnel withdrawn as above 
stated was sent to a special Machine Gun Depot, formed for 
the purpose, and there underwent an abridged but intensive 
course of training. Thus an immediate supply of reinforce- 
ments was ensured. Twenty three-ton lorries had been 
borrowed from General Headquarters to supply a modicum of 
transport to the new Units, and on April 13 some of the new 
Machine Gun Batteries were already in the line at critical 
points. 

Sufficient troops were not now available to garrison the 
local defences of Vimy Ridge, or to reinforce parts of the front 
if the enemy was successful in effecting a deep penetration. 



118 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Two special Brigades were therefore organised as under : 

The Hughes Brigade. — Commanded by Lieut. -Colonel 
H. T. Hughes, and composed of : — 

" A " Battalion— 185th, 176th, 250th Tunnelling Companies 
R.E., and 2nd, 4th, and 5th Army Troops Companies 
C.E. 

*' B " Battalion — 1st Canadian Divisional Wing. 

"C" Battalion — 4th Canadian Divisional Wing. 

Approximate strength — Officers, 184 ; Other Ranks, 4,050. 

McPhail's Brigade. — Commanded by Lieut. -Col. A. McPhail, 
and composed of : — 

" D " Battalion — (5th Canadian Division Engineers, Pioneer 
Reinforcements) . 

(1st Tunnelling Company C.E. and Third Army Troops 
Company C.E.) 

" E " Battalion — 2nd Canadian Divisional Wing. 

" F " Battalion — 3rd Canadian Divisional Wing. 

Approximate strength — Officers, 148 ; Other Ranks, 4,628. 

Proper staffs were organised for these Brigades and several 
alternative plans of engagement providing for different con- 
tingencies were prepared and practised. 

In addition to these measures, each Division organised its 
own " last resort " Reserves, consisting of the personnel of the 
Infantry Battalions left at transport lines, transport personnel 
and Divisional Headquarters. 

All these Units were given a refresher course in musketry 
and drill and they were detailed to defend definite localities. 

Two Companies of the 11th Tank Battalion (24 Tanks) 
were placed at the disposal of the Canadian Corps on April 13. 
These Tanks had officers, drivers, and armament, but no other 
personnel. A sufficient number of trained Lewis gunners 
were found from the 1st, 3rd, and 4th Canadian Divisional 
Wings, and the C.F.A. supplied the required number of gunners. 

The Tanks were then distributed at the critical points in 
the Corps area, namely : — 

Behind the St. Catherine switch at intervals of about 
300 yards, facing south — 18 Tanks. 



Corps Operations. 119 

In the gap between the Souchez River and Bois- 

en-Hache, facing east — three Tanks. 

On the Ridge line behind Angres, facing east — three 

Tanks. 
It was intended that these Tanks should form points of 
resistance to check any forward flow of hostile forces and so 
give time to our Infantry to re-form in case they should be 
forced back. In any event the Tanks were to remain in action 
for 12 hours after coming in contact with the enemy and thus 
gain the time so essential in a crisis. 

The 1st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade, now returned 
from the Amiens battle, was held as a mobile reserve at one 
hour's notice. 

Bridges, railways, roads and pumping stations were pre- 
pared for demolition, to be blown up as a last resort. 

Every contingency was prepared for down to the minutest 
detail, and nothing could be more inspiring than to witness 
the extraordinary spirit displayed by everybody in their untiring 
labour and ceaseless vigilance. 

Extended almost to the breaking point, in danger of being 
annihilated by overwhelming attacks, the Corps confidently 
awaited the assault. All ranks of the Corps were unanimous 
in their ardent resolve to hold to the last every inch of the 
ground entrusted to their keeping. 

It was for them a matter of great pride that their Front 
was substantially the only part of the British line which had 
not budged, and one and all felt that it could not budge so 
long as they were alive. 

Eventually, the 1st, 3rd, and 4th Canadian Divisions were 
relieved in their sectors by the 15th, 51st, 52nd, 20th and 24th 
British Divisions. The relief started on May 1 and was com- 
pleted on the 7th. 

As the relief progressed, the Canadian Corps handed over 
command of the Avion-Lens-St. Emile-Hill 70 sectors to the 
XVIII. Corps and the balance of the front to the XVII. Corps. 

The length of front held by the Canadian Corps at the 
various stages of the German offensive has been given previously, 
but it is here recalled that from April 10 until relieved the 
Corps held a line exceeding 29,000 yards in length ; the 2nd 
Canadian Division, then with the VI. Corps, was holding 6,000 
yards of front, making a total length of 35,000 yards of front 
held by the four Canadian Divisions. 



120 Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 

The total length of the line held by the British Army between 
the Oise and the sea was approximately 100 miles, therefore the 
Canadian Troops were holding approximately one-fifth of the 
total front. 

Without wishing to draw from this fact any exaggerated 
conclusion, it is pointed out that although the Canadian Corps 
did not, during this period, have to repulse any German attacks 
on its front, it nevertheless played a part worthy of its strength 
during that period. 

3rd Period. May 7 to July 15. 

The depth to which the enemy had penetrated in the Somme 
and the Lys Valleys had created a situation of extreme gravity 
with regard to the maintenance of communication. 

It was known that notwithstanding the heavy losses 
suffered by the Germans they still enjoyed a sufficient 
superiority of forces to retain the initiative, and a renewal of 
their attacks on the line between the Oise and the sea was 
possible. 

In prevision of these expected attacks, reserves comprising 
British and French Divisions were assembled behind the 
threatened front. 

Tactical Dispositions. — On completion of the relief on May 7, 
with the exception of the 2nd Canadian Division which was 
still in the line in the Third Army area, the Canadian Corps 
was placed in the General Headquarters Reserve in the First 
Army area and disposed as follows : — 

Headquarters . . . . Pernes, and later Bryas. 

1st Canadian Division . . Le Cauroy Area. 

3rd Canadian Division . . St. Hilaire Area. 

4th Canadian Division . . Monchy-Breton Area. 

Under instructions received from First Army, one Infantry 
Brigade and one Machine Gun Company from each Canadian 
Division were billeted well for wardin support of the Corps in 
the line as follows : — 



(a) One Infantry Brigade 
One M.G. Company 

(b) One Infantry Brigade 
One M.G. Company 

(c) One Infantry Brigade 
One M.G. Company 



(Anzin Area. Support 
( XVII. Corps. 

( Chateau de la Haie Area. 
| Support XVIII. Corps. 

| Ham en Artois Area. 
( Support XI. Corps. 



Corps Operations. 121 

These Brigades were kept under one hour's notice from 
5.00 a.m. to 7.00 a.m. daily and under four hours' notice during 
the remainder of the day. The remainder of the Canadian 
Corps was under four hours' notice. 

Reconnaissances of the front which the Corps would have to 
support in case of an attack were ordered and carried out by 
Staff and Regimental Officers. 

The Brigades billeted forward were relieved from time to 
time under Divisional arrangements. 

On May 23 the 74th British Division, newly arrived in 
France from Palestine, came under Canadian Corps for adminis- 
tration and training. 

It was then necessary to rearrange the areas amongst the 
Divisions in the Corps to make room for the 74th Division and 
to equalise the training facilities. 

With the exception of these moves, the disposition of the 
Canadian Corps remained substantially the same until June 25, 
1918. 

Organisation. — The reorganisation of most branches had 
been delayed by the considerable efforts of the preceding months, 
by the shortage of transport and materiel consequent on the 
great demands made by the reorganisation of British Units, 
and by the simultaneous requirements of the American Army, 
which was, in part, being equipped from British stores. In 
some cases also the necessary authority had not yet been 
obtained. 

On May 24, 1918, it was decided to proceed with the 
reorganisation of the Canadian Engineers, for which authority 
had been obtained on March 21, 1918, but which had not been 
begun earlier for the reasons mentioned above. 

This reorganisation was effected by the expansion of the 
three Field Companies then with each Division into one Engineer 
Brigade, consisting of three Engineer Battalions and a Pontoon 
Bridging and Transport Unit. The additional personnel 
required was furnished by the absorption into the new Units 
of the following :— 107th, 2nd, 123rd, 124th Canadian Pioneer 
Battalions, 1st and 2nd Tunnelling Companies, C.E., and the 
three Field Companies of the 5th Canadian Division Engineers. 

Motor transport was included in the establishment, and later 
a Canadian Engineer Motor Transport Company was formed. 



122 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The amount of work involved was considerable, nevertheless 
all the Units were substantially completed and made cohesive 
before the end of July. 

Adequate staffs able to deal with the larger scope of 
activity of the new organisation were provided for the G.O.C., 
Canadian Engineers and for the Engineer Brigades. 

Authority was also received and immediately acted upon 
for the formation of A. A. Searchlight Companies, C.E. This 
had been asked for in view of the increase in hostile night 
bombing, which, in addition to causing casualties, interfered 
greatly with the resting of the men. 

The reorganisation of the Tramways Company, C.E., was 
also completed. 

Application had been made early in the year for authority 
to form a Field Survey Company to assist in counter-battery 
w r ork, and in the collection of intelligence ; this Unit to consist 
of an Artillery Flash-spotting Section and a Section of Intelli- 
gence Observers. 

The personnel had been selected and trained during the 
winter. Final approval having now been obtained, this Field 
Survey Company was definitely organised and placed for the 
time being under the G.O.C., C.E., for administration, and 
under the Counter Battery Staff Officer and Intelligence 
Branch for operations. 

The addition of a Third Company to the Battalions, 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps, was authorised on May 7, 1918, 
and the organisation, which was already well under way, was 
rapidly completed with the exception of the transport of the 
Third Battalion, C.M.G.C, which transport did not become 
available until August. 

The reorganisation of the Motor Branch, Canadian M.G. 
Corps, having been approved on June 3, 1918, two Motor 
Machine Gun Brigades, of 40 guns each, were formed by 
absorbing the Canadian Motor Machine Gun Units already 
existing and the 17th, 18th, and 19th Machine Gun Companies 
of the 5th Canadian Division. A Canadian M.G. Corps M.T. 
Company was also formed for the administration and main- 
tenance of the Motor Transport. 

Reinforcements. — While the reorganisation of the various 
arms and services was being carried out, the machinery both 
to receive, train, and despatch reinforcements from England 



Corps Operations. 123 

and to deal with returned casualties, was also being revised 
and improved. 

The following organisation was finally put into force : — 

Headquarters Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp. 
Staging Camp. 



F.A. Rein- Garrison Engineers' 1st 2nd 3rd 4th C.M.G.C, 

forcement Artillery Reinforce- Canadian Reinforce- 

Depots, with Depot. ment Wing. Divisional ment Wing. 

Ammunition Wings. 
Columns. 

The number of reinforcements maintained was increased 
so as to meet the increased establishments, and at the same time 
great attention was paid to the training of those reinforcements 
by the specially selected officers placed on the staffs of all 
Units of the C.C.R.C. 

The provision of a Staging Camp enabled reinforcements 
to be handled quickly without moving the C.C.R.C, no matter 
where the Canadian Corps was engaged. 

The areas where the Reinforcement Camp Wings and Schools 
of the Canadian Corps were established were now congested 
with troops and within range of shell-fire since the advance of 
the Germans in the Lys Valley. These Units not being mobile, 
and the eventual movements of the Canadian Corps being 
rather uncertain, all Divisional Wings, Reinforcement Camps, 
and Schools were removed from the Corps area and concen- 
trated in the Aubin St. Vaast area, where suitable Camps 
were constructed by our. Engineers. 

Training. — As soon as the Corps was out of the line intensive 
training in open warfare offensive tactics was begun. 

General Staff, General Headquarters, were publishing from 
time to time translations of captured German documents 
bearing on the latest tactics, and supplemented these by 
11 Notes on Recent Fighting/' dealing with the lessons of the 
fighting then in progress, both from the point of view of offence 
and defence. These documents were carefully studied and, 
to a large extent, inspired our training. 

Detailed instructions were issued by Canadian Corps at 
various times precising the methods of Employment of 



124 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Artillery, Engineers, and Machine Guns in combination with 
the tactics of the Infantry. 

The laying down of a definite Corps tactical doctrine was 
necessary by reason of the different organisation, the greater 
strength, and the particular methods which characterised the 
Canadian Corps. 

It was not possible to forecast the length of time the 
Canadian Corps would be out of the line, and under these 
circumstances it was decided that combined training by Brigades 
should be given precedence to familiarise the Commanders and 
Staffs with the handling of troops in open warfare, and so give 
the different Arms and Services an opportunity of practising 
co-operation and mutual support. 

Concurrently with this Tactical Training, the closest 
attention was paid to individual training, particularly to 
musketry in all its phases. 

In the early part of June, in view of the good progress made, 
I directed that all Commanders should now concentrate on 
the training of smaller Units, especially the Platoon. 

Many tactical schemes were carried out during May, June, 
and July, each emphasising some definite lesson, more particu- 
larly how to overpower resistance in an area defended by 
machine guns in depth by using covering fire and smoke 
grenades ; how Batteries of Machine Guns should co-operate 
in assisting Infantry to get forward ; and how sections of Field 
Artillery could best carry out an advance in close support of 
attacking Infantry. 

During this period means were devised for making Stokes 
guns and 6 in. Newton T.M.'s more mobile, and special mount- 
ings were designed, manufactured and tested. The calibration 
of field guns was also carefully carried out, and experiments 
made on the use of High Explosive for barrages. 

Preparations were being made in the meanwhile to recapture 
Mervilk and part of the Lys salient. This operation, for the 
purpose of maintaining secrecy, was always referred to as 
Delta. 

The preparations for the projected " Delta " attack exercised 
a most vivifying influence on the training of the Canadian 
Corps ; it familiarised all Arms and Services with the difficulties, 
both administrative and tactical, inherent to a surprise attack 
intended to penetrate suddenly to a great depth. 



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Corps Operations. 125 

Relief of 2nd Canadian Division. — The 2nd Canadian 
Division had been in the line since March 30, and I was most 
anxious that it should be relieved. 

I had made representations to this effect from time to time, 
but the situation was such that no troops were available for 
this relief . 

On June 24 it was arranged, however, that the 3rd Canadian 
Division would be transferred to the Third Army area from 
General Headquarters Reserve and would relieve the 2nd 
Canadian Division in the line. On completion of relief, the 
2nd Canadian Division would come under Canadian Corps in 
General Headquarters Reserve, First Army area. 

This relief was carried out and completed on the morning 
of July 1, at which date the disposition of the Canadian 
Corps was as follows : — 

In General Headquarters Reserve. First Army Area. 

Headquarters Canadian Corps . . Bryas. 
1st Canadian Division 
2nd Canadian Division 
4th Canadian Division 
74th British Division 



Monchy-Breton Area. 
Le Cauroy Area. 
Auchel Area. 
St. Hilaire Area. 



In the Line. Under VI. Corps. Third Army Area. 

3rd Canadian Division . . . . Headquarters, Basseux. 

Dominion Day. — Since the arrival of the Canadians in 
France the celebration of Dominion Day had always been made 
the event of the year, but never before had it been so brilliant 
as on July 1, 1918. 

The sporting events were keenly contested, and nothing 
could have been finer than to see the thousands of clean-limbed, 
healthy, sun-burned young Canadian soldiers who congregated 
for this occasion. 

The Duke of Connaught, the Prime Minister of Canada, and 
a number of other distinguished Canadian visitors, together 
with a large concourse of British officers from the neighbouring 
formations, were interested spectators. 

In addition to the Corps sports, the Divisions had arranged 
various entertainments, and these were greatly appreciated 
by the men. 

Back to the Line. — On July 6. the Canadian Corps was 
warned to be prepared to relieve the XVII. Corps in the line. 
It was released from General Headquarters Reserve on July 10, 



126 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and the relief was carried out, being completed at 10.00 a.m., 
July 15, when I assumed command of the XVII. Corps front. 

Disposition at that time was as follows : — 
Headquarters Canadian Corps . . Duisans (First Army Area). 
2nd Canadian Division, in the line Telegraph Hill Section. 
1st Canadian Division, in the line Feuchy-Fampoux Section. 
4th Canadian Division, in the line Gavrelle-Oppy Section. 

Under TV. Corps. Third Army Area. 

3rd Canadian Division, in the line Xeuville-Vitasse Section. 

General Situation. — The Germans had not attacked again 
on the north-east portion of the Western Front, but they had 
secured considerable success elsewhere, and the general 
situation was still very threatening. (See Sketch Xo. 7.) 

On May 27 they had struck a very heavy blow between 
Reims and Soissons and advanced rapidly on the following 
days as far south as the Marne, capturing Soissons and Chateau- 
Thierry. 

Again on June 9 they had struck between Soissons and 
Montdidier and captured the Massif of Lassigny. This attack 
had met with only partial success and very severe losses had 
been inflicted on the Germans. 

On July 15 two other powerful attacks were launched as 
part of the same plan ; the one east of Reims in the direction 
of Chalons, and the other south-west of Reims in the direction 
of Epernay. All news received during the day indicated that 
the Germans were being repulsed east of Reims with over- 
whelming losses, and although they had succeeded in crossing 
the Marne south-west of Reims, the situation appeared to be 
well in hand and the Germans were suffering heavily. 

Everywhere on the Allied Front minor enterprises of ever- 
increasing magnitude seemed to indicate that the time of 
passive resistance was definitely past. 

4th Period. July 15 to November 11. 

The relief of the XVII. Corps by the Canadian Corps on 
July 15, after the Corps' long period of rest and training, with 
the attendant movement and activity, made the enemy alert 
and anxious as to our intentions on this front. He was success- 
ful in securing identifications at various points of our line, 
which he penetrated by raiding. 



CI/CT^U K.B0'"7 -SITUATION ON WESTERN PROMT 

Of\t ILn IN-/. /Wo Line *0-3-i8-— — Allied Line: 15-7-18.' 




Corps Operations. 127 

As it was desired to keep him fully occupied on our front, 
the Artillery activity was increased and our Infantry engaged 
in vigorous patrolling and raiding. 

This change of attitude confirmed the enemy in the opinion 
he had already formed, that an attack on this front was impend- 
ing. Prisoners belonging to different Units which we captured 
in various parts of our front made repeated statements to that 
effect, and also disclosed the fact that two additional Divisions 
had been brought into the line. 

On the night 18th/ 19th the Telegraph Hill front held by the 
2nd Canadian Division was taken over by the 1st Canadian 
Division, and the former came into General Headquarters 
Reserve at 12 hours' notice in the Le Cauroy Area. On the 
same night the 4th Canadian Division extended their line, 
taking over the left Brigade front of the 1st Canadian Division. 
The reason given for this sudden readjustment was that an 
attack on the Second Army was impending. 

On the afternoon of the 20th, Major-General J. H. Davidson, 
General Staff, Operations, General Headquarters, called at 
Corps Headquarters and explained that the Commander-in- 
Chief was considering a scheme submitted by the G.O.C. Fourth 
Army for freeing the Amiens-Paris Railway. He stated that the 
Commander-in-Chief proposed to use the Canadian Corps in 
this operation if the scheme was approved. It was the intention 
to effect a surprise, and therefore absolute secrecy was required. 

On the following day, July 21, I attended a conference at 
Fourth Army Headquarters, where the operations contemplated 
were discussed. The Fourth Army Commander dv/elt upon 
the importance of secrecy, and said that the only persons outside 
those at the conference to whom it was permitted to mention 
the coming operations were the General Officers Commanding 
R.A., Australian and Canadian Corps, the Counter-Battery 
Staff Officers, Canadian and Australian Corps, the Major- 
General, General Staff (O.a.), the Brigadier-General, General 
Staff (O.a.), G.H.O. and the G.O.C. Tank Corps. 

The officers present at the conference were : — 
From Fourth Army Headquarters — 

The Army Commander General Sir H. S. Rawlinson. 
Major-General G.S. . . Major-General A. A. Montgomerv. 

G.O.C, R.A Major-General C. E. D. Budworth. 

G.S.O. 1 Operations . . Lieut.-Colonel R. M. Luckock. 



128 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

From Canadian Corps Headquarters — 

The G.O.C. . . . . Lieut. -General Sir A. W. Currie. 

B.G., G.S Brig.-General N. W. Webber. 

From Australian Corps Headquarters — 

The G.O.C. . . . . Lieut. -General Sir J. Monash. 

B.G., G.S Brig.-General T. A. Blarney. 

From Tank Corps Headquarters — 

G.S.O. 1 . . . . Lieut.-Colonel J. F. C. Fuller. 

The operation as outlined at the conference was of limited 
scope, and was designed to relieve the pressure on Amiens and 
free the Amiens-Paris railway line, thus improving the situation 
at the junction of the French and British Armies. A large 
number of Tanks were to be made available for this operation. 
The methods for maintaining secrecy and misleading the 
enemy were discussed. I pointed out that I had been consider- 
ing a scheme for the capture of Orange Hill, and it was agreed 
that it would help materially to deceive everybody if preparations 
for this scheme were still continued. 

It was decided that the Australian Corps would arrange 
a series of demonstrations of co-operation between Tanks and 
Infantry at their training school near Flixecourt, and that 
during the following week the Canadian Corps would send 
parties of officers each day to watch these demonstrations. 
The Brigadier-General General Staff, the General Officer 
Commanding, R.A., and the Counter Battery Staff Officer, 
would meanwhile be enabled to carry out a reconnaissance 
of the probable front of attack of the Canadian Corps. 

The following day a conference of Divisional Commanders 
and members of the Corps Staff was held at Canadian Corps 
Headquarters, where the outline of the scheme for the capture 
of Orange Hill was explained, and the Divisional Commanders 
and Heads of branches and services concerned were asked to 
make all preparations for this attack as quickly as possible. 
It was stated that Tanks would be available for the operation 
and that it was therefore essential that all concerned should 
familiarise themselves with the combined tactics of Infantry 
and Tanks. I explained that demonstrations had been arranged 
with the Australians, and that it was my wish that the greatest 
possible number of officers should witness them. 

In the meantime, the enemy was to be harassed on the 
whole Canadian Corps front by Artillery and Machine Gun 
fire, and numerous raids were to be carried out to procure 
positive identifications. 



Corps Operations. 129 

Further conferences were held from time to time at the 
Fourth Army Headquarters, where plans were made for the 
necessary reliefs and moves, and the question of the main- 
tenance of secrecy further emphasised. 

On July 26 the Fourth Army Commander stated that the 
plans originally put forward, and which had been approved 
by the Commander-in-Chief, had been modified by Marshal Foch, 
in that the First French Army would now co-operate with the 
Fourth British Army and be responsible for the right flank 
of the attack. 

On the 27th the general boundaries and the objectives 
for the first day were fixed, and movements of the Canadian 
Corps and Tank Units were arranged. It was decided notably 
that Units were to leave their areas without knowing their 
destinations, and that it would be given out freely that the 
Canadian Corps was moving to the Ypres front, where the 
Second Army expected a German attack. 

With a view to deceiving the enemy, two Battalions of the 
Canadian Corps were to be put in the line in the Kemmel area, 
and two Canadian Casualty Clearing Stations were to be moved 
to the Second Army area. Wireless and Power Buzzer Sections 
were to be despatched to the Kemmel Sector, and messages 
were to be sent worded so as to permit the enemy to decipher 
the identity of the senders. 

Meanwhile the Canadian Divisions were busy preparing 
their scheme of attack on Orange Hill, and numerous Tanks 
were ostentatiously assembled in the vicinity of St. Pol. 

A readjustment of boundaries between Divisions was 
made during the night July 23/24, when the 1st Canadian 
Division relieved the Left Brigade of the 3rd Canadian Division 
in the Neuville Vitasse Sector, which Sector came under the 
Canadian Corps (First Army). The remainder of the front 
held by the 3rd Canadian Division was taken over by the 59th 
British Division, and on completion of these reliefs, on July 27, 
the 3rd Canadian Division returned under Canadian Corps,, 
and was held in General Headquarters Reserve in the Herma- 
ville area. 

On July 29 the XVII. Corps was ordered by First Army 
to relieve the Canadian Corps in the line during the night 
July 31 /August 1, and August 1/2, reliefs to be completed 
by daylight on August 2, the Command of the Canadian Corps 

(642) k 



130 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

front to pass to the General Officer Commanding XVII. Corps 
at 10.00 a.m., July 30, at which hour all Units and formations 
then in the Canadian Corps area were to come under the 
command of the XVII. Corps. This Army order stated plainly 
that the Canadian Corps would be prepared to move to Second 
Army, which, as indicated above, was then holding the northern 
section of the British front. 

The 27th Canadian Infantry Battalion and the 4th C.M.R. 
Battalion respectively, from the 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions, 
were moved by strategical train to Second Army area where 
they were placed in the line. They did not rejoin their 
Divisions until August 6. 

On this day, July 29, the Canadian Divisional Commanders 
were personally informed of the operations which were to take 
place on the Fourth Army front, and they were instructed 
not to discuss the operations with any of their subordinate 
Commanders. 

On July 30 Canadian Corps Headquarters handed over 
to the XVII. Corps at 10.00 a.m., leaving a liaison officer to 
keep in touch with the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions, which 
were still in the line. 

The Canadian Corps Headquarters moved the same day 
to Molliens Vidame, and the transfer of the Canadian Corps 
from First Army area to Fourth Army area began. (See Sketch 
No. 8.) 

When this move was well under way, and in order to continue 
io deceive our troops as to their eventual employment, a letter 
issued by First Army was repeated to all Canadian Divisions 
and communicated by them to their formations and Units, 
stating that the Canadian Corps was being transferred to the 
Fourth Army area, where it would be held in General Head- 
quarters Reserve and be prepared in case of attack to : — 

1. Move south at short notice to assist the French on 
the Rheims-Soissons front. 

2. Support either the First French Army or the Fourth 
British Army. 

This move, beginning on July 30, was completed on August 
7/8, and was carried out in three main phases as follows : — 

1. Move from the line to embussing or entraining 

areas (west of Arras). 



Corps Operations. 131 

2. Move from the embussing and entraining areas to 
the concentration area (south-west of Amiens, a 
distance of approximately 40 miles). 

3. Approach march to battle assembly positions. 

These moves were carried out by strategical train, buses and 
route marches with the utmost secrecy, the entraining and 
detraining taking place during the hours of darkness. 

The entire move to the concentration area was carried 
out without serious hitch. The dismounted personnel had no 
marching of any great length, and all ranks arrived fresh and in 
excellent spirits. Owing to the short space of time available 
to transport troops and get them into the concentration area, 
it was necessary for Divisions to entrain the Infantry first 
so as to ensure their having a rest before starting on the march 
of approach. The area of concentration was well wooded, 
and it was possible to conceal the movements then in progress. 

All moves forward of the Corps concentration area towards 
the battle assembly positions were carried out during the hours 
of darkness, and no movement of troops in formed bodies was 
permitted by day east of a north and south line through Molliens 
Vidame. 

The approach march was especially difficult, the nights 
were very dark, the country new and most of the roads very 
narrow. In the case of the 1st Canadian Division especially, 
the moves were very hard on the transport sections. Owing 
to the speed necessary to enable the troops to get into position 
in time, the greater part of the approach march was accomplished 
in one jump by the use of buses. This necessitated a forced 
march of upwards of 30 kilometres for all horsed transport 
before rejoining their Units in the concentration area. This 
was particularly trying for the Train Companies, who through- 
out the march had to carry on with their normal supply duties. 
All these moves had to be carried out during the hours of 
darkness, a severe handicap, as the nights were very short 
at this time of the year. 

Administrative Arrangements. — While the moves of the 
Canadian Divisions were in progress the Administrative 
Branches of the Corps were facing a most difficult problem. 
The battle area to be taken over had just passed from the 
French to the Australians, and none of the organisations 
necessary for British troops existed, part of the scheme to 
•ensure secrecy being that nothing should be done in the area 
which might arouse the suspicion of the enemy. 

^642) K 2 



132 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The D.A. and Q.M.G. of the Canadian Corps (Brig.-General 
G. J. Farmar) had received no information regarding the actual 
operation until July 29. 

The difficulties attending the accumulation of all kinds of 
ammunition required for the operation in such a short space 
of time were very great. The nearest Army dump from 
which we could draw ammunition was so far away that lorries 
could not make more than one trip a day. The advanced 
refilling points had not been selected, and the dumping of 
ammunition at these points did not really begin until August 3. 
There was a great shortage of lorries, a considerable number 
of the heavy Artillery Brigades arriving only two or three 
days before the attack. When the lorries of these Brigades 
became available, there was not sufficient petrol to keep all 
of them in operation. 

In addition, all forward traffic was restricted to two main 
channels, the Amiens-Roye Road and the Amiens-Villers 
Brettoneux Road. The congestion on the latter was increased 
by reason of its being used in common with the Australian 
Corps. 

There were no dumps of trench ammunition in the area, 
and, notwithstanding all efforts made by our Administrative 
Branches in that direction, the supply of small arms 
ammunition and bombs was not quite adequate. As a matter 
of fact, some Units, failing to obtain British hand-grenades 
in time, used French grenades gathered at the French dumps. 

The lack of adequate preparations to receive the large 
number of horses resulting from the great concentration of 
Artillery caused endless columns of horses to block the roads 
in the vicinity of the watering points. 

Fortunately, the weather was unfavourable for flying, 
being cloudy and misty till August 6, and the abnormal traffic 
on roads resulting from these conditions remained undetected 
by the Germans. 

With a view to drowning the noise of the Tank Engines, 
large bombing 'planes flew over the area while the Tanks moved 
forward into position from their lying-up places. 

All sorts of expedients were resorted to, and in the main 
the difficulties encountered were overcome, thanks to the 
energy, discipline, training and untiring efforts of all concerned. 



SKETCH N?8 

MOVE OF CANADIAN CORPS 
TO AMIENS FRONT 




Corps Operations. 133 

General Situation. — The general situation had now under- 
gone very material changes. 

A sudden stroke at the appropriate time had definitely 
crippled the plans for further offensive action which the Germans 
had formed. 

The Allied counter-offensive of July 18, on the Soissons- 
Chateau Thierry front, following the breakdown of the German 
attacks of July 15 east and west of Rheims, left a large portion 
of the German Army badly involved in a deep salient, and 
on July 26, having lost all hope of extricating their troops 
in any other way, the German Higher Command ordered a 
retirement on that part of the Front to the line of the Aisne 
River. 

This had the immediate local effect of considerably 
shortening the Allied front and relieving the pressure on Paris. 

By this time the Germans had learned that they could not 
win, and so they began to follow a defensive policy. (This is 
revealed by their retirements on the Avre and the Ancre, where, 
in an endeavour to obtain better defensive positions, they 
abandoned positions favourable to the resumption of offensive 
operations.) 

The magnitude of the German forces engaged on the Rheims- 
Soissons front, suffering as they were from the miscarriage 
of their offensive and from the effects of the Allied counter- 
stroke, was such that it affected adversely the general situation 
of their reserves, and created a condition favourable to further 
attacks by our forces elsewhere. 

The first step towards the exploitation of these favourable 
conditions was the enlargement by Marshal Foch of the 
operations against the salient of the Somme. 

The operation east of Amiens which, as originally conceived, 
was of a purely local character, was now given a much larger 
scope, namely, the reduction of the entire salient created by 
the successful German offensive on March 21 and following days. 

Just as the reduction of the salient of the Marne had been 
determined primarily by the successful Allied counter-attack 
of July 18, the reduction of the salient of the Somme was deter- 
mined primarily by the deep and sudden penetration effected 
by our attack of August 8. 



134 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

General Scheme of Attack. — The outline of the operations 
of August 8 had now been definitely fixed and was substantially 
as follows : — 

The front of attack was to extend from Moreuil to Ville 
sur Ancre on a front of approximately 20,000 yards. The 
dispositions of the troops participating in the attack were as 
follows : — 

(a) On the right from Moreuil to Thennes (inclusive) — 
The First French Army under orders of Commander- 
in-Chief, British Army. 

(b) In the centre from Thennes (exclusive) to the Amiens- 
Chaulnes Railway — The Canadian Corps. 

(c) On the left from the Amiens-Chaulnes Railway to the 
Somme — The Australian Corps. 

(d) The left flank of the Australian Corps was covered 
by the III. (British) Corps attacking in the direction 
of Morlancourt. 

The object of the attack was to push forward in the direction 
of the line Roye-Chaulnes with the least possible delay, 
thrusting the enemy back in the general direction of Ham, 
and so facilitating the operations of the French on the front 
between Montdidier and Noyon. 

THE CANADIAN CORPS FRONT. 

The Battle Front of the Canadian Corps extended from a 
point about 800 yards south of Hourges to the Amiens-Chaulnes 
Railway. It crossed the River Luce about 800 yards north- 
east of Hourges, and remaining well west of Hangard passed 
through the western portion of Hangard Wood. The total 
length exceeded 8,500 yards in a straight line. 

The right boundary was along the road Hourges-Villers- 
aux-Erables for a distance of about 2,600 yards, then east of 
Bertin Wood (inclusive), thence along the Amiens-Roye Road, 
inclusive to the Canadian Corps, in liaison with the First 
French Army. 

The left boundary was along the Amiens-Chaulnes Railway, 
inclusive to Canadian Corps, in liaison with the Australian 
Corps. 

The objectives for the first day were : — 

i. The Green Line, just east of the line Hamon Wood — 
Courcelles — Marcelcave — Lamotte-en-Santerre. 



Corps Operations. 135 

ii. The Red Line, just east of Mezieres — White House — 
Camp Vermont Farm — and the high ground east of 
Guillaucourt. 
iii. The Blue Dotted Line, comprising the outer defences 
of Amiens, which ran east of the line Hangest-en- 
Santerre — Le Quesnel — Caix — Harbonnieres . 
This Blue Dotted Line was not meant to be a final objective, 
and the Cavalry was to exploit beyond it should the opportunity 
occur. 

The average depth of penetration necessary to capture 
the Blue Dotted Line approximated to 14,000 yards. 

The Ground. — The greater part of our forward area con- 
sisted of bare slopes exposed to enemy observation from the 
high ground south of the River Luce and east of Hourges ; the 
trenches were very rudimentary. 

On the right the River Luce and the marshes, varying on 
that portion of the front from 200 to 300 yards wide, created 
an obstacle impassable to troops. Here the only practicable 
access to the jumping-off line was by the bridge and the road 
from Domart to Hourges — a narrow defile about 200 yards 
long. This was commanded absolutely from the high ground 
immediately to the east, and more particularly from Dodo 
Wood and Moreuil Wood. 

These conditions rendered the assembly of troops prior 
to the attack very difficult, while the siting of the forward 
field batteries was not an easy task. 

Some distance west of the front line a small number or 
woods, villages and sunken roads afforded a certain amount of 
cover from view. Gentelles W T ood in particular was used 
very extensively for the assembly of Tanks as well as troops. 

Opposite our front the ground consisted of a rolling plateau 
cut diagonally by the deep valley of the River Luce. This 
river flows almost due west through a strip of wooded marsh 
land some 300 yards wide, from which the sides of the valley 
rise steeply. Numerous ravines running generally north and 
south cut deep into the plateau, the ground between these 
ravines forming, as it were, tactical features difficult of access- 
and more or less inter-supporting. Woods and copses are 
scattered over the area, and many compact and well-built 
villages surrounded by gardens and orchards formed con- 
spicuous landmarks. The remainder was open, unfenced. 
farm land, partly covered with fields of standing grain. 



136 Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

The hostile defences consisted chiefly of unconnected 
elements of trenches, and a vast number of machine gun posts 
scattered here and there, forming a fairly loose but very deep 
pattern. 

The Troops. — In addition to the four Canadian Divisions, 
the following troops were placed under Canadian Corps for the 
•operation : — 

5th Squadron, R.A.F. 

4th Tank Brigade. 

3rd Cavalry Division. 

A mobile force was organised consisting of the 1st and 2nd 
Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigades, the Canadian Corps 
Cyclist Battalion, and a section of 6-in. Newton Mortars 
mounted on motor lorries. This force was named the Canadian 
Independent Force, placed under the command of Brigadier- 
General R. Brutinel, and given the task of co-operating with 
the Cavalry in the neighbourhood of the Amiens-Roye Road, 
•covering the right flank of our right division and maintaining 
liaison with the French. 

I was notified that two British Divisions were held in Army 
Reserve, and could be made available in the event of certain 
situations developing. 

The total Artillery at my disposal amounted to 17 Brigades 
of Field Artillery and nine Brigades of Heavy Artillery, plus 
iour additional batteries of long-range guns. 

The enemy troops were believed to consist of 24 battalions 
(less than three divisions) in the forward area and about six 
battalions in support, the latter belonging to Divisions on the 
French front, but known to be situated within the area we 
were to attack. It was believed that the enemy had four 
Divisions in reserve immediately available, and that two of 
these were west of the Hindenburg Line. 

The Scheme of Attack. — The general scheme of attack 
was to overrun rapidly the enemy's forward area to a depth 
of about 3,600 yards under cover of a dense artillery barrage 
which would begin at zero hour ; then without halting to 
seize the Red Line, relying on the help of Tanks to overcome 
the machine gun defences. At that moment the Cavalry was 
to pass through the Infantry and seize the area as far as the 
Blue Dotted Line, supported on its right flank by the Canadian 



Corps Operations. 137 

Independent Force. The Cavalry was to be followed as quickly 
as possible- by the 4th Canadian Division, passing through 
the 3rd Canadian Division on the right, and by Reserve Brigades 
-of the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions in the centre and on the 
left. Every effort was to be made to exploit success wherever 
it occurred. Special arrangements had been made to support 
the attack beyond the Green Line as long as possible with 
Heavy Artillery, and sections of Field Artillery were detailed 
to advance in close support of the attacking Infantry. 

The attack had been synchronised with the Australians, 
who were to jump off at the same hour as the Canadian Corps. 
The First French Army was to submit the Bois de Moreuil to a 
45-minute bombardment before developing Infantry action, 
but the General Officer Commanding had agreed that the 
bombardment should only begin at zero hour. 

The Canadian Corps being, as it were, the spearhead of 
the attack, the movements of other formations were to be 
synchronised with ours. 

At 10.00 a.m. on the morning of August 5 I took over 
•command of the battle front, then held by the 4th Australian 
Division. During the hours of darkness on the 4th, 5th, 6th 
and 7th the attacking Canadian troops relieved the Australian 
troops, with the exception of those holding the outpost line, 
who remained in position until the night 7th/8th. 

Dispositions. — The dispositions of the Canadian Corps on 
the morning of the 8th at zero hour were as follows : — 

On the right — the 3rd Canadian Division, in liaison 

with the French. 
In the centre — the 1st Canadian Division. 

On the left — the 2nd Canadian Division, in liaison 

with the Australians. 
In Reserve — behind the 3rd Canadian Division — 

the 4th Canadian Division. 

Each of these Divisions had their allotment of Tanks. East 
of the Noye River, the 3rd Cavalry Division. Behind Gentelles 
Wood, the Canadian Independent Force. 

The Battle.— At 4.20 a.m., August 8, the initial assault 
was delivered on the entire Army front of attack, and the First 
French Army opened their bombardment. 

The attack made satisfactory progress from the outset 
on the whole front. (See Sketch No. 9.) 



138 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

East of Hourges, opposite the 3rd Canadian Division, the 
high ground which dominated our front and a portion of the 
French front had been seized quickly by the 9th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General D. M. Ormond), and the 
way was opened for the Canadian Independent Force and the 
4th Canadian Division. 

The very complete arrangements made by the 3rd Canadian 
Division to keep the bridge open, and to repair the road quickly,, 
allowed the reserves to go forward without delay. The heavy 
task of the Engineers was remarkably well carried out. 

By the afternoon the Canadian Corps had gained all its 
objectives, with the exception of a few hundred yards on the 
right in the vicinity of Le Quesnel, where stiff resistance was 
offered by unexpected reserves, but this was made good the 
following morning. The day's operations, in which the four 
Canadian Divisions took part, represented a maximum penetra- 
tion of the enemy's defences of over eight miles, and included 
the capture of the following villages : — Hangard, Demuin, 
Beaucourt, Aubercourt, Courcelles, Ignaucourt, Cayeux, Caix, 
Marcelcave, Wiencourt, l'Equipee, and Guillaucourt. In addi- 
tion to these, the Canadian Independent Force assisted the 
French in the capture of Mezieres, which was holding up their 
advance. 

The surprise had been complete and overwhelming. The 
prisoners stated that they had no idea that an attack was 
impending, and captured documents did not indicate that 
any of our preparations had been detected. The noise of our 
Tanks going to the final position of assembly had been heard 
by some men and reported, but no deduction appears to have 
been made regarding this. An officer stated that the Canadians 
were believed to be on the Kemmel front. 

On the following day, the 9th, the advance was continued 
with the 3rd, 1st, and 2nd Canadian Divisions in the line, the 
4th Canadian Division being held in Corps Reserve. Sub- 
stantial progress was made, and by evening the average depth, 
of our advance was about four miles, with a maximum of 6|. 
miles at some points. The following additional villages were 
captured : — Le Quesnel, Folies, Bouchoir, Beaufort, Warvillers, 
Rouvroy, Vrely, Meharicourt and Rosieres. 

The Infantry and Tanks of the 3rd Canadian Division 
and the Canadian Independent Force co-operated with the 
French in the capture of Arvillers. 



Corps Operations. 139 ( 

During the day the enemy's resistance stiffened considerably, 
and whatever gains were made resulted from heavy Infantry 
fighting against fresh troops, with only a few Tanks available 
for support. 

This advance had brought our troops into the area of the 
trenches and defences occupied prior to the Somme operations 
in 1916. These trenches, while not in a good state of repair, 
were, nevertheless, protected by a considerable amount of 
wire, and lent themselves readily to a very stubborn machine 
gun defence. 

The attack was continued on the morning of the 10th,. 
with the 3rd Canadian Division on the right and the 4th Canadian 
Division on the left, the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions being 
held in Corps Reserve. After the 3rd Canadian Division had 
taken the village of Le Quesnoy-en-Santerre, the 32nd Division,, 
which had come under the Canadian Corps on the night 
9th/10th, and had been ordered to relieve the 3rd Canadian 
Division, passed through it and advanced the line somewhat 
further through the old British trenches west of Parvillers 
and Damery. The 4th Canadian Division during the day 
succeeded, after very hard fighting, in occupying Fouquescourt,. 
Maucourt, Chilly and Hallu. 

During the night lOth/llth a strong enemy counter- 
attack developed against a part of the front of the 4th Canadian 
Division east of Hallu. 

This counter-attack was beaten off, but owing to general 
conditions the line at that point was slightly withdrawn to 
the railway embankment immediately to the west of Hallu. 
Subsequent upon this slight withdrawal, and with a view to 
reducing the existing salient forward of Chilly, the line was 
further withdrawn to the eastern outskirts of that village. 

On the 11th, at 9.30 a.m., the 32nd Division launched an 
attack against Damery, but was not successful. The 4th 
Canadian Division improved their line by advancing it locally 
to reduce the Chilly salient, which was still very pronounced. 

| l During the night llth/12th the 32nd Division and 4th 
Canadian Division were relieved by the 3rd and 2nd Canadian 
Divisions respectively. 

It now became increasingly apparent that strong enemy 
reserves had been sent forward to stem our advance Six 
fresh Divisions and a large number of light and heavy batteries 
had been brought in, and were fighting hard in a strongly 
entrenched defensive position. 



140 Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 

I considered that it was inadvisable to try to progress 
mainly by Infantry lighting, and recommended that the 
operations should be slackened to give time to organise a set 
piece attack on a broad front. 

I further suggested that rather than expose the Canadian 
Corps to losses without adequate results it should be with- 
drawn from this front, rested for a few days, and used to make 
another surprise attack in the direction of Bapaume. 

Plans to organise a set piece attack to take place on August 
15 or 16, and having for its objective the Roye-Liencourt- 
Omiecourt Road, were prepared. This operation was to be 
•carried out in conjunction with the French and the Australian 
Corps. 

The 12th, 13th and 14th were characterised chiefly by 
patrol encounters and local trench fighting. The 3rd Canadian 
Division cleared the network of trenches between Fouquescourt 
and Parvillers, and advanced the line as far as the northern 
and western edge of Parvillers and Damery. These two 
villages were captured in the evening of the 15th, and were 
held in spite of heavy counter-attacks. Bois de Damery was 
also taken, and this enabled the French to capture the important 
position known as Bois-en-Z. 

On the nights 15th, 16th, and 16th/17th the 1st Canadian 
Division relieved the 3rd Canadian Division, the latter being 
withdrawn to Corps Reserve. 

Progress was made during the 16th/ 17th, the enemy being 
driven out of Fransart by the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
(Brig. -General R. Rennie) of the 2nd Canadian Division, and 
out of La Chavatte by the 1st Canadian Division, our line 
on the right being advanced in co-operation with the French. 

The relief of the 2nd Canadian Division by the 4th Canadian 
Division was carried out on the nights 15th/16th and 16th/17th, 
the former being withdrawn to Corps Reserve on the 17th. 

The operation, which had been projected for August 16, 
had been postponed, and it had been decided to transfer the 
Canadian Corps back to the First Army, the move to begin by 
strategical trains on the 19th. 

The 18th was quiet along the front, but on the 19th the 4th 
Canadian Division carried out a minor operation near Chilly, 
which greatly improved our line in that neighbourhood. Four 
hostile counter-attacks to recover the newly-won ground were 
beaten off during the night. 



Corps Operations. 141 

On the 19th, the 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions started 
their move to First Army, and on the night 19th/20th the 
relief of the 1st Canadian Division by the French commenced. 

This relief was completed on the 22nd, and the 1st Canadian 
Division was placed in Corps Reserve. 

On the 22nd I handed over command of the Canadian 
Corps front, and of the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions, 2nd 
Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade, the 8th Army Brigade, 
C.F.A., and the C.C.H.A., to the G.O.C., Australian Corps, 
and my Headquarters moved north to Hautecloque, opening 
there at 10.00 a.m. on the same day. 

Between August 8 and 22 the Canadian Corps fought 
against 15 German Divisions : of these 10 were directly engaged 
and thoroughly defeated, prisoners being captured from almost 
every one of their battalions ; the five other Divisions, fighting 
astride our flanks, were only partially engaged by us. 

In the same period the Canadian Corps captured 9,131 
prisoners, 190 guns of all calibres, and more than 1,000 machine 
guns and trench mortars. 

The greatest depth penetrated approximated to 14 miles, 
and an area of over 67 square miles containing 27 towns and 
villages had been liberated. 

The casualties suffered by the Canadian Corps in the 14 
dav 



ivy fighting 


amour 


ited to — 








Officers. 


Other Ranks 


Killed . . 


. . 


. . 126 


1,688 


Missing 




9 


436 


Wounded 




. . 444 


8,659 


Total 




. . 579 


10,783 



Considering the number of German Divisions engaged, 
and the results achieved, the casualties were very light. 

Following the deep advance effected on August 8 and 9, 
the French Third Army attacked at 4.20 a.m. on the 10th 
astride the Paris-Roye Road, and advanced rapidly in the 
general direction of Roye. The French First Army extended 
the front of attack, and capturing Montdidier pushed on also 
in the general direction of Roye. 

On the 20th the front of attack was further extended west 
of Soissons in the direction of Noyon. 



142 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The battle was now in full swing on the centre and southern 
parts of the Somme salient. North of the Somme the British 
Third Army made some local attacks on the 21st, and on the 
24th attacked heavily on a broad front in the direction of 
Bapaume. 

On the whole Somme salient the Germans were retiring 
slowly, fighting a stubborn rearguard action, actively pressed 
everywhere by the Allied Armies. (See Sketch No. 9a.) 

Transfer to First Army Area.— The transfer of the Canadian 
Corps to the First Army area was effected without serious 
difficulty and in a very short time. 

As already stated, the 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions 
entrained and embussed in the Boves area on the nights 
19th/20th and 20th/21st August respectively. They detrained 
and debussed on the 20th and 21st in the Bouquemaison area, 
whence they proceeded by route march to the Etrun and 
Hernia ville areas. 

Passing under the XVII. Corps the 2nd Canadian Division 
relieved, on the nights 22nd/23rd and 23rd/24th part of the 
15th Division in the line in the Neu ville Vitasse-Telegraph Hill 
sector, the G.O.C. 2nd Canadian Division assuming command of 
that front at 9.30 p.m., August 23. 

Headquarters, Canadian Corps, moved from Hautecloque 
to Noyelle Vion on the 23rd, and at 12 noon that day I assumed 
command of the XVII. Corps front, extending from Neu ville 
Vitasse to Gavrelle, the 15th and 51st (British) Divisions coming 
under my orders. 

On the night 23rd/24th the 3rd Canadian Division relieved 
the balance of the 15th Division in the line from the Arras- 
Cambrai Road to the Scarpe River, immediately on the left 
of the 2nd Canadian Division ; the command of this centre 
sector passing to the G.O.C. 3rd Canadian Division on August 
24 at 10.00 a.m. 

On the 25th the 1st Canadian Division detrained at Tincques, 
Savy, and Aubigny, returning under the Canadian Corps, and 
the 4th Canadian Division rejoined the Corps on the 28th, 
having been relieved in the line on the Amiens front on the 
25th by the 34th and 35th French Divisions. 8tf6\i 

General Situation. — In sympathy with the severe reverses 
suffered on the Marne, and consequent upon the actions now 
fully developed in the Somme salient, signs were not wanting 
that the enemy was preparing to evacuate the salient of the Lys. 
This evacuation began under pressure of the First Army on 
August 25. 



ADVANCES MADE BY CANADIAN CORPS, AMIENS BATTLE.-Aug. 8th to Aug. 17th, 1918. 

Area Captured, 67 sa. miles. Greatest Depth Penetrated, 14 miles. Villages Captured, 27. Prisoners, 9,131 (all ranks). Guns, 190. HLG.s & T.M.s, 1,040. 
Steam Rly Engines, 11. Pigeon Lofts, 5. Divisions Directly Engaged, 11. Divisions Partially Engaged, 4, or Total 15. 




SKETCH No. 9a. 

5HOWINQ GENERAL SITUATION 

FOLLOWING 
THE ADVANCE TOWARD ROYE 




Corps Operations. 143 

All these attacks and their results, direct or indirect, enabled 
the Allies to recover the ground they had lost in the course 
of the German offensive operations. 

The recapture of that ground was, however, of secondary 
importance as compared to the moral results of these successive 
victories. 

The German Armies had been impressed in the course of 
these operations by the superiority of our generalship and of 
our organisation, and by the great determination of our troops 
and subordinate commanders. 

The Hindenburg System, however, was intact, and the 
enemy Higher Command hoped and believed that behind this 
powerfully organised area the German Armies might be collected 
and reorganised. {See Sketch No. 10.) 

Fighting the most determined rearguard action in the Somme 
salient, they expected that our armies would be tired and 
depleted by the time they reached the forward area of the 
Hindenburg System. 

The Battle of Cambrai, now about to be begun, shattered 
their hopes. By breaking through the Drocourt-Queant Line, 
itself but a part of the Hindenburg System, the Canadian 
Corps carried the operations forward to ground that had been 
in the hands of the Germans since 1914. 

This advance constituted a direct threat on the rear of the 
German Armies north and south of Cambrai. 

Dominated at all times, paralysed by the swift and bold 
strokes on vital points of their line and by the relentless pressure 
applied everywhere, the German Higher Command was unable 
to take adequate steps to localise and stop our advance. After 
the Drocourt-Queant Line was broken, the retreat of the enemy 
became more accelerated, and our attacks met everywhere 
with less and less organised and determined resistance. 

The moral effect of the most bitter and relentless fighting 
which led to the capture of Cambrai was tremendous. The 
Germans had at last learned and understood that they were 
beaten. 

ARRAS-CAMBRAI OPERATIONS. 

The Task. — On August 22 I received the details of the 
operations contemplated on the First Army Front. The plan 
was substantially the following : — 

The Canadian Corps, on the right of the First Army, was 
to attack eastwards astride the Arras-Cambrai Road, and by 



144 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

forcing its way through the Drocourt-Oueant line south of the 
Scarpe to break the hinge of the Hindenburg System and prevent 
the possibility of the enemy rallying behind this powerfully 
organised defended area. 

These operations were to be carried out in conjunction 
with the operation of the Third Army then in progress. This 
attack had been fixed for the next Sunday, August 25. It was 
represented that this gave barely 48 hours to concentrate the 
necessary Artillery, part of which was still in the Fourth Army 
area, and that, furthermore, the Canadian Corps had sentimental 
objections to attacking on the Sabbath Day. It was then 
agreed that the attack should take place on Monday the 26th. 

On the evening of the 22nd I held a conference of Divisional 
Commanders at Corps Headquarters (Hautecloque),and outlined 
the projected operation and my plans for carrying it out. 

In addition to a detailed knowledge of the ground, which 
we had held before, we were particularly benefited by all the 
reconnaissances and plans made for the capture of Orange Hill 
during the period of simulated activity at the end of July. 
The excellence of trench railways, rear communications, and 
administrative arrangements in the area were also of great 
value, and enabled the Canadian Corps to undertake to begin, 
with only three days' notice, the hardest battle in its history. 

Reinforcements had come up, and although all Units were 
not up to strength, they were all in fighting condition. 

The efficiency of the organisation peculiar to the Canadian 
Corps, and the soundness of the tactical doctrine practised, 
had been proved and confirmed. 

Flushed with the great victory they had just won, and 
fortified by the experience acquired, all ranks were ready for 
the coming task. 

The Ground. — The ground to be attacked lent itself peculiarly 
to defence, being composed of a succession of ridges, rivers, and 
canals, which formed natural lines of defence of very great 
strength. These natural positions, often mutually supporting, 
had been abundantly fortified. Their organisation was the 
last word in military engineering, and represented years of 
intensive and systematic labour. Barbed wire entanglements 
were formidable (see Photos A and B), machine gun positions 
innumerable, and large tunnels had been provided for the 
protection of the garrison. 



Corps Operations. 145 

The four main systems of defence consisted of the following 
lines : — 

i. The old German front system east of Monchy-le-Preux. 
ii. The Fresnes-Rouvroy line, 
iii. The Drocourt-Queant line, 
iv. The Canal du Nord line. 

These, with their subsidiary switches and strong points, 
as well as the less organised but by no means weak intermediate 
lines of trenches, made the series of positions to be attacked 
without doubt one of the strongest defensively on the Western 
Front. 

Broad glacis, studded with machine gun nests, defended 
the immediate approaches to these lines, and this necessitated 
in each case heavy righting to gain a suitable jumping-off line 
before assaulting the main position. 

In addition to these systems, and as a preliminary to the 
attack on the old German system east of Monchy-le-Preux, 
it was necessary to capture the very well organised British 
defences which had been lost in the fighting of March, 1918. 

These defences were intact to a depth of about 5,500 yards, 
and were dominated by the heights of Monchy-le-Preux, from 
which the Germans were enjoying superior observation. 

Throughout these operations there could not be any element 
of surprise, other than that afforded by the selection of the 
actual hour of the assaults. The positions to be attacked 
formed the pivot of the movements of the German Army to 
the south, and the security of the Armies to the north depended 
also on these positions being retained. There was consequently 
little doubt that the enemy was alert, and had made every 
disposition to repulse the expected attacks. Therefore the 
plan necessitated provision for very hard and continuous 
fighting, the main stress being laid on the continuity of the 
operations. 






To carry this out, I decided, to do the righting with two 
Divisions in the line, each on a one-Brigade front, thus enabling 
both Divisions to carry on the battle for three successive days ; 
the two other Divisions were to be kept in Corps Reserve, resting 
and refitting after each relief. (The severity of the fighting did 
not, however, allow this plan to be adhered to, and on many 
occasions the Divisions had to fight with two Brigades in the 
front line.) It was understood that British Divisions from 

I (642) . L 



146 Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

Army Reserve would be made available as soon as additional 
troops were required. 

To maintain the utmost vigour throughout the operation, 
the Divisions were directed to keep their support and reserve 
Brigades close up, ready to push on as soon as the leading 
troops were expended. 

As the protection of the left flank of the attack could not 
at the outset be dissociated from the operations of the Canadian 
Corps, the 51st (Highland) Division in the Gavrelle sector 
remained under my orders. 

The initial attack on the 26th was to be launched by the 
2nd Canadian Division on the right and the 3rd Canadian 
Division on the left. 

The XVII. Corps w T as on our immediate right, they being 
the left Corps of the Third Army. 

On the night of the 24th/25th the 2nd Canadian Division, 
in conformity with operations carried out by the Third Army 
on its right flank, advanced the outpost line on the outskirts 
of Neuville Vitasse, later capturing the sugar refinery and some 
elements of trenches south of that village. 

That same night the 51st (Highland) Division, north of the 
Scarpe, advanced the outpost line opposite Greenland Hill 
without meeting much opposition. 

The objectives for the attack of the 26th were indicated 
as follows : — 

The 2nd Canadian Division was to capture Chapel Hill, | 
then work south through the old British support 
system and join up with the British troops on the right 
on the northern end of the Wancourt spur, thus 
encircling the enemy troops in the forward area 
towards Neuville Vitasse. They were at the same 
time to push forward and capture the southern end 
of Monchy-le-Preux Heights. 

The 3rd Canadian Division was to capture Orange Hill, 
then Monchy-le-Preux. The success of the advance 
was to be exploited as far east as possible. 

The 51st (Highland) Division, north of the Scarpe, was to 
cover the left flank of the 3rd Canadian Division by advancing 
towards Mount Pleasant and Rceux. 

After mature consideration, zero hour, which had been 
originally set at 4.50 a.m., was changed to 3.00 a.m. in order to 



Corps Operations. 147 

take advantage of the restricted visibility produced by moon- 
light and so to effect a surprise ; the attacking troops would 
thus pass through the enemy's forward machine gun defences 
by infiltration, and be in position to assault at dawn his line of 
resistance on the eastern slopes of Orange Hill. 

The initial assault was to be supported by 17 Brigades of 
Field and nine Brigades of Heavy Artillery, in addition to the 
long range guns of the Army Heavy Artillery. (Throughout 
the Arras-Cambrai operations the Artillery allotted to the 
Canadian Corps was at all times adequate, varying at times in 
accordance with the tasks assigned. In the operation against 
the Drocourt-Queant line the attack was supported by 20 
Brigades of Field and 12 Brigades of Heavy Artillery.) 

Troops attached to the Corps. — The following were attached 
to the Canadian Corps for the operations : — 

5th Squadron, R.A.F. 

3rd Brigade, Tank Corps. 
As a result of lessons learned during the Amiens operations, 
it was laid down, as a general principle, that Tanks should 
follow rather than precede the Infantry. The 3rd Tank Brigade 
was asked to supply, if possible, nine Tanks to each attacking 
Division each day, and the necessity of exercising the greatest 
economy in their employment was impressed on Divisional 
Commanders. 

The Attack— 1st Phase.— On August 26, at 3.00 a.m., the 

attack was launched under the usual Artillery and Machine Gun 

barrages. It made good progress, the village of Monchy-le- 

Preux being entered early in the day, after a very brilliant 

I encircling attack carried out by the 8th Canadian Infantry 

| Brigade (Brigadier-General D. C. Draper). The trenches 

\ immediately to the east of Monchy-le-Preux were found to be 

| heavily held, and were not cleared until about 11 a.m. by the 

! 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General H. Dyer). 

! [See Sketch No. 11.) 

Guemappe was captured by 4 p.m. and Wancourt Tower 

I and the top of Heninel Ridge were in our hands at 10.40 p.m. 

j The defenders of the latter feature fought hard, but eventually 

j succumbed to a determined attack delivered by the 6th Canadian 

! Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General A. H. Bell), under cover of 

j an extemporised barrage fired by the 2nd Canadian Divisional 

Artillery (Brigadier-General H. A. Panet). During the night 

this Brigade captured, in addition, Egret Trench, thus securing 

a good jumping-off line for the operation of the following day. 

(642) L 2 



148 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The situation along the Arras-Cambrai Road was at one time 
obscure, following a change in the Inter-Divisional Boundary 
ordered when the attack was in progress. A gap occurred for 
a few hours, but it was filled as soon as discovered, by the 
Canadian Independent Force. 

The enemy fought strenuously and several counter-attacks 
were repulsed at various stages of the fighting, three German I 
Divisions being identified during the day and more than 2,000 ] 
prisoners captured, together with a few guns and many machine 
guns. 

North of the Scarpe, the 51st (Highland) Division had 
pushed forward east of the Chemical Works and Gavrelle without 
meeting serious opposition. 

The Canadian Engineers had been actively employed, and 
all the roads in the forward area were cleared and repaired, 
thus establishing good communications. 

The light railways, which up to this date had been delivering 
an average of 1,800 tons daily, were pushed forward, closely 
following up the advance. 

The attack was renewed at 4.55 a.m. on August 27 by the 
2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions, in the face of increased opposi- 
tion, under a uniformly good initial barrage. 

The 2nd Canadian Division pushed doggedly forward through 
the old German trench system, where very stiff hand-to-hand 
fighting took place, and crossed the Sensee River, after capturing 
the villages of Cherisy and Vis-en- Artois. 

The 3rd Canadian Division encountered very heavy opposi 
tion, but succeeded in capturing Bois-du-Vert, Bois-du-Sart, 
and reaching the western outskirts of Haucourt, Remy, Boiry 
Notre-Dame and Pelves. 

The enemy throughout the day pushed a large number of 
reinforcements forward, bringing up Machine Gun Units in 
motor lorries in the face of our accurate Field and Heavy 
Artillery fire. Hostile Field Batteries in the open, firing over 
open sights, showed remarkable tenacity, several remaining in 
action until the personnel had been destroyed by our machine 
gun fire. 

Our casualties were heavy, especially on the 2nd Canadian 
Division front, and after discussing the situation with the 
G.O.C., 2nd Canadian Division, and taking into consideration 
the uncertainty of the situation on the right flank of this 



Corps Operations. 149 

Division, the operations were, after 5.45 p.m., restricted to the 
consolidation of the line then reached east of the Sensee River. 

North of the Scarpe, the 51st (Highland) Division had 
pushed forward and gained a footing on Greenland Hill, but 
were forced to withdraw slightly by a heavy German counter- 
attack. 

During the night August 27/28 the 8th Division (VIII. 
Corps) took over the northern half of the 51st Division front. 

As the enemy was still holding Plouvain and the high ground 
north of the Scarpe, the 3rd Canadian Division had been com- 
pelled to refuse its left flank, and the front now held by this 
Division was increased from about 3,700 yards to about 6,000 
yards. 

It was intended to continue the battle on the 28th, with the 
1st Canadian Division on the right and the 4th (British) 
Division, then coming under my command, on the left ; the 
latter Division, however, was unable to reach the battle position 
in time. As it was undesirable at this stage to employ a fresh 
Division alongside a Division which had already been engaged, 
the orders issued were cancelled and the battle was continued 
by the Divisions then in the line. 

At 9.00 a.m. on the 28th the 3rd Canadian Division resumed 
the attack, followed at 12.30 p.m. by the 2nd Canadian Division. 
The objective for the day was the capture of the Fresnes- 
Rouvroy line, the possession of which was vital to the success 
of our further operations. 

On the left, the 3rd Canadian Division had pushed forward, 
captured the Fresnes-Rouvroy line from the Sensee River to 
north of Boiry-Notre-Dame, and had secured that village, 
Jigsaw Wood and entered Pelves. They had, however, been 
unable to clear the village of Haucourt. 

On the front of the 2nd Canadian Division the fighting 
was most severe. The wire in front of the Fresnes-Rouvroy 
line was found to be almost intact, and although at some points 
;the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General T. L. 
Tremblay) had succeeded in penetrating the line, the first 
(objective could not be secured, except one short length on 
ithe extreme right. Subjected to heavy machine gun fire from 
(both flanks as well as frontally, the attacking troops had suffered 
^heavy casualties, which they had borne with the utmost 
fortitude. 



150 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

At nightfall the general line of the 2nd Canadian Division 
was little in advance of the line held the night before, although 
a few small parties of stubborn men were still as far forward as 
the wire of the Fresnes-Rouvroy line. 

Enemy reinforcements were seen dribbling forward all day 
long. 

2nd Phase. — During the days succeeding the capture of 
MonchyTe-Preux the enemy's resistance had been steadily 
increasing, and it became clear that the Drocourt-Queant line 
would be very stubbornly defended. 

On the 28th instructions had been received fixing tenta- 
tively September 1 as the date on which the Drocourt-Queant 
line was to be attacked by the Canadian Corps, in conjunction 
with the XVII. Corps. The intention was to capture also the 
Canal du Nord line in the same operation. 

It was therefore essential to secure, before that date, a 
good jumping-off line roughly parallel to, and approximately 
600 yards west of, the Drocourt-Queant line. 

This was indeed a very difficult task, entailing the capture 
of the Fresnes-Rouvroy line, of the Vis-en-Artois Switch, and 
of a number of defended localities of very great strength, 
notably the Crow's Nest, Upton Wood, and St. Servin's Farm. 

The 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions were now exhausted, 
and during the night 28th/29th they were relieved by the 
1st Canadian Division on the right, the 4th (British) Division 
(which had been placed under my orders on the night 26th/27th) 
on the left, and Brutinel's Brigade (formerly the Canadian 
Independent Force) on the extreme left flank. 

The Heavy Artillery from now on concentrated on the cutting 
of the broad belts of wire in front of the Drocourt-Queant line, 
and the Engineers prepared the bridging material required for 
the crossings of the Sensee River and the Canal du Nord. 

During the day (August 29) our line had been considerably 
improved by minor operations. Brutinel's Brigade had pushed 
forward on their front and captured Bench Farm and Victoria 
Copse, north of Boiry-Notre-Dame. The 4th (British) 
Division, in the face of strong opposition, had advanced their 
line in the vicinity of Haucourt and Remy. North of the Scarpe 
the 51st Division had captured the crest of Greenland Hill. 

The command of the 51st Divisional front now passed to 
the G.O.C. XXII. Corps ; and during the night August 29/30 



Corps Operations. 151 

the 11th Division, which had been transferred to the Canadian 
Corps from I. Corps, relieved Brutinel's Brigade in the line, 
the command of that Division also passing to the G.O.C. XXII. 
Corps on completion of the relief. 

This shortened the line considerably and relieved me of 
the anxiety caused by the length and vulnerability of the 
northern flank. 

On the 30th, following the reported capture of Hendecourt 
by the 57th Division, the 1st Canadian Division attacked the 
Vis-en-Artois Switch, Upton Wood, and the Fresnes-Rouvroy 
line south of the Vis-en-Artois Switch. The attack, a daring 
manoeuvre organised and carried out by the 1st Canadian 
Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General W. A. Griesbach), under 
cover of very ingenious barrages arranged by the CR.A., 
1st Canadian Division (Brigadier-General H. C. Thacker), 
was eminently successful, all objectives being captured and the 
entire garrison either killed or taken prisoner. Heavy counter- 
attacks by fresh troops were repulsed during the afternoon 
and following night. 

On the 31st the remainder of the Fresnes-Rouvroy line 
south of the Arras-Cambrai Road, including Ocean Work, 
was captured by the 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier- 
General F. O. W. Loomis). 

In the meantime the 4th (British) Division had doggedly 
pushed ahead, crossing the valley of the Sensee River and 
capturing the villages of Haucourt, Remy, and Eterpigny. 
This advance was over very difficult, thickly wooded country, 
and the fighting was very heavy, particularly in the vicinity 
of St. Servin's Farm, which, after changing hands several 
times, remained in possession of the enemy until September 2. 

On the night August 31 -September 1 the 4th Canadian 
Division came into the line on a one-Brigade front between the 
1st Canadian Division and 4th (British) Division. 

The G.O.C. 4th (British) Division having now reported that 
he considered his Division unable successfully to attack the 
Drocourt-Oueant line on the front allotted to him, in view of 
the losses suffered in the preliminary fighting for the jumping-off 
line, I decided that the 4th Canadian Division would extend 
their front and take over 1,000 yards additional frontage from 
the 4th (British) Division. This necessitated a change of plan 
on the part of the 4th Canadian Division, who a few hours 
before zero had to place an additional Brigade in the line for the 



152 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

initial assault. Accordingly, the 12th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
(Brigadier-General J. H. McBrien) carried out the attack on 
the right and the 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier- 
General R. J. F. Hayter) on the left Divisional front, having 
first advanced the line to conform with the 1st Canadian 
Division. 

It was necessary to postpone the attack on the Drocourt- 
Queant line until September 2 on account of the additional 
wire cutting which was still required, and the day of September 1 
was employed in minor operations to improve the jumping- 
off line for the major operation. 

The important strong point known as the Crow's Nest was 
captured by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

During the afternoon and evening of September 1 the enemy 
delivered violent counter-attacks, directed against the junction 
of the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions. Two fresh Divisions 
and two Divisions already in the line were identified in the 
course of this heavy fighting. Our troops were forced back 
slightly twice, but the ground was each time regained and 
finally held. The hand-to-hand fighting for the possession of 
the crest of the spur at this point really continued until zero 
hour the next day, the troops attacking the Drocourt-Queant 
line as they moved forward, taking over the fight from the 
troops then holding the line. 

At 5.00 a.m., September 2, the major operation against the 
Drocourt-Queant line was launched. Preceded by a dense 
barrage, and assisted by Tanks, the Infantry pushed forward 
rapidly, and the Drocourt-Queant line (the first objective) and 
its support line (the second objective) including the village of 
Dury were captured according to programme. With the 
capture of the second objective the Field Artillery barrage 
was shot out, and the attack further east had to be carried 
forward without its assistance. The enemy's resistance, free 
of the demoralising effect of our barrage, stiffened considerably, 
the open country being swept continually by intense machine 
gun fire. In addition, the Tanks soon became casualties from 
enemy guns firing point blank, and the advance on the left 
and centre was held up. 

Brutinel's Brigade, reinforced by a Regiment of Cavalry 
(10th Royal Hussars) and armoured cars, endeavoured to pass 
through to capture the Marquion Bridge on the Canal du Nord. 
Wire, trenches, and sunken roads, however, confined the 






Corps Operations. 153 

movements of the force to the Arras-Cambrai Road ; and this 
was rendered impassable by machine gun fire and by batteries 
firing over open sights. 

On the right, however, the 1st Canadian Division pushed 
forward despite very heavy machine gun and direct artillery 
fire, and captured the villages of Cagnicourt and Villers-lez- 
Cagnicourt, the Bois de Bouche and Bois de Loison to the east 
of Cagnicourt. 

' Taking advantage of the breach thus made by 
the Canadian Divisions, a Brigade of the 63rd (Naval) 
Division, XVII. Corps, which had followed the attack 
behind the right Brigade of our right Division, now 
turned south and advanced in the direction of Queant." 

Further progress made by the 1st Canadian Division in 
the afternoon resulted in the capture of the heavily wired 
Buissy Switch line as far south as the outskirts of Buissy ; 
this largely outflanked the enemy still holding out in front of 
the 4th Canadian Division, and compelled their retirement 
during the night behind the Canal du Nord. 

Although the crossings of the Canal du Nord had not been 
captured, the result of the day's fighting was most gratifying. 
The Canadian Corps had pierced the Drocourt-Queant line on 
its whole front of attack, and the exploitation of our success 
by the XVII. Corps on the right had further widened the 
breach and made possible the capture of a large stretch of 
territory to the south. 

To stem our advance, and hold the Drocourt-Queant line, 
the enemy had concentrated eight fresh Divisions directly 
opposite the Canadian Corps, but the unparalleled striking 
power of our Battalions and the individual bravery of our men 
had smashed all resistance. 

The number of unwounded prisoners captured exceeded 
5,000, and we had identified every Unit of the seven Infantry 
Divisions and the one Cavalry Division engaged. 

Our Infantry had penetrated the enemy's defences to a 
depth exceeding 6,000 yards. 

In prevision of the attack on the Canal du Nord taking place 
the same day, the Engineers had rapidly prepared the bridges 
and roads, advanced the light railways, and pushed forward 
the personnel and all material necessary for future construction. 



154 Overseas Military Forces oj Canada. 

I Hiring the night of September 2/3 the 4th (British) Division, 
by a minor operation, captured the village of Etaing without 
serious opposition. 

At dawn our Infantry pushed forward strong patrols, and 
meeting very slight resistance from the enemy contact patrols 
established a line just west of the Canal along the Corps front, 
freeing the villages of Buissy, Baralle, Saudemont, Rumaucourt, 
Ecourt St. Ouentin, and Lecluse. A certain number of French 
civilians were liberated during this advance. 

The enemy had blown up all the bridges on the previous 
night, and was holding a commanding position on the eastern 
bank of the Canal with a large number of machine guns. His 
Artillery was very active, more especially from the north, 
and it was impossible to send bodies of troops by daylight 
over the long and bare slopes bordered by the Canal. 

Our left flank was now very exposed to Artillery fire from 
the north, and the nature of the ground we were holding, the 
strength of the obstacle in front of the Corps, and the resolute 
attitude of the' enemy, forbade any attempt to further exploit 
our success. 

It was necessary to prepare minutely the details of the opera- 
tions required to attack successfully the Canal du Nord line. 
Accordingly, no further attempts were made at this time. 

In the night of September 3/4 the 2nd and 3rd Canadian 
Divisions relieved the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions 
respectively, and the 4th (British) Division was relieved by the 
1st (British) Division, which had come under the Canadian 
Corps on September 1 and had been concentrated after that 
date in the Monchy-le-Preux, Vis-en-Artois, Guemappe area. 

3rd Phase. — The left flank of the Corps was again very long, 
and in accordance with the policy adopted the 1st (British) 
Division was transferred in the line from the Canadian Corps 
to the XXII. Corps. I handed over command of that sector 
— extending from Palluel (exclusive) to Etaing (inclusive), and 
facing north — to the G.O.C. XXII. Corps at midnight, 
September 4/5. 

The enemy had flooded the valley of the Sensee River and 
all the bridges had been destroyed. Our Engineers were very 
actively engaged in an effort to lower these floods and wrest 
the control from the enemy. 

On the right flank the XVII. Corps was engaged in heavy 
fighting in and around Moeuvres, and all their attempts to 
cross the Canal du Nord at that point had been repulsed. 



Q \x fTTf* LJ KIOIO *W«»edune t5-7->8 — — ~ ~ HiHDeiiawa Defbncc System 
Or\L iV^n ll-JLL/. 3-9-l8««MM Attacks op C«»^o««h Corp* — 




Corps Operations. 155 

A thorough reconnaissance of our front had shown that 
the frontal attack of the Canal du Nord line was impossible, 
the eastern bank of the Canal was strongly wired and was 
generally much higher than the western bank. 

The whole of our forward area was under direct observation 
from Oisy-le-Verger and the high ground on the northern 
flank, and any movement by day was quickly engaged by 
hostile artillery. 

No battery positions within a range sufficient to carry on 
the preparation of the attack, or to support it, were available, 
and any attempt to bring guns forward of the general line 
Villers-lez-Cagnicourt-Buissy was severely punished ; the battery 
positions south and west of this general line were subjected to 
intense gas shelling every night. 

The Canal du Nord was in itself a serious obstacle. It 
was under construction at the outbreak of the war and had 
not been completed. Generally speaking, it followed the 
valley of the River Agache, but not the actual bed of the river. 
The average width was about 100 feet and it was flooded as 
far south as the lock, 800 yards south-west of Sains-lez-Marquion, 
just north of the Corps southern boundary. South of this 
and to the right of the Corps front the Canal was dry, and its 
bottom was at the natural ground level, the sides of the Canal 
consisting of high earth and brick banks. 

The attack of the Canal Du Nord could not, therefore, be 
undertaken singly by the Canadian Corps, but had to be part 
of a larger scheme. 

This required considerable time to arrange, and until 
September 27 no changes developed on the Corps front. 

The obstacles which had stopped our advance also made 
our positions very strong defensively, and advantage was 
taken of this fact to rest and refit the Divisions. As much 
of the Corps Artillery as could be spared was withdrawn from 
the line to rest the men and horses. 

The line was held very thinly, but active patrolling at 
nights and sniping were kept up. A complete programme of 
harassing fire by Artillery and Machine Guns was also put in 
force nightly. The Corps Heavy Artillery (Brigadier-General 
R. H. Massie) carried out wire-cutting, counter-battery shoots 
and gas concentrations daily, in preparation for the eventual 
operations. 



156 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Light railways, roads, bridges and water-points were 
constructed right up to the forward area, and the bridging 
material which would be required for the Canal du Nord was 
accumulated well forward. Ammunition dumps were estab- 
lished at suitable places. 

Detailed reconnaissances of the Canal and trenches were 
carried out by aeroplane, and also by daring patrols, and all 
available documents regarding the Canal construction were 
gathered with a view to preparing the plans for the future 
attack. 

On September 13 Major-General (then Brigadier-General) 
F. O. W. Loomis took over command of the 3rd Canadian 
Division from Major-General L. J. Lipsett, who went to 
command the 4th (British) Division ; the former was succeeded 
in command of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade by Brigadier- 
General (then Lieut. -Colonel) R. P. Clark. 

The Task. — On September 15 I received the details of a 
large operation to be carried out later in the month by the 
Third and Fourth Armies, in which the Canadian Corps was 
to co-operate by crossing the Canal, and by capturing Bourlon 
Wood and the high ground to the north-east of it, to protect 
the left flank of the attack. 

The XXII. Corps on the left was to take over the front held 
by the Canadian Corps to a point 1,200 yards north of the 
Arras-Cambrai Road, and the Canadian Corps was to take 
over part of the front held by the XVII. Corps (Third Army) 
as far as Mceuvres (exclusive), which was to be the Canadian 
Corps right boundary for the attack. 

" By this side-slip to the south the right of the Canadian 
Corps was to be placed opposite a dry portion of the 
Canal du Nord on a front of about 2,500 yards. The 
Germans were then holding in strength a strip of 
ground on the west side of the canal, and every effort 
made by the XVII. Corps to clear this ground and 
reach the Canal banks had been repulsed." 

On September 22 the task of the Corps was enlarged so 
as to include, in addition to the objectives already mentioned, 
the capture of the bridges over the Canal-de-rEscaut, north 
of Cambrai, and the high ground overlooking the Sensee Valley. 
The right boundary was not altered. To assist in carrying 
out the above additional task, the 11th Division and the 7th 
Tank Battalion were placed under my orders. 



Corps Operations. 157 

The date of this operation was definitely fixed for September 
27, 1918, at dawn. 

It was decided that the 4th and 1st Canadian Divisions 
would carry out the initial attack, capture the villages of Bourlon 
and Marquion respectively, and immediately thereafter seize 
Bourlon Wood and bring the line up to the high ground north 
of Bourlon Wood and east of Bois-de-Cocret and Dartford 
Wood. 

At this stage the 3rd Canadian Division would pass through 
the right of the 4th Canadian Division and advance from a 
line east of Bourlon Wood in an easterly direction towards 
Neuville-St. Remy, in liaison with the XVII. Corps. 

The 11th Division was to come up on the left of the 1st 
Canadian Division and advance in a north-easterly direction 
towards Epinoy and Oisy le Verger. The 4th Canadian 
Division on the right centre was to advance towards Blecourt 
and the 1st Canadian Division on the left centre was to advance 
in the direction of Abancourt. 

This attack was fraught with difficulties. On the Corps 
battle-front of 6,400 yards the Canal du Nord was impassable 
on the northern 3,800 yards. The Corps had, therefore, to 
cross the Canal du Nord on a front of 2,600 yards, and to expand 
later fanwise in a north-easterly direction to a front exceeding 
15,000 yards. This intricate manoeuvre called for most skilful 
leadership on the part of commanders, and the highest state of 
discipline on the part of the troops. 

The assembly of the attacking troops in an extremely 
congested area known by the enemy to be the only one available 
was very dangerous, especially in view of the alertness of the 
enemy. A concentrated bombardment of this area prior to 
zero, particularly if gas was employed, was a dreaded possibility 
which could seriously affect the whole of the operation and 
possibly cause its total failure. 

To meet such an eventuality careful arrangements were 
made by the counter-battery staff officer to bring to bear a 
specially heavy neutralising fire on hostile batteries at any 
moment during the crucial period of preparation. These 
arrangements were to be put into effect, in any case, at zero 
hour, to neutralise the hostile defensive barrage on the front 
of attack. 

With the exception of the 2nd Canadian Division which 
was now holding the entire front, and would be in Corps 



15S Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

R< serve at the time of the attack, every resource of the Canadian 
Corps was to be crowded in that narrow space. 

The provision of an effective Artillery barrage presented 
considerable difficulty owing to the depth of the attack and 
its general direction. On the 4th Canadian Division front 
particularly, the depth to the initial objective was such that 
the batteries were compelled to move forward into captured 
ground and continue firing the barrage from these new positions. 
Provision was made for the advance of a number of batteries 
with their Echelons to the Canal line and beyond whilst the 
attack was in progress. 

A large number of Machine Gun batteries were detailed 
to supply the initial barrage and, later, to advance in support 
of the Infantry. 

Provisions were also made for Engineer Units to move 
forward immediately following the assaulting troops, to effect 
immediate repair to the roads and crossings of the Canal in 
order to enable the Artillery to move up in support of the 
Infantry. 

The greatest precautions had been taken to ensure secrecy, 
and camouflage had been used extensively to prevent detection 
of the preparations of all kinds that were in progress. 

Further to conceal our intentions, it was decided that no 
preliminary fighting to secure a jumping-off line would take 
place, and that the Germans would be left in possession of their 
positions west of the Canal until the hour of the attack. It 
was also hoped that, by letting the Germans retain this ground, 
their defensive barrage would remain well west of the Canal 
instead of being placed on the Canal itself, where the banks 
offered a serious obstacle and reduced very considerably the 
rate of advance of the assaulting troops. 

On our right the XVII. Corps was to advance and capture 
Fontaine-Notre-Dame, in conjunction with the capture of 
Bourlon Wood by the 4th Canadian Division. 

On the night September 25/26 the XXII. Corps on the 
left took over the front as far south as the Arras-Cambrai 
Road, and arranged to extend the Artillery and Machine Gun 
barrage to their front so as to deceive the enemy regarding 
actual flanks of the attack. 

The 4th and 1st Canadian Divisions went into the line 
on their respective battle fronts. 



Corps Operations. 159 

The 2nd Canadian Division, on completion of the relief, 
passed into Corps Reserve. 

During the night September 26/27 all final adjustments 
and moves were made, and everything was ready before zero 
hour. 

This was for everybody a night full of anxiety, but apart 
from the usual harassing lire and night bombing nothing- 
untoward happened. 

The Attack. — At 5.20 a.m., September 27, the attack was 
successfully launched, and in spite of all obstacles went well 
from the first. 

The barrage was uniformly good, and the 3rd and 4th 
Canadian Divisional Artilleries, commanded respectively by 
Brigadier - General J. S. Stewart and Brigadier - General 
W. B. M. King, were successful in advancing into captured 
ground, and continued the barrage as planned. 

Early in the afternoon the First Phase of the attack was 
substantially over, and the readjustments of the fronts pre- 
paratory to the Second Phase were under way. 

On the extreme right, however, the XVII. Corps had failed 
to keep pace with our advance, and our right flank, submitted 
to severe enfilade Machine Gun fire from the vicinity of Anneux, 
had to be refused for a considerable distance to retain touch 
with the left of the XVII. Corps ; therefore, the encircling 
movement which was to have given us Bourlon Wood could 
not be developed. 

Fully alive to the gravity of the situation which would 
be created on the flank of the Third Army by the failure to 
capture and hold Bourlon Wood, the 4th Canadian Division 
attacked from the north side of the Wood and captured all the 
high ground, pushing patrols as far as Fontaine-Notre-Dame. 

"It is recalled here that Bourlon Wood, which is 110 
metres high, dominates the ground as far south as 
Flequieres and Havrincourt ; and that its loss after 
very heavy fighting in November, 1917, during the 
first battle of Cambrai, caused eventually the with- 
drawal of the Third Army from a large portion of 
the ground they had won by their surprise attack." 

A severe counter-attack launched from the direction of 
Raillencourt, against the left of the 4th Canadian Division, 
was repulsed in the afternoon with heavy losses to the enemy. 



160 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Owing to the situation on our right flank, already explained, 
the 3rd Canadian Division could not be engaged this day. 
The 1st Canadian Division and the 11th (British) Division, 
however, made substantial gains after the commencement 
of the Second Phase, the former capturing Haynecourt and 
crossing the Douai-Cambrai Road, and the latter pushing on 
and taking Epinoy and Oisy-le-Verger by evening. 

The attack was continued on the 28th. The 3rd Canadian 
Division captured Fontaine-Notre-Dame (one of the XVII. 
Corps objectives), and, penetrating the Marcoing line, reached 
the western outskirts of St. Olle. The 4th Canadian Division 
captured Raillencourt and Sailly, and the 11th (British) 
Division established posts in Aubencheul-au-Bac and occupied 
the Bois-de-Quesnoy. The 1st Canadian Division, in view 
of their advance of the previous day which had produced a 
considerable salient, did not push forward. 

Heavy fighting characterised the 29th. The 3rd Canadian 
Division, the 4th Canadian Division, and the 1st Canadian 
Division all made progress in the face of severe opposition. 
The 3rd Canadian Division pushed the line forward to the 
junction of the Arras and Bapaume Road, the western out- 
skirts of Neuville St. Remy and the Douai-Cambrai Road. 
They also cleared the Marquion line from the Bapaume-Cambrai 
Road southwards towards the Canal de l'Escaut. These 
trenches were in the XVII. Corps area, but it was difficult 
for our attack to progress leaving on its flank and rear this 
strongly held position. The 4th Canadian Division captured 
Sancourt, crossed the Douai-Cambrai Railway and entered 
Blecourt, but later withdrew to the line of the railway in the 
face of a heavy counter-attack. The necessity for this with- 
drawal was accentuated by the situation on the left. The 
11th Division, in spite of two attempts, had been unable to 
occupy the high ground north-east of Epinoy. This had 
interfered materially with the progress of the 1st Canadian 
Division, and had prevented their holding positions gained 
early in the day in the neighbourhood of iVbancourt Station, 
the relinquishment of which, in turn, endangered the flank 
of the 4th Canadian Division. 

The operation of the 30th was planned in two phases. In 
the first, the 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions were to push 
forward across the high ground between the Canal de l'Escaut 
and the Blecourt-Bantigny Ravine, when Brutinel's Brigade 
was to pass through them and secure bridgeheads at Ramillies 



Corps Operations. 161 

and Eswars. The second phase, to take place on the success 
of the first, provided for the seizing of the high ground over- 
looking the Sensee River by the 1st Canadian Division and 
11th (British) Division. The attack commenced well, and 
the villages of Tilloy and Blecourt were captured by the 3rd 
and 4th Canadian Divisions respectively. A heavy counter- 
attack, however, against the 4th Canadian Division and the 
left flank of the 3rd Canadian Division, assisted by exceptionally 
severe enfilade fire from the high ground to the north of the 
Blecourt-Bantigny Ravine, forced the line on the left back 
to the eastern outskirts of Sancourt. The second phase of 
the attack was not carried out, and the net gains for the day 
were the capture of Tilloy and some progress made on the right 
of the 3rd Canadian Division from Neuville St. Remy south. 
Prisoners taken during the day testified to the supreme 
importance, in the eyes of the enemy, of the positions held by 
him and the necessity that they be held at all costs. 

The tremendous exertions and considerable casualties 
consequent upon the four days' almost continuous fighting 
had made heavy inroads on the freshness and efficiency of all 
arms, and it was questionable whether an immediate decision 
could be forced in the face of the heavy concentration of 
troops which our successful and, from the enemy's standpoint, 
dangerous advance, had drawn against us. On the other hand, 
it was known that the enemy had suffered severely, and it 
was quite possible that matters had reached a stage where 
he no longer considered the retention of this position worth 
the severe losses both in men and moral consequent upon a 
continuance of the defence. It was therefore decided that 
the assault would be continued on October 1, the four Divisions 
in line attacking simultaneously under a heavy barrage, co- 
ordinated by the G.O.C., R.A. During the night the XXII. 
Corps took over a portion of the front held by the 11th Division, 
the 56th Division becoming responsible for the defence of the 
relieved front at 6.00 a.m., October 1. 

The attack made excellent progress in the early stages, 
and the troops reached the general line Canal de l'Escaut 
(east of Neuville St. Remy) - Morenchies Wood - Cuvillers- 
Bantigny (all inclusive). 

The decision of the enemy to resist to the last quickly mani- 
fested itself. About 10.00 a.m. heavy counter-attacks developed 
up the Bantigny Ravine from the direction of Paillencourt. These, 
supplemented by enfilade fire from the high ground just south 

(642) M 



162 Overseas Military Forces oj Canada. 

of Abancourt, which still remained in the enemy's hands, due 
to a certain extent to the inability of the 11th Division on the 
left to make progress, were sufficient to press back our advanced 
troops. Pockets of the enemy in Blecourt and Bantigny 
continued to give trouble, and our line was ultimately forced 
by greatly superior numbers out of Cuvillers, Bantigny and 
Blecourt. 

To continue to throw tired troops against such opposition, 
without giving them an opportunity to refit and recuperate, 
was obviously inviting a serious failure, and I accordingly 
decided to break off the engagement. The five days' fighting 
had yielded practical gains of a very valuable nature, as well 
as 7,059 prisoners and 205 guns. 

We had gone through the last organised system of defences 
on our front, and our advance constituted a direct threat on 
the rear of the troops immediately to the north of our left 
flank, and their withdrawal had now begun. 

Although the ground gained on the 1st was not extensive, 
the effects of the battle and of the previous four days' fighting 
were far-reaching, and made possible the subsequent advances 
of October and November, in so far as the Divisions engaged 
against the Canadian Corps drew heavily on the enemy's 
reserves, which had now been greatly reduced. 

It is worthy of note that the enemy employed six Divisions 
to reinforce the four Divisions already in the line, making a 
total of ten Divisions engaged since September 27 by the 
Canadian Corps. In addition to their 10 Divisional Artilleries 
and large number of heavy guns, these German Divisions had 
been reinforced by 13 Marksmen Machine Gun Companies. 

In the same period only three additional Divisions and one 
Regiment were employed by the Germans to reinforce the front 
from Honnecourt to Cambrai, a front of approximately 18,000 
yards in length. 

This comparison of employment of reserves showed clearly 
that the enemy was greatly perturbed by the success of our 
advance, and the serious threat it offered especially to his 
northern defences. 

Throughout this phase very heavy calls had been made on 
the Corps Artillery (Major-General E. W. B. Morrison) and the 
Canadian Engineers. 

With the exception of the advances of the 1st Canadian 
and 11th (British) Divisions in the second stage of the attack 



Corps Operations. 163 

of September 27, all operations carried out during the five days 
took place under cover of Artillery barrages. The amount of 
ammunition fired was exceptionally large, and it was only by 
the most strenuous efforts on the part of all ranks of the 
Artillery that the supply could be made to keep pace with the 
expenditure. 

The success in this respect was to a large extent due to the 
exertion and skill displayed by the Canadian Engineers (Major- 
General W. B. Lindsay) in every branch of their activities, 
notably in bridge-building and repair of roads. The enemy 
had set a large number of Tank mines and " booby traps," 
and in one sector alone the Engineers removed over 200 Tank 
mines, thus greatly facilitating the operation in progress. 

4th Phase. — The 2nd Canadian Division had been in close 
support throughout the day, and during the night October 
1/2 relieved the 4th Canadian Division and parts of the 3rd and 
1st Canadian Divisions in the line from the railway south of 
Tilloy to Blecourt inclusive. On relief, the 4th Canadian 
Division came into Corps Reserve in bivouacs in the Inchy- 
Queant area. 

The relief considerably thinned out the Infantry, and in 
anticipation of possible counter-attacks a large number of 
Machine Gun Batteries were placed in the line. 

October 2 passed without any substantial change in the 
•situation. The enemy's Artillery was very active throughout 
the day, and at 6.15 p.m. he delivered a determined counter- 
attack, with a force estimated at about a Battalion strong, 
against the ridge N.E. of Tilloy, on the 2nd Canadian Division 
front. This counter-attack was repulsed with heavy loss to 
the enemy. 

During the night October 2/3 the 11th Division extended 
its frontage to the right as far as Blecourt (inclusive), relieving 
the remainder of the 1st Canadian Division, who came into 
Corps Reserve west of the Canal on completion of the relief. 

The dispositions of the Canadian Corps at noon, October 3, 
were as follows : — 

In the line — the 3rd Canadian Division on the right on a 
one-Brigade front, from the Arras-Cambrai railway to the 
Cambrai-Douai railway south of Tilloy; the 2nd Canadian 
Division in the centre, on a two-Brigade front, extending to 
the northern outskirts of Blecourt, and the 11th Division 

(642) M 2 



164 Overseas Military Forces oj Canada. 

on the left continuing the line to a point 1,000 yards south of 
Aubencheul-au-Bac. 

In Corps Reserve — the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions. 
The latter was moved to billets in the Haute Avesnes-Arras 
area on the night of October 7/8, to give more opportunity to 
rest and refit. 

The period from October 3 to 8 passed without any material 
changes on the Corps front. An enemy counter-attack was 
beaten off by the 2nd Canadian Division opposite Bantigny 
on the morning of October 4, and the 11th Division considerably 
improved the line on the northern flank by successful minor 
operations on October 5 and 6. 

Many patrol encounters took place, in which some prisoners 
were captured, and our Artillery and Machine Guns kept the 
enemy under continual harassing fire day and night. In 
addition, our Heavy Artillery carried out a daily programme of 
gas concentrations and counter-battery shoots. 

Orders were received on October 3 for the relief of the Corps 
by the XXII. Corps. Concurrently with this relief, and as it 
progressed, the Canadian Corps was to take over the front of 
the XXII. Corps. 

Plans for further operations having been formulated to 
take place on the Third Army front, the Canadian Corps was 
ordered on October 5 to co-operate by forcing the crossings of 
the Canal de l'Escaut, north of Cambrai, and the relief con- 
templated was, therefore, postponed. 

The Third Army had been successful in crossing the Canal 
de l'Escaut south of Cambrai between Crevecceur and Proville. 
The operation now contemplated had for object the capture 
of Cambrai by envelopment. This was to be carried out in 
two phases. 

In the first phase the XVII. Corps was to capture Awoignt 
by attacking from the south, the Canadian Corps was to 
co-operate by an Artillery demonstration. In the second 
phase the Canadian Corps was to cross the Canal de l'Escaut 
and, advancing rapidly, capture Escaudceuvres, joining hands 
with the XVII. Corps north-east of Cambrai. 

The positions occupied by the 3rd and 2nd Canadian 
Divisions were not favourable for an attack by day ; the 3rd 
Canadian Division was in front of Cambrai, and house-to-house 
fighting was out of the question ; the 2nd Canadian Division 
was separated from the Canal by glacis-like slopes, devoid of 



Corps Operations, 165 

cover, and on which the enemy had good observation from the 
numerous houses on the east side of the Canal as well as from 
the high ground east of Escaudceuvres. In addition, 
Morenchies, Pont d'Aire, Ramillies, and the villages to the 
north were strongly held by the enemy. 

In spite of the difficulties of a night operation it was decided 
that the 2nd Canadian Division would attack by night, and 
attempt to seize the bridges before they were blown up by the 
enemy. 

The 3rd Canadian Division was to cover the right of the 
2nd Canadian Division by capturing the railway embankment, 
and entering Cambrai as soon as possible to prevent any action 
of the enemy against the right flank of the 2nd Canadian 
Division, which, under the best circumstances, was bound to 
be in the air for some time after the crossing of the Canal. 

Brutinel's Brigade was to' cross the Canal as soon as possible, 
and extend the gains of the 2nd Canadian Division by seizing 
the high ground east of Thun St. Martin. Ten Brigades of Field 
Artillery were available for the operation. 

The Attack.— At 4.30 a.m., October 8, the Third Army 
attacked, and at the same hour an artillery demonstration 
was carried out on the Canadian Corps front. 

The XVII. Corps on the right did not reach Awoignt, but 
in the evening they were ordered to continue their advance 
on the morning of October 9 to capture this town ; concurrently 
with this advance the Canadian Corps was to secure the crossings 
of the Canal de TEscaut. 

In spite of the darkness of a rainy night the assembly was 
completed, and the attack was launched successfully at 1.30 a.m., 
October 9. Rapid progress was made, and at 2.25 a.m. the 
2nd Canadian Division had captured Ramillies and established 
posts on the Canal there, and patrols were pushing out to the 
north-east. On the right the Infantry, assisted by a party of 
Engineers, rushed the crossings at Pont d'Aire, and, after sharp 
fighting, captured the bridge intact, with the exception of the 
western spillway, which had bteen partially destroyed. Two 
cork bridges were thrown across, and by 3.35 a.m. our Infantry 
were well established on the eastern side of the Canal. The 
3rd Canadian Division had cleared the railway, and their 
patrols were pushing into Cambrai, while the Engineers were 
commencing work on the bridges. 



166 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

By 8.00 a.m. the 2nd Canadian Division had captured 
Escaudceuvres, and had established a line on the high ground 
immediately to the north and east. Detachments of the 3rd 
Canadian Division had by this time completely cleared Cambrai 
of the enemy, and troops of the Third Army could be seen 
coming up towards it from the south. 

Cambrai was to be deliberately set on fire by the enemy. 
Huge fires were burning in the Square when our patrols went 
through, and many others broke out in all parts of the city. 
Piles of inflammable material were found ready for the torch, 
but the enemy was unable to carry out his intention owing to 
our unexpected attack and rapid progress. A party of one 
officer and a few men, which had been left with instructions to 
set fire to Cambrai, was discovered and dealt with before it 
could do any further damage. The fires were successfully 
checked by a large detachment of Canadian Engineers who 
entered the city with the patrols. A considerable number of 
road mines, " booby traps," etc., were also located and removed. 

An air reconnaissance at dawn indicated that the enemy 
had withdrawn from the area between the Canal de l'Escaut 
and the Canal de la Sensee, and that all bridges over the latter 
had been destroyed. 

Brutinel's Brigade, passing through the Infantry of the 2nd 
Canadian Division, seized the high ground at Croix St. Hubert 
and pushed Cavalry patrols into Thun Levecque. 

The 2nd Canadian Division east of the Canal progressed 
towards the north and occupied Thun Levecque, Thun St. 
Martin, Blecourt, Cuvillers, and Bantigny, and the 11th 
Division occupied Abancourt and reached the outskirts of 
Paillencourt. 

The 3rd Canadian Division was withdrawn at 7.10 p.m. 
when the 24th Division (XVII. Corps) passed through and 
joined up with the 2nd Canadian Division, and Cambrai and 
our positions to the east were taken over or occupied by the 
XVII. Corps. 

The 3rd Canadian Division was moved on the following 
day to bivouacs in the Inchy-Queant area to rest and refit 
after 12 days of battle. 

The attack was continued at 6.00 a.m., October 10, by the 
2nd Canadian and 11th (British) Divisions, and good progress 
was made. The 2nd Canadian Division captured Naves, and 
by nightfall reached a point one and a-half miles north-east 



Corps Operations. 167 

on the Cambrai-Salzoir Road. From there our line ran west- 
wards to the Canal de l'Escaut, exclusive of Iwuy, where we 
were held up by machine gun fire. 

In this attack Brutinel's Brigade operated along the 
Cambrai-Salzoir Road, but finding the Bridge over the Erclin 
River destroyed could not get their cars further forward. 

" This Bridge, although on the outpost line under 
heavy fire, was immediately replaced by the Engineers, 
a covering party being supplied by Brutinel's Brigade." 

Machine gun crews from the cars went forward on foot, 
however, and materially assisted the Infantry advancing at 
this point, and the Corps Cavalry, by a brilliant charge, helped 
in the capture of the ground east of the Rieux-Iwuy Road. 

On the left, the 11th Division cleared the enemy from the 
area between the Canal de l'Escaut and the Sensee Canal, 
captured Paillencourt and Estrun, and reached the outskirts of 
Hem-Lenglet, which they occupied during the night. 

The 49th and 51st Divisions were released from Army 
Reserve and transferred to the Canadian Corps on October 10. 
During the night lOth/llth the former relieved that part of 
the 2nd Canadian Division east of Iwuy, and the 51st (Highland) 
Division moved to the Escaudceuvres area. 

At 9.00 a.m., October 11, the Canadian Corps resumed the 
attack with the 49th Division on the right and the 2nd Canadian 
Division on the left. The enemy laid down a heavy Artillery 
barrage and both Divisions encountered stiff opposition. After 
fierce fighting, however, our attack made good progress, the 
49th Division gaining the high ground east of Iwuy, and the 
2nd Canadian Division capturing Iwuy and the high ground to 
the north. 

About 10.30 a.m. the enemy delivered a heavy counter- 
attack under an artillery barrage and supported by seven Tanks, 
from the direction of Avesnes-le-Sec, against the 49th and 2nd 
Canadian Divisions. Our line was forced back slightly at first, 
but six of the Tanks were knocked out by our Artillery, the 
assaulting Infantry dispersed by our machine gun and rifle 
fire, and the attack repulsed. 

Meanwhile, on October 7/8, the 1st Canadian Division had 
relieved the 4th (British) Division (XXII. Corps) on the frontage 
between Palluel and the Scarpe River, and passed under the 
command of the G.O.C., XXII. Corps. 



168 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

At 5.00 p.m., October 11, I handed over command of the 
Corps front (less the 11th Divisional sector) to the G.O.C., 
XXII. Corps, and the 2nd Canadian and the 49th and 51st 
Divisions were transferred to the XXII. Corps. 

At the same hour I assumed command of the former XXII. 
Corps front, and the 56th and the 1st Canadian Divisions were 
transferred in the line to the Canadian Corps. 

During the night of October 11/12 the 2nd Canadian 
Division was relieved in the line east of the Iwuy-Denain 
railway by the 51st (Highland) Division, and on completion of 
the relief I assumed command of the remainder of the 2nd 
Canadian Divisional front, extending from the Iwuy-Denain 
railway exclusive, to the Canal de l'Escaut. 

The battle of Arras-Cambrai, so fruitful in results, was now 
closed. Since August 26 the Canadian Corps had advanced 
23 miles, fighting for every foot of ground and overcoming 
the most bitter resistance. 

In that period the Canadian Corps engaged and defeated 
decisively 31 German Divisions, reinforced by numerous 
Marksmen Machine Gun Companies. These Divisions were 
met in strongly fortified positions and under conditions most 
favourable to the defence. 

In this battle 18,585 prisoners were captured by us, together 
with 371 guns, 1,923 Machine Guns and many Trench Mortars. 

Over 116 square miles of French soil, containing 54 towns 
and villages, and including the city of Cambrai, were liberated. 

The severity of the fighting and the heroism of our troops 
may be gathered from the casualties suffered between August 
22 and October 11, and which are as follows : — 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

Killed 296 .. 4,071 

Missing 18 . . 1,912 

Wounded .. .. 1,230 .. 23,279 



Total.. .. 1,544 .. 29,262 



Considering the great number of German Divisions engaged 
and the tremendous artillery and machine gun fire power at 
their disposal, the comparative lightness of our casualties 
testified to the excellence of the precautions taken by Divisional, 
Brigade, and Regimental Officers to minimise the loss of life, 
having ever in mind the performance of their duty and the 
accomplishment of their heavy task. 



Corps Operations. 169 

General Situation. — While the Canadian Corps was 
tenaciously fighting to break through the hinge of the Hinden- 
burg system of defence, the Third and Fourth British Armies 
were pushing forward through the devastated areas in the 
Somme, meeting everywhere strong and determined rearguards. 
The outer defences of the Hindenburg line were captured by 
them on September 18 and 19, and a good position secured 
for the assault of the main defences. 

The storming of the Canal du Nord line, which brought 
the Canadian Corps definitely behind the areas organised for 
•defence, was immediately followed by the capture of the main 
Hindenburg line on the fronts of the Third and Fourth Armies, 
and on October 8 and 10 the Canal de TEscaut was crossed north 
of Cambrai. Cambrai was seized and the German rearguards 
pushed back in open country to the Selle River. 

The Germans were falling back everywhere ; they had now 
•evacuated completely the Lys salient and a portion of the 
ground east and south of Lens, but they were still holding a 
line west of Lille-Douai and along the Canal de la Sensee. 

The Canadian Corps, although tired and depleted in numbers, 
began to push forward as soon as it had taken over the new 
front on the Canal de la Sensee south of Douai. On October 
14 the Second Army, in conjunction with the Belgian Armies 
and French Detachments, attacked the northern part of the 
salient and precipitated the German retreat. 

OPERATIONS-DOUAI-MONS. 

The Battle Front. — The new Front of the Canadian Corps 
(at 5.00 p.m., October 11) extended from Iwuy-Denain Railway, 
north of Iwuy, to the Canal de TEscaut at Estrun, thence 
following the southern bank of the Canal de la Sensee to Palluel, 
thence crossing the Sensee River at Hamel to the Scarpe River 
east of Vitry. The front was held by the 2nd Canadian 
Division from the right to the Canal de TEscaut — the 11th 
Division from Estrun (inclusive) to Aubencheul-au-Bac (ex- 
clusive) — the 56th Division from Aubencheul-au-Bac (inclusive) 
to Palluel (inclusive), and the 1st Canadian Division from 
Palluel (exclusive) to the western boundary. (See Sketch 
No. 12.) 

The Fronts of the 11th and 56th Divisions were then 
stationary, but on the Front of the 1st Canadian Division 



170 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

crossings had been forced over the Sensee and Trinquis Rivers 
that morning, and the enemy was retiring, closely followed by 
battle patrols of the 1st Canadian Division. 

' The 1st Canadian Division had relieved the 4th 
British Division in the line along the south side of 
the valleys of the Sensee and Trinquis Rivers, from 
Palluel exclusive to the Scarpe, during the nights 
October 5/6 and 6/7, coming under orders of the 
XXII. Corps. 

The front had been a quiet one, the river valleys 
having been flooded by the enemy to an average 
width of from 300 to 400 yards, and the bridges 
destroyed. 

On the morning of October 8 the Division carried out 
a ' Chinese attack ' with a view to ascertaining 
the enemy's probable action if attacked. Under 
cover of the barrage, patrols succeeded in enlarging 
the small bridge-head across the river at Sailly-en- 
Ostrevent, capturing 24 prisoners and two machine 
guns. 

The enemy was expected to withdraw shortly, and 
this barrage was repeated daily at dawn with the 
object of harassing the enemy and testing his strength. 
At 3.00 a.m., October 10, battle patrols were pushed 
out by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier- 
General G S. Tuxford) from the bridge-head at Sailly, 
and after capturing the village 'they entered the 
Drocourt - Queant line to the north-east. Thirty 
prisoners and six machine guns were sent back from 
Sailly at daylight ; a strong enemy counter-attack 
(estimated at two battalions) overran the force in 
the Drocourt-Queant line and recaptured Sailly,. 
driving our line back to the line previously held. 

On October 11, in conjunction with an attack on 
the left by the 8th Division, our troops forced their 
way over the narrow crossings of the Sensee and 
Trinquis Rivers in the face of considerable machine 
gun fire and pushed northwards and eastwards, 
meeting only resistance from isolated machine gun 
nests. The performance of the first patrols in forcing 
their way across the narrow causeways, all stoutly 
defended by machine guns, was a splendid achieve- 
ment." 



SKETCH. N? 11 

ADVANCES^ B Y CANADIAN 



CORPS Au^6= h to OcrHia/gia 







Corps Operations. 171 

By the night of October 11 the 1st Canadian Division, 
on the left, had reached the line Hamel-Estrees-Noyelles (all 
inclusive), and at dawn, October 12, pushed forward, clearing 
Arleux and reaching the west bank of the Canal from Palluel 
to the Scarpe. 

On October 12 the line remained stationary between the 
Canal du Nord and the Canal de l'Escaut. East of the Canal 
de l'Escaut the 2nd Canadian Division attacked at noon in 
conjunction with the XXII. Corps on the right and captured 
Hordain. Attempts to push forward to Basseville were, 
however, stopped by machine gun fire. The restricted area 
and the inundated condition of the ground prevented further 
progress on this front until the troops on the right could get 
forward. 

It was apparent from many indications that the enemy 
was preparing to carry out a withdrawal on a large scale. 
Prisoners reported the evacuation of civilians and the removal 
or destruction of all stores, also that roads and railways had 
been prepared for demolition. These statements were con- 
firmed by our observers, who reported numerous and frequent 
explosions and fires behind the enemy's lines. 

On the Canadian Corps' front, the Divisions in the line 
were confronted by the Canal de la Sensee, and this in its 
flooded condition was a serious obstacle, the few crossings 
possible being narrow and easily defended. Orders were 
issued, however, that a policy of aggressive patrolling should 
be adopted to detect at the earliest moment any retirement, 
and that all preparations should be made for an immediate 
and rapid pursuit. 

Our patrols were most daring during the next few days, 
but no weak spot was to be found along the enemy, front, our 
attempts at crossing the Canal being stopped by heavy machine 
gun and rifle fire. 

During the night October 12/13 the 2nd Canadian Division 
extended its left to Aubencheul-au-Bac exclusive, relieving 
the 11th Division in the line, with the 4th Canadian Infantry 
Brigade (Brigadier-General G. E. McCuaig) on the right, and the 
6th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General A. Ross) on 
the left. At this stage the G.O.C. 56th Division represented 
that his troops were too weak and tired to carry out the vigorous 
pursuit required in case of an enemy withdrawal. The 4th 
Canadian Division was, therefore, ordered to relieve the 56th 
Division by the morning of October 16, and in the meantime 



172 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

to place one Brigade at the disposal of the G.O.C. 56th Division 
to be used in following up the enemy. On October 13 the 
10th Canadian Infantry Brigade, which had been resting in 
Arras, was accordingly moved up to Marquion, and came into 
reserve under the 56th Division. 

During the early morning of October 13 the 56th Division 
crossed the Canal and succeeded in establishing a bridge-head 
at Aubigny-au-Bac, capturing the village with 201 prisoners. 
At 10.00 p.m. the following night, however, an enemy counter- 
attack in strength caused our withdrawal from the village, 
but the bridge-head was retained. 

The relief of the 56th Division by the 4th Canadian Division 
was carried out on the nights October 14/15 and 15/16 without 
incident, and the former moved back to rest in the Arras- 
Haute Avesnes-Marceuil area, coming into Army Reserve. 

Patrols of the 1st Canadian Division succeeded in crossing 
the Canal near Ferin, on its left Brigade front, during the early 
morning of October 14, but meeting strong resistance, the 
parties withdrew, taking with them some prisoners and machine 
guns. 

The Advance. — Test barrages were carried out on the Corps' 
front each morning to ascertain the enemy's strength and 
attitude, and on October 17 the enemy was found extremely 
quiet and did not retaliate to our Artillery fire on the front 
of the 1st Canadian Division. Patrols were, therefore, sent 
out on that front and succeeded in crossing the Canal in several 
places, meeting only slight opposition. Stronger patrols followed 
and made good progress. 

On the front of the 4th Canadian Division, however, all 
attempts to cross the Canal were still met by machine gun 
fire. After the 1st Canadian Division had secured crossings, 
a Battalion of the 4th Canadian Division was sent up to take 
advantage of these crossings and, working down the east side 
of the Canal, cleared the enemy on the 4th Canadian Division 
front, and enabled the advance to commence there. 

Further to the right, at Hem Lenglet, the 2nd Canadian 
Division succeeded in crossing the Canal later in the day, and 
patrols were pushed on in the direction of Wasnes-au-Bac. 

Only enemy rearguards were encountered during the day, 
and the opposition was nowhere heavy, although more organised 
and stubborn on the right opposite the 2nd Canadian Division. 



Corps Operations. 173 

By 6.00 a.m., October 18, practically all the Infantry of 
the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions and several Battalions of 
the 2nd Canadian Division were across the Canal, and the 
following towns had been liberated : — Ferin, Courchelettes,. 
Goeulzin, Le Racquet, Villers-au-Tertre, Cantin, Roucourt, 
Brunemont, Aubigny-au-Bac, Fechain, Fressain, Bugnicourt,. 
and Hem Lenglet. 

During that day two armoured cars, one squadron of the 
Canadian Light Horse, and one Company of Canadian Corps 
Cyclists from Brutinel's Brigade, were attached to each of 
the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions to assist in the pursuit 
of the enemy. These troops rendered valuable service to the 
Divisions to which they were attached, although the enemy's 
very complete road destruction prevented the armoured cars 
from operating to their full extent. 

Throughout the advance now begun a great amount of work 
was thrown upon the Engineers, and their resources in men and 
material were taxed to the utmost. The enemy's demolition 
had been very well planned and thoroughly carried out, all 
bridges over the canals and streams being destroyed, every 
cross road and road junction rendered impassable by the blowing 
of large mines, and the railways, light and standard, blown 
up at frequent intervals. The enemy also considerably impeded 
our progress by his clever manipulation of the water levels 
in the canals which he controlled. 

Foot-bridges were first thrown across the Canal, and these 
were quickly followed by heavier types of bridges to carry 
Battalion transport and Artillery, and in addition eight heavy 
traffic bridges, ranging in length from 90 to 160 feet, were at 
once put under way. On the Front of the 1st Canadian Division 
on the left the enemy drained the Canal, and it was found 
impossible to complete and use the pontoon bridges first 
commenced. 

The Engineers in the forward area concentrated their efforts 
on road repair, craters being quickly filled in, for the most 
part with material gathered on the spot and found in enemy 
dumps. In addition, the whole areas were searched immediately 
after their occupation, many " booby traps " and delayed action 
mines being discovered and rendered harmless, and all water 
supply sources being tested. 

It was clear from the wholesale destruction of roads and 
railways that the reconstruction of communications would 
be very slow and that it would be difficult to keep our troops. 



174 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

supplied. Canadian Railway Troops were brought up, and, 
as soon as the enemy had been cleared away from the Canal, 
work was commenced on the repairing of the standard gauge 
railway forward from Sauchy Lestree. The construction of a 
railway bridge over the Canal at Aubencheul-au-Bac was 
immediately commenced. 

The enemy retirement now extended considerably north 
of our front, and the VIII. Corps on our left began to move 
forward. During October 18 rapid and fairly easy progress 
was made, and the following towns and villages were liberated 
from the enemy : — Dechy, Sin-le-Noble, Guesnain, Montigny, 
Pecquencourt, Loffre, Lewarde, Erchin, Masny, Ecaillon, 
Marquette, Wasnes-au-Bac and the western portions of Auberchi- 
court and Monchecourt. 

During the day the advance had carried us into a large 
industrial area, and well-built towns became more frequent. 
It also liberated the first of a host of civilians, 2,000 being 
found in Pecquencourt and a few in Auberchicourt. These 
people had been left by the retiring enemy without food, and 
faced as we were by an ever lengthening line of communication, 
and with only one bridge yet available for anything but horse 
transport, the work of the supply services was greatly increased. 
This additional burden was, however, cheerfully accepted, 
and the liberated civilians, whose numbers exceeded 70,000 
before Valenciennes was reached, as well as our rapidly advancing 
troops, were at no time without a regular supply of food. 

On October 19 the advance was continued on the whole 
Corps' front, nearly 40 towns and villages being wrested from 
the enemy, including the large town of Denain. 

The XXII. Corps, advancing on our right from the south, 
gained touch with the 4th Canadian Division just east of Denain 
on the evening of October 19, pinching out the 2nd Canadian 
Division, which was then concentrated in the Auberchicourt 
area, where good billets were available. 

In spite of bad weather and increased resistance more 
ground was gained on the 20th, and the villages of Hasnon, 
Les Faux, Wallers and Haveluy, with a large population, were 
freed. 

During the day resistance had stiffened all along the line. 
The ground over which we were advancing was very flat, and 
there was no tactical advantage to be gained by pushing forward, 
and a further advance would also increase the difficulties of 



Corps Operations. 175 

supply. In addition, on the left, the VIII. Corps had not 
been able to cope with the supply question and had not advanced 
in conformity with our progress. In view of these considerations, 
orders were issued that Divisions were to maintain touch with 
the enemy without becoming involved in heavy fighting. 

For a time on the 20th the 4th Canadian Division was 
held up just east of Denain by machine gun and artillery fire, 
and it was not until late in the afternoon that our troops could 
make progress there. 

Continuing the advance on the 21st, a footing was gained 
in the Foret-de-Vicoigne, and the following villages w r ere 
captured : — Aremberg, Oisy, Herin, Rouvignes, Aubry, Petite 
Foret, Anzin, Prouvy, Bellaing and Wavrechain. As on the 
previous day, all these villages contained civilians, who sub- 
sequently suffered considerably from deliberate hostile shelling. 

The 1st Canadian Division had now been in the line for two 
weeks without having an opportunity to rest and refit since 
the hard-fought battle of the Canal du Nord, and orders were 
issued for its relief by the 3rd Canadian Division. At dawn on 
the 22nd, in order that touch with the enemy be maintained, 
the 1st Canadian Division pushed forward. Following closely, 
the 3rd Canadian Division passed through the 1st Canadian 
Division during the forenoon, on the left Brigade front, about 
9.00 a.m., on the line of the St. Amand-Raismes Road, and on the 
right about 12 noon on the line of the St. Amand-Raismes 
railway, the Foret de Vicoigne having been cleared of the 
enemy. On relief, the 1st Canadian Division came into rest 
billets in the Somain-Pecquencourt-Masny area. 

The 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions pushed on during the 
22nd, and by nightfall Trith St. Leger, La Vignoble, La 
Sentinelle, Waast-le-Haut, Beauvrages, Bruay, and practically 
the whole of the large forest of Raismes, were in our hands. 
On the left Brigade front of the 4th Canadian Division the 
Canal de l'Escaut had been reached in places. A very large 
area north-east of Valenciennes and a smaller area to the 
south-west had been flooded, and to the west of the city the 
Canal itself provided a serious obstacle. To the south-west, 
beyond the flooded area, Mont Houy and the Famars Ridge 
made a natural line of defence. 

The XXII. Corps on our right had been held up along 
the Ecaillon River, and the VIII. Corps on our left had not 
been able to make any considerable advance, chiefly owing 
to supply difficulties, and were still some distance behind us. 



176 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The Divisions continued to push forward in the face of' 
steadily increasing opposition, and by the 25th had reached thel 
Canal and the western edge of the inundated area along the? 
whole Corps front. 

Our troops had had a very arduous pursuit, and the rail-head 
for supplies and ammunition was still very far to the rear. It 
was therefore decided that we should make good the west 
bank of the Canal and stand fast until the flanking Corps had 
made progress. 

Attempts to cross the Canal proved that the enemy was 
holding in strength a naturally strong position, and it was 
ordered that no crossing in force would be attempted without 
reference to Corps Headquarters. The Engineers established 
dumps of material well forward on selected sites so that the 
bridges necessary to cross the Canal on the resumption of our 
advance could be constructed without delay. 

It had become apparent that, unless the enemy withdrew, 
Valenciennes could only be taken from the south. The XXII, 
Corps, on the right, had meanwhile succeeded in crossing the 
Ecaillon River after a hard fight and captured the Famars 
Ridge. They had, however, been unable to take Mont Houy, 
which commanded Valenciennes from the south. 

On October 27 the First Army Commander outlined the 
plans for operations to be carried out in conjunction with 
attacks on a large scale by the Third and Fourth Armies to 
the south as follows : — 

The First Army was to capture Valenciennes. The operation 
to be carried out in three phases as follows : — 

(a) The capture of Mont Houy and Aulnoy — to be carried 
out by the XXII. Corps on the morning of October 28. 

(b) The capture of the high ground overlooking Valenciennes 
from the south — to be carried out by the Canadian 
Corps on a subsequent date, probably October 30. 

(c) The capture of the high ground east of Valenciennes — 
to be carried out after (b) above, probably on 
November 1. 

Valenciennes would thus be outflanked from the 
south. The Canadian Corps would take over, pro- 
bably on the night of October 28/29, the left Brigade 
frontage of the XXII. Corps (approximately 2,500 
yards) in order to carry out phase (b) and (c) of this 
operation. The above attacks were to be carried out 
simultaneously with the attacks of the Third and 
Fourth Armies. 



Corps Operation! Ill 

In accordance with the above, instructions were issued to 
the 3rd Canadian Division to take over the frontage of the 
left Brigade of the 4th Canadian Division. The 4th Canadian 
Division was, in turn, ordered to relieve the left Brigade of the 
XXII. Corps (51st Division), both side-slips to take place on 
the night of October 28/29, subsequent to the capture of Mont 
Houy by the XXII. Corps. 

The attack of the 51st Division on Mont Houy on October 28 
was not successful. In the first rush the troops succeeded in 
gaining a foothold on the objective, but were subsequently 
driven out by repeated counter-attacks. In view of this, the 
relief of the left Brigade of that Division by the 4th Canadian 
Division was postponed. During the night of October 28/29, 
however, the 3rd Canadian Division relieved the left Brigade of 
the 4th Canadian Division. 

Capture of Mont Houy and Valenciennes. — Orders were 
received that the Canadian Corps was to carry out all three 
phases of the operation against Valenciennes in conjunction 
with attacks of the XXII. Corps. Accordingly, the 4th 
Canadian Division was ordered to relieve the left Brigade of 
the 51st Division during the night of October 29/30 on the line 
then held, and to be prepared to carry out the attack on the 
morning of November 1. 

In conjunction with the attack the 3rd Canadian Division 
was ordered to cross the Canal and the inundated area on its 
front, and establish a bridge-head to enable the Engineers to 
reconstruct the bridges leading into the city. 

In the short period available elaborate preparations were 
made for the support of the attack. The position was 
eminently suitable for the use of enfilade as well as frontal fire, 
the general direction of the attack on Mont Houy being parallel 
to our front, and full advantage of this was taken in arranging 
the Artillery and Machine Gun barrages. 

The application of Heavy Artillery fire was restricted 
because the enemy had retained many civilians in Valenciennes 
and the adjoining villages. Strict orders were issued that the 
city and villages were not to be bombarded, with the exception 
of a row of houses on the eastern side of the Canal which were 
occupied by a large number of machine guns. To hinder the 
good observation which the enemy would otherwise have been 
able to enjoy from the city and villages, very elaborate arrange- 
ments were made to place heavy smoke screens along certain 
areas. 

(642) N 



178 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Despite great difficulties of transport, the supplies of 
ammunition, bridging material, etc., moved forward were 
sufficient, and before dawn on November 1 all preparations 
were completed. 

The time for the assault was hxed for 5.15 a.m., November 1. 
The plan of attack was as follows : — 

" The right Brigade of the 4th Canadian Division 
(10th Canadian Infantry Brigade, Brigadier-General 
J. M. Ross), south-east of the Canal, was to carry out 
the attack at zero hour under a co-ordinated barrage 
in a northerly direction and capture Mont Houy, 
Aulnoy, and the high ground south of Valenciennes, 
and then to exploit the success by pushing on to the 
high ground east of the city. 

" Subsequently, the troops north-west of the Canal 
(left Brigade — 4th Canadian Division and the 3rd 
Canadian Division) were to force crossings north of 
the city and encircle it from that side." 

At 5.15 a.m., November 1, the attack was launched, and 
from the first went entirely according to plan on the Canadian 
Corps front. The enemy barrage dropped quickly and was 
very heavy, but shortly afterwards slackened down under 
the influence of our efficient counter-battery fire. In the 
meantime the attacking Infantry got well away, advancing 
under a most excellent barrage, and reached their objective, 
the line of the Valenciennes-Maubeuge railway, on time right 
behind the barrage. 

The fighting during the advance was heavy, especially 
around the houses along the Famars- Valenciennes Road and in 
Aulnoy. 

The thoroughness of the preparations made for this small 
but important battle is better illustrated by the following 
striking figures : — 

Number of enemy dead buried . . . . over 800 

Prisoners captured . . . . . . . . over 1,300 

(exceeding the number of assaulting 
troops) . 

Our casualties (approx.) . . 80 killed and 300 wounded 
On the left, the left Brigade of the 4th Canadian Division 
and the 3rd Canadian Division had, in the meantime, succeeded 
in crossing the Canal. Bridge-heads were established north of 



Corps Operations, 179 

the city, the station and railway yards were seized, and the 
Engineers commenced the construction of bridges. 

The enemy did not counter-attack against the Canadian 
Corps during the day, but continued to hold out strongly in 
the southern outskirts of Valenciennes and Marly, and in the 
steel works to the south-east until dark. Two counter-attacks 
against the XXII. Corps front on the right caused some anxiety, 
but that flank was strengthened and* no trouble developed 

During the night the 4th Canadian Division took over an 
additional Brigade frontage from the 49th Division (XXII. 
Corps) on the right preparatory to the capture of the high 
ground east of Marl} 7 . 

Patrols of the 4th Canadian Division pushed forward during 
the night and ascertained that the enemy was withdrawing. 
In the early morning our troops had completely cleared 
Valenciennes and Marly, and patrols had entered St. Saulve. 

The advance was continued in the face of stubborn resistance 
from enemy rearguards throughout November 2 on the whole 
Corps front, and by nightfall had reached the line Marly- 
St. Saulve-Bas Amarais-Raucourt Chateau, all inclusive. On 
the front of the 3rd Canadian Division the advance was par- 
ticularly difficult, the country being under water except where 
railway embankments, slag-heaps, and houses stood up out of 
the flood and afforded excellent cover for enemy machine 
gunners and riflemen. 

Some stiff fighting took place when the advance was con- 
tinued on November 3, but in spite of this good progress was 
made, especially on the right on the front of the 11th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade (Brigadier-General V. W. Odium), where the 
line was advanced 3,000 yards and the village of Estreux 
captured. Progress on the left was necessarily slower owing 
to the flooded nature of the ground. 

The front of the 3rd Canadian Division had now become 
very extended, and on the night of the 3rd/4th a portion of 
it, from Odomez to Fresnes — about a mile in extent — was 
handed over to the 52nd Division of the VIII. Corps. 

On November 4 the line was carried forward about two 
miles on the front of the 4th Canadian Division. The 3rd 
Canadian Division was still forcing its way through marsh 
and water, and made good the Vicq-Thiers railway. On the 
extreme left of the 3rd Canadian Division a strong point east 

(642) N2 



180 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

of the Canal de l'Escaut was captured and the Escaupont- 
Ouusvrechain railway bridge was taken. The village of Onnaing 
and the western part of Rombies fell into our hands during the 
day. 

During the early hours of November 5 the 3rd Canadian 
Division entered the town of Vicq, following the capture of 
two points of local tactical importance west of the town. A 
large portion of the line of the Escaupont-Quievrechain railway 
was also made good, and the northern part of Quarouble 
captured during the day. 

The 4th Canadian Division attacked on November 5, and, 
clearing Rombies and the southern part of Quarouble, 
crossed the River Aunelle between Rombies and Marchipont, 
the enemy fighting very stubbornly to prevent our crossing. 
By this advance the first troops of the Canadian Corps crossed 
into Belgian territory, the Aunelle River being the boundary 
at that point. 

The advance was resumed on November 6 and important 
progress made. The villages of Marchipont, Baisieux, and the 
southern portion of Ouievrechain were taken by the 4th 
Canadian Division, while the 3rd Canadian Division took the 
railway station and glassworks at Quievrechain and the northern 
part of the village, and also captured Crespin further north. 

The enemy's resistance was very stubborn. The XXII. 
Corps on the right were forced to give up a portion of the ground 
gained and to withdraw to the west bank of Honelle River 
at Angre, in the face of severe counter-attacks. 

The 2nd Canadian Division relieved the 4th Canadian 
Division during the night 6/7, and the latter was withdrawn to 
rest in the Anzin-Aubry area, just west of Valenciennes. 

On our right we were now getting into the heart of the 
Belgian coal district — a thickly populated area, where the 
numerous towns and villages, the coal mines, and the command- 
ing slag-heaps complicated the task. 

The 2nd and 3rd Canadian Divisions attacked on the morning 
of the 7th and, although by this time the weather had broken 
and the country was rapidly becoming thoroughly water-logged, 
good progress was made during the day, the enemy showing 
increasing signs of demoralisation. 

The 2nd Canadian Division, on the right, cleared the 
remainder of Baisieux, captured the sugar refinery north-east of 
that town, the town of Elouges, and the many small settlements 



Corps Operations. 181 

that surrounded it. In conjunction with the 3rd Canadian 
Division Quievrain was taken, and an advance of about two 
and a-half miles made. On the left the 3rd Canadian Division, 
in addition to co-operating with the 2nd Canadian Division 
in the capture of Quievrain, pushed along the Mons road for 
about 4,000 yards and took La Croix and Hensies, north of the 
road. 

The VIII. Corps on our left had still been unable to negotiate 
the Canal de l'Escaut. In order to better protect our rapidly 
lengthening left flank the 3rd Canadian Division was ordered 
to extend its attacks to the north, and, in addition to clearing 
the country south of the Conde-Mons Canal, to secure the cross- 
ings of the Canal. 

When the advance was continued on the 8th, the 3rd 
Canadian Division pushed troops to the north, and by noon 
had secured the villages of Thievencelle and St. Aybert. 
Later in the day a foot-bridge was constructed across the 
Conde-Mons Canal, and under cover of darkness patrols crossed 
and a bridge-head was established. 

Further south the 3rd Canadian Division had surprised the 
enemy in the villages of Montreuil-sur-Haine and Thulin at 
an early hour, and these towns were quickly captured. Pushing 
on from here the village of Hamin was taken, and by nightfall 
our troops were on the western outskirts of Boussu. 

The 2nd Canadian Division met with strong opposition. 
Good progress was, however, made, and by midnight the 
important village of Dour and the smaller villages of Bois-de- 
Boussu, Petit Hornu, Bois-de-Epinois, and a portion of the 
Bois-de-Leveque were cleared. 

Resuming the advance on the 9th, the 2nd Canadian 
Division captured Warquignies, Champ-des-Sait, Petit Wasmes, 
Wasmes-Paturages, La Bouverie, Lugies, Frameries, and Genly 
with little opposition. The advance made by this Division 
was over four miles through densely populated areas, the twin 
towns of Wasmes-Paturages combined having a population of 
about 30,000. By nightfall the 2nd Canadian Division was 
clear of the main mining district. 

The 3rd Canadian Division had on its left front crossed 
the River Haine during the night, north of Montreuil-sur-Haine, 
and later secured a further hold on the north bank of the 
Conde-Mons Canal near Le Petit Crepin. During the afternoon, 
further troops were sent across the Canal, and the villages of 
Petit Crepin, Ville Pommerceuil, Hautrage and Terte were 



182 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

taken. Further west, the patrols which had crossed the Canal 
on the previous day entered Pommerceuil and Bernissart. 

The 3rd Canadian Division had also occupied Boussu, on 
its right, before daylight on the 9th, and rapid progress eastward 
was made during the day towards Mons, the villages of Cuesmes, 
Jemappes, Flenu, Hornu, Wasmes, Ouaregnon, Wasmuel and 
St. Ghislain all being captured. The rapidity of our advance 
had evidently surprised and disorganised the enemy, although 
some opposition was met. 

By the morning of November 10, the 52nd Division (VIII. 
Corps) had advanced and relieved that part of the 3rd Canadian 
Division operating north of the left boundary of the Canadian 
Corps. 

The 3rd Canadian Division's advance on the 10th brought 
our troops to the south-western outskirts of Mons, while the 
2nd Canadian Division had reached the Mons-Givry Road, 
outflanking the city from the south, but owing to the large 
number of civilians still in the city, it was not possible for us 
to bombard the town. To the north of the Conde-Mons Canal, 
a further advance was made and the village and Fosse of Ghlin 
secured. 

During the night November 10/11 the Divisions resumed 
their advance, and immediately after dark the troops of the 
7th Canadian Infantry Brigade (Brig. -General J. A. Clark) 
commenced to close in. The villages of Nimy and Petit Nimy 
were quickly captured and an entry into Mons by way of the 
Railway Station was effected before midnight. By 6.00 a.m. 
on November 1 1 the stubborn machine-gun resistance had 
been broken and the town cleared of the enemy. 

The 2nd Canadian Division had, during the night, taken 
the Bois-le-Haut, a wood crowning a large hill on the south- 
eastern outskirts of Mons, thus securing the right flank of 
the 3rd Canadian Division. The capture of this high ground 
forced upon the enemy a further retirement, and our troops, 
still pressing on, reached and captured St. Symphorien and 
Fbg. Barthelmy by 8.00 a.m. 

In the meantime, word had been received ' through First 
Army that hostilities would cease at 11.00 a.m. on November 11, 
the Armistice having been signed in acceptance of our terms. 

To secure a satisfactory line for the defence of Mons, our 
line was further advanced, and the Bois-d'Havre, Bois-du- 
Rapois and the town and villages of Havre, Bon Vouloir, La 



Corps Operations. 



183 



Bruyere, Maisieres, St. Denis and Obourg were captured before 
hostilities ceased. 

Between October 11 and November 11 the Canadian Corps 
had advanced to a total depth exceeding ninety-one thousand 
yards (91,000 yards), through a country in which the enemy 
had destroyed railways, bridges and roads, and flooded large 
areas to further impede our progress. 

To the normal difficulties of moving and supplying a large 
number of men in a comparatively restricted area were added 
the necessity of feeding several hundred thousand people, 
chiefly women and children, left in a starving condition by the 
enemy. Several deaths by starvation, or through suffering 
consecutive to privation, were experienced in villages or towns 
which, being kept under hostile shell fire and defended by 
machine guns, could not be captured rapidly by our troops. 

The fighting was light up to the Canal de L'Escaut, but 
stiffened perceptibly from there on until the capture of Mons, 
and added a great deal to the physical exertion caused by such 
a long advance in adverse weather. The table hereunder 
shows the average daily advances made by the Canadian Corps 
in that period :- — 



From 




To 




Yards. 


Oct. 11 




Oct. 12 . 




4,000 


Oct. 12 . 




Oct. 17 . 




7,000 


Oct. 17 . 




Oct. 18 . 




5,000 


Oct. 18 . 




Oct. 19 . 




. 12,000 


Oct. 19 




Oct. 20 . 




2,500 


Oct. 20 . 




Oct. 21 




5,000 


Oct. 21 




Oct. 22 . 




6,000 


Oct. 22 




Oct. 23 . 




3,000 


Oct. 23 . 




Oct. 24 . 




1,000 


Oct. 24 . 




Nov. 1 




3,500* 


Nov. 1 




Nov. 2 




3,000 


Nov. 2 




Nov. 3 . 




2,000 


Nov. 3 . 




Nov. 4 




3 ; 000 


Nov. 4 




Nov. 5 . 




1,500 


Nov. 5 . 




Nov. 6 




4,000 


Nov. 6 




Nov. 7 . 




4,000 


Nov. 7 




Nov. 8 . 




3,500 


Nov. 8 . 




Nov. 9 




. 11,000 


Nov. 9 




Nov. 10 




1,500 


Nov. 10 




Nov. 11 




9,000 




Total . 




. 91,500 


Held up in fror 


it of Val 


enciennes till after the 


capture 


of Mont Houv 



184 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

When it is recalled that since August 8 the Canadian Corps 
had fought battles of the first magnitude, having a direct 
bearing on the general situation, and contributing to an extent 
difficult to realise to the defeat of the German Armies in the 
field, this advance under most difficult conditions constitutes 
a decisive test of the superior energy and power of endurance 
of our men. 

It is befitting that the capture of Mons should close the 
fighting records of the Canadian Troops, in which every battle 
they fought is a resplendent page of glory. 

The Canadian Corps was deeply appreciative of the honour 
of having been selected amongst the first for the task of 
establishing and occupying the bridge-heads east of the Rhine. 

A long march of 170 miles under difficult conditions was 
ahead of them, but they ungrudgingly looked forward to what 
had always been their ultimate objective — the occupation 
of German soil. 

Between August 8 and November 11 the following had 
been captured : — 

Prisoners .. .. .. .. 31,537 

Guns (Heav}^ and Field) . . . . 623 

Machine Guns 2,842 

Trench Mortars (Heavy and Light) 336 

Over 500 square miles of territory and 228 cities, towns 
and villages had been liberated, including the cities of Cambrai, 
Denain, Valenciennes and Mons. 

From August 8 to October 11 not less than 47 German 
Divisions had been engaged and defeated by the Canadian 
Corps, that is, nearly a quarter of the total German Forces on 
the Western Front. 

After October 11 the disorganisation of the German Troops 
on our front was such that it was difficult to determine with 
exactitude the importance of the elements of many Divisions 
engaged. 

In the performance of these mighty achievements all arms 
of the Corps have bent their purposeful energy, working one 
for all and all for one. The dash and magnificent bravery 
of our incomparable Infantry have at all times been devotedly 
seconded with great skill and daring by our Machine Gunners, 
while the Artillery lent them their powerful and never-failing 
support. The initiative and resourcefulness displayed by the 
Engineers contributed materially to the depth and rapidity 
of our advances. The devotion of the Medical personnel has 




g 





Corps Operations. 185 

4 

been, as always, worthy of every praise. The Administrative 
Services, working at all times under very great pressure and 
adverse conditions, surpassed their usual efficiency. The 
Chaplain Services, by their continued devotion to the spiritual 
welfare of the troops and their utter disregard of personal 
risk, have endeared themselves to the hearts of everyone. The 
incessant efforts of the Y.M.C.A. and their initiative in bringing 
comforts right up to the front line in battle were warmly 
appreciated by all. 

I desire to record here my deep appreciation of the services 
of Brigadier-General N. W. Webber, B.G.G.S., Canadian Corps, 
and of the generous efforts and untiring zeal of the General 
Officers, Regimental Officers, the heads of all Arms, Services 
and Branches, and the members of the various Staffs. 

PART in. 

Fifth Period. November 12 to December 31. 

Upon the cessation of hostilities and in accordance with 
the terms of the Armistice the leading troops of the Canadian 
Corps stood fast on the line reached, and examining posts 
were placed on all roads. 

Generally speaking, the policy adopted was as follows : — 

1. Our own troops were not to advance east of the line 
reached, and our aeroplanes were to keep at a distance 
of not less than one mile behind that line. 

2. No intercourse or fraternisation with the enemy was 
to be allowed, and he was not to be permitted to 
approach our lines. 

In order to maintain the highest state of efficiency throughout 
the Corps, I ordered commanders to pay the strictest attention 
to discipline and smartness, and especially the well-being of 
their men. All troops not on duty were given every opportunity 
for rest and recreation. 

The general outline of the plan for the advance of the 
British Armies to the Rhine provided that the Second and 
Fourth British Armies would advance, and that the Canadian 
Corps would form part of the Second Army. 

The advance was to commence on November 17 and continue 
for 30 days. The Second Army would advance on a two- 
Corps front, the Canadian Corps to lead on the right. 

It was decided that the Corps would march on a front of 
two Divisions, the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions leading, 
and the 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions following. 



186 



Overseas Military Forces oj f Canada, 



At the time of cessation of hostilities the Canadian Corps 
was disposed as follows : — 

Corps Headquarters 
1st Canadian Division 



Valenciennes. 
Masny-Montigny-Somain 

area. 
In the line on the right 

south-east of Mons. 
In the line on the left 

• and in Mons. 
Valenciennes - Anzin - StJ 
Vaast area. 

In order to concentrate the Corps as far forward as possible 

prior to commencing the march to the Rhine, the following 

moves were carried out prior to the night November 15/16 : — 

2nd and 3rd Canadian 



2nd Canadian Division 



3rd Canadian Division 



4th Canadian Division 



Divisions 



1st Canadian Division 



4th Canadian Division 



Corps Troops 



Closed up in the eastern 
ends of their respec- 
tive areas. 

Concentrated in the area 
Thulin-Boussu- 
Hornu-Jemappes 
(west of Mons). 

Concentrated in the area 
La Bouverie - Patur 
ages - Wasmes 
(south-west of Mons). 

Jemappes area. 



2. 



The instructions for the carrying out of the advance to the 
Rhine were issued during this period. The conditions generally 
were as follows : — 

1. The country through which we were to advance was 
divided into zones, from each of which the enemy 
was to withdraw on the day before our entry. 
The advance was to be carried out under active 
service conditions, and all military precautions against 
surprise were to be taken. During the march each 
column was to be covered by an Advanced Guard, 
and on arrival at destinations, outposts were to be 
established in accordance with " Field Service Re- 
gulations." Troops were to be billeted in sufficient 
depth to facilitate supply, but adequate forces would 
be kept ready on 48 hours' notice to overcome any 
attempted resistance by the enemy should he oppose 
our advance. 



Corps Operations. 187 

3. The advance would be covered by a Cavalry Screen, 
one day's march ahead of the leading Infantry. 

At 10.00 a.m., November 16, Headquarters Canadian Corps 
moved from Valenciennes to Mons, and on the 16th and 17th, 
the concentration being completed, the troops of the Corps 
stood fast, completing the final arrangements for the advance. 

On November 18, 1918, the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions 
commenced the march to the Rhine (See Sketch No. 13), the 
heads of the columns crossing the outpost line at 9.00 a.m. 
on that day. 

The 2nd Canadian Division advanced on the right and the 
1st Canadian Division on the left, each in three columns. Each 
column found its own close protection, assisted by Cavalry 
and Cyclists attached from the Corps Troops. 

No enemy troops were encountered during the march, 
and the following line was reached by dusk : Haine St. Pierre- 
Houdeng-Aimeries-Rceulx-Haute Folie-Soignies-Horrues. 

The examining posts and outpost line of the 3rd Canadian 
Division were relieved and withdrawn as soon as the Advanced 
Guard of the 1st Canadian Division passed through. 

The Corps halted on November 19 and 20, the 4th Canadian 
Division closing up into the area south and south-west of Mons, 
vacated by the 2nd Canadian Division, and the Corps Troops 
concentrating in and around Jemappes. 

The 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions resumed the advance 
on November 21, the heads of main bodies crossing the outpost 
line at 9.00 a.m., and the following line was reached by nightfall — • 
Gosselies-Nivelles-Lillois Road. 

The 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions and Canadian Corps 
Troops did not move, as was previously intended, owing to 
supply difficulties. 

The Corps stood fast on November 22 and 23, all Units 
resting and smartening up. 

For some time past the question of the demobilisation 
of the Canadian Corps had been frequently discussed. Having 
often conferred on this subject, not only with the General 
Officers and Staffs, but also with the men themselves, I had 
represented from time to time that there was a strong feeling 
in the Corps that demobilisation should be carried out by Units. 

I now wished, before taking any further step, to ascertain 
definitely the desires of the Corps To that end, a conference 



188 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

was held on November 23, 1918, at Mons, at which all avail 
able Divisional and Brigade Commanders, Heads of Services 
and Branches, were asked to be present. 

The following took part in this conference : — 

Maj.-Gen. A. C. Macdonell, C.B., C.M.G., Commanding 1st 
Canadian Division. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir H. E. Burstall, K.C.B., Commanding 2nd 
Canadian Division. 

Brig.-Gen. W. A. Griesbach, C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 
1st Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. R. P. Clark, D.S.O., M.C., Commanding 2nd 
Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. G. S. Tuxford, C.B., C.M.G., Commanding 3rd 
Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. G. E. McCuaig, C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 4th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. T. L. Tremblay, C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 5th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. A. Ross, D.S.O., Commanding 6th Canadian Infantry 
Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. J. A. Clark, D.S.O., Commanding 7th Canadian 

Infantry Brigade. 
Brig.-Gen. D. C. Draper, D.S.O., Commanding 8th Canadian 

Infantry Brigade. 
Brig.-Gen. D. M. Ormond, D.S.O., Commanding 9th Canadian 

Infantry Brigade. 
Brig.-Gen. J. M. Ross, D.S.O., Commanding 10th Canadian! 

Infantry Brigade. 
Brig.-Gen. V. W. Odium, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 

11th Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Brig.-Gen. J. H. McBrien, C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 12th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Colonel A. Macphail, D.S.O., C.R.E., 1st Canadian Division 

Lt.-Col. S. H. Osier, D.S.O., C.R.E., 2nd Canadian Division 

Colonel H. F. H. Hertzberg, D.S.O., M.C., C.R.E., 3rd Canadian 
Division. 

Colonel H. T. Hughes, C.M.G., C.R.E., 4th Canadian Division. 



Corps Operations. 189 

Maj.-Gen. W. B. Lindsay, C.M.G., D.S.O., G.O.C.C.E. 
Brig.-Gen. G. J. Farmar, C.B., C.M.G., D.A. and Q.M.G., 

Canadian Corps. 
Brig.-Gen. R. Brutinel, C.M.G., D.S.O., G.O.C., Canadian 

Machine Gun Corps. 
Lt.-Col. The Hon. C. M. Hore-Ruthven, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

G.S,0. 1, 3rd Canadian Division. 
Lt.-Col. M. C. Festing, D.S.O., G.S.O. 1, Canadian Corps. 

The question of demobilisation was fully and freely discussed, 
every individual present being asked to express his definite 
opinion on the subject. 

All present were unanimous in the opinion that from every 
point of view it was most desirable to demobilise the Corps 
by Units and not by categories. 

As the outcome of this consultation, a letter was sent to the 
Minister, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, embodying the 
sentiments of the Canadian Corps. 

On November 23 instructions were received that the Canadian 
Corps would be composed as under for the purposes of the 
advance to the Rhine : — 

Corps Headquarters. 
1st Canadian Division. 
2nd Canadian Division. 
Corps Troops. 

The 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions, with the 8th Army 
Brigade, C.F.A., and the 126th Army Brigade, R.F.A. (attached 
to 3rd and 4th Canadian Divisions), together with the 1st and 
3rd Brigades C.G.A., were transferred to the IV. Corps, Fourth 
Army. These two Divisions remained billeted in Belgium for 
the rest of the year. 

The general plans for the advance were amended, it being 
decided that only the Second Army would cross the Rhine 
and establish bridge-heads. This amendment was made neces- 
sary by the difficulty of bringing forward the necessary supplies 
owing to the thorough destruction of railways and roads in 
the battle areas, and the immense amount of work required to 
effect temporary repairs sufficient to take care of the needs of 
the Army and of the Belgian population. 

On November 24 the leading Divisions continued the march 
without incident, reaching the line Velaine-Sombreffe-Mellery, 
and Corps Headquarters moved to Gosselies at noon. 



190 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

On November 25 the march was continued, the leading 
Divisions halting on the line Namur-Meux-Grand Leez. 

The Corps halted on November 26. The weather, which 
had continued generally good up to this time, now broke, and 
the daily rains, coupled with the heavy traffic, greatly damaged 
the surface of the roads. During the fine weather it had been 
possible to use side roads to a great extent for the Infantry, 
reserving the first-class roads for heavy guns and motor transport. 
All traffic being now compelled to use the first-class roads, the 
two Divisions had to move each in two columns for the march 
on the 25th. 

On the 27th each Division again moved forward in two 
columns. The dirty weather, very muddy roads, and the 
heavy traffic encountered — accentuated b}/ the overturned 
lorries left inconveniently by the enemy — made the march 
that day a real hardship for the men ; even the first-class roads 
were now in a very bad condition. 

The general direction of the Corps advance was now changed 
half right, and the boundaries between Divisions were 
rearranged so that each would have one first-class road as 
follows : — 

2nd Canadian Division — Namur - Andenne - Chey - 
Havelange-Maffe-Barvaux-Villers St. Gertrude- 
Grand Menil-Hebronval-Bovigny-Beho. 
1st Canadian Division — Lauze - Solieres - Modave- 
Hamoir - Werbomont - Basse Bodeux - Grand 
Halleux - Vielsalm - Petit Thier. 

Commencing with the march of November 28, each Division 
moved in one column in depth, owing to lack of billeting 
accommodation in the sparsely inhabited hills of the Ardennes 
and Eifel. The three Brigade groups of each Division usually 
moved one day's march apart. 

By nightfall on November 27 the leading troops of the 1st 
and 2nd Canadian Divisions had reached Seilles and Coutisse 
respectively, and on the 28th reached Clavier and Mean 
respectively. 

The difficulties of bringing forward supplies had meanwhile 
become more and more serious. Railhead was still west of 
Valenciennes, necessitating a haul of over 100 miles by road 
to the leading troops, and mention has already been made of 
the congestion of traffic on the roads. As a result, supplies 
had been reaching the Units later each day, and the safety 
margin ordinarily maintained, of one day's rations in hand, 
had been lost. The climax was reached on November 28, 



Corps Operations. 191 

i| when the rations for that day were received just as the day's 

( march was commencing — in fact some of the Units of the 

1st Canadian Division had already passed the starting-point. 

\ As the same situation recurred on the 29th, it was necessary 

I to cancel the march of the 1st Canadian Division for that day. 

The rations of the 2nd Canadian Division were, however, 

received in time, and the leading troops reached Villers St. 

Gertrude by nightfall. 

By securing extra lorries and utilising the lorries of the 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps for supply work the situation 
was improved sufficiently to permit of the continuation of the 
march on November 30, the leading troops of the 1st and 2nd 
Canadian Divisions reaching Ferrieres and Regne by nightfall. 
On December 1 the 1st Cavalry Brigade (1st Cavalry 
Division) came under my orders, and I assumed command of 
the Cavalry screen on the Canadian Corps front. The 2nd 
Canadian Division resumed the march that day, the head ot 
the leading troops reaching Beho, and Corps Headquarters 

moved forward to Vielsalm. The 1st Canadian Division stood 

i 

! fast, owing to the situation as regards supplies being still acute. 

The leading troops of the Canadian Corps crossed the 

German frontier on the morning of December 4 at 9.00 a.m., 

the 1st Canadian Division at Petit Thier and the 2nd Canadian 

Division at Beho, with flags flying and bands playing. No 

advance had been carried out on December 2 and 3, but the 

marching Divisions had moved forward and concentrated 

prior to the subsequent crossing of the frontier. I personally 

[entered Germany, with the Divisional Commander of the 1st 

[Canadian Division, at the head of the main body at Petit 

Thier at noon that day. 

The completion of the march to the bridge-head at Cologne 
was carried out during the subsequent eight days, in weather 
that was generally very bad, without incident or trouble other 
than that of supplies. By the night of December 10 the 1st 
Cavalry Brigade had reached the west bank of the Rhine and 
posted guards at all the crossings, and the 1st and 2nd Canadian 
Divisions had reached points just west of Cologne and Bonn 
respectively. 

The German people have been well schooled regarding the 
attitude to be adopted towards conquering troops, and our 
presence was marked by a quietness approaching indifference 
on the part of the inhabitants. Whatever apprehensions they 
may have entertained were quickly set at rest by the exemplary 
onduct of the men of the Corps. 



ct 



192 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

December 13 was set as the date on which the Allies would 
cross the Rhine at all points to be occupied, and on the 11th i 
and 12th the leading Divisions concentrated as far forward as 
possible in their respective areas prior to crossing. 

On December 12, the 1st Cavalry Brigade crossed the Rhine 
at Bonn, and reached the line Obercassel-Moholz-Sieburg- 
Altenrath-Rosrath-Lustheide (exclusive), establishing control 
posts on that line, and on the following morning the Canadian 
Corps crossed and took their place, while the Cavalry pushed 
on to take up positions on the perimeter of the bridge-head. 

The 1st Canadian Division crossed by the southern bridge 
at Cologne, the passage being witnessed and the salute taken 
by General Sir Herbert Plumer, Commanding the Second 
British Army ; and the 2nd Canadian Division crossed by the 
Bonn Bridge, where I took the salute. The leading troops of 
the respective Divisions crossed at 9.30 a.m. 

The weather was bad, the day being dark, and a steady rain 
poured down throughout. In spite of this the spectacle was 
magnificent. The smart, sturdy Infantry, with bayonets fixed, 
marching perfectly, with colours flying and bands playing our 
national airs, was an impressive sight, which did not fail to 
bring home to the German population the great potential 
strength of our Army. 

On December 14 and 15 the Canadian Corps moved forward 
and relieved the Cavalry screen on the southern half of the 
perimeter of the Cologne bridge-head, taking over control of 
the roads and railways leading into the occupied territory, 
and being disposed in depth for its defence. I moved my 
Headquarters to Bonn, the Headquarters of the 1st Canadian 
Division being at Cologne and those of the 2nd Canadian 
Division at Bonn. 

During the remainder of the year nothing of great moment 
occurred. The time was employed in preparing the men for 
the resumption of their duties as citizens. Great stress was 
laid on the educational work of the Khaki University of Canada 
and on the professional re-education carried out under arrange- 
ments made by General Headquarters. Each Unit found 
teachers from their own ranks, and lecturers from both Britain 
and Canada addressed large audiences on varied subjects. 

A wholesome interest was fostered and maintained in all 
forms of sport. 

The greatest possible freedom from duty was allowed all 
ranks, and everything was done to brighten what all hoped 
would be their last Christmas spent away from Canada. 




03 — 



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VtRSRILLES 



193 



THE CANADIAN CORPS, 
ORGANISATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FUNCTIONS. 



INDEX. 



General Observations 



Part I. Organisation — 

Infantry 

Artillery 

Engineers 

Cavalry and Cyclists 

Canadian Army Service Corps 

Medical Services 

Ordnance Services 

The Signal Service 

Gas Services 

Veterinary Services 

Pay Services 

Postal Services 

Chaplain Services . . 

Part II. Administration — 

The General Staff 

The Administrative Staff . . 

Some Individual Officers . . 



PAGE 

195 



196 
198 
198 
199 
199 
201 
203 
204 
205 
205 
205 
205 
205 



207 
213 
217 



Part III. Functions — 

Infantry 

Artillery 

Engineers 

Cavalry and Cyclists 

Canadian Army Service Corps 

Medical Services 

Ordnance Services 

(642) 



221 
240 
244 
250 
250 
259 
262 
O 



194 



Index 



PART III.— contd. page 

The Signal Service . . . . . . . . . . 264 

Gas Services . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 

Veterinary Services . . . . . . . . . . 268 

Pay Services . . . . . . . . . . 270 

Postal Services . . . . . . . . . . 270 

Chaplain Services . . . . . . . . . . 272 

Part IV. Miscellaneous Units — 

The Corps Survey Section . . . . . . . . 273 

TheY.M.C.A 274 

The Corps Reinforcement Camp . . . . . . 275 

Appendices — 

i. Composition of a Canadian Division . . . . 276 

ii. (a) Corps Troops as on November 11, 1919 . . 277 

(b) Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery . . . . 278 

Synopsis of some Establishments . . . . 279 

a) Organisation of the Medical Services . . . . 280 

(b) Organisation of the Ordnance Services. . . . 281 

(c) Organisation of the Veterinary Services . . 282 

(d) Organisation of .the Gas Services . . . . 283 

(e) Organisation of the Pay Services . . . . 284 
(/) Organisation of the Chaplain Services . . . . 285 

v. (a) Organisation of the Staff at Corps Headquarters 286 

(b) Organisation of the General Staff at Corps 
Headquarters . . . . . . . . 287 

(c) Organisation of " A " and " Q " Branches . . 288 

(d) Organisation of Canadian Engineers Branch . . 289 

(e) Organisation of Machine Gun Branch . . . . 290 

Organisation of a Divisional Staff . . . . 291 

Meaning of Initials 292 

viii. Report on their Branches by " A " and " Q " 294 



m. 



IV 



VI. 



Vll. 



195 



The Canadian Corps, Organisation, 
Administration and Functions. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The word " Corps " is an abbreviation of the term " Army 
Corps," and at present is a very uncertain and indefinite military 
term. In the military sense to-day it means a formation consist- 
ing of a Headquarters, from two to six Divisions, and a varying 
number of Corps Troops composed of all arms, and is ordinarily 
commanded by a Lieutenant-General. Army Corps in the 
British Army during this war have never been staple units, 
varying month by month (and often day by day) as to their 
composition, Divisions and Corps Troops being very frequently 
transferred from Corps to Corps. 

The Units composing the Canadian Corps have, however, 
been so far fortunate as to have been mostly under the same 
Commander and administered by the same Staffs. Canadian 
Units and Formations have been taught to look upon themselves 
as belonging to the Canadian Corps, and whilst away from the 
Corps have been spoken of as attached to other Corps ; and, in 
consequence, a very true esprit de corps has sprung up amongst 
all Canadian Units administered by the Canadian Corps Head- 
quarters. 

This report deals with the Canadian Corps in the meaning 
of all Canadian Units administered by the Canadian Corps 
Headquarters on the date of the Armistice. This date has been 
chosen as the Corps was at the zenith of its efficiency at that 
date, and had absorbed lessons learned during three years and 
nine months of the hardest fighting that the world has ever 
known. To describe the evolution of the Corps and its Staffs 
from the time that General Alderson formed his first Corps 
Staff in September, 1915, to the date of the Armistice, would 
practically mean writing a history of the Canadian Corps, an 
operation which is being carried out by a special committee of 
officers elsewhere. 

(642) O 2 



196 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The War Establishments show the composition of Units of 
the Corps ; the intention of this report is to show more especially 
the general internal organisation of Units, their functions, and 
in what way they are dealt with and administered. 

In describing the functions of the Staff, the Corps Head- 
quarters Staff has been taken as the basis. Divisional Staffs on 
a smaller scale are similarly allotted their duties, often with slight 
variations ; the report would, however, become too involved if 
the duties of each Divisional and Brigade Staff Officer were 
described in detail. 

The functions of the various branches of the Staff and the 
functions of the various arms are also described in considerable 
detail, though it must be realised that it is impossible to touch 
upon the thousand and one details never thought of in the 
instructional manuals which the staffs have to deal with in war. 

PART I.— ORGANISATION. 

For the detailed composition of the Units of the Canadian 
Corps vide Canadian War Establishments, a working synopsis 
of some of which is attached (Appendix III.) in order to render 
this report as comprehensive as possible. 

At the date of the Armistice the following Formations and 
Units were administered by the Staff at Canadian Corps 
Headquarters : — 

Canadian Corps Headquarters. 

The four Canadian Infantry Divisions (vide Appendix I.). 

Corps Troops (vide Appendix II.). 
For both fighting and administrative purposes these are 
the Formations and Units into which the Canadian Corps is 
divided. 

Generally speaking, however, the Units of the Corps can 
be divided into Infantry, Artillery, Engineers, and Cavalry 
as the righting troops, with the C.A.S.C., Medical and Ordnance 
and other services as the non-combatant but equally important 
arms, and it is under this classification that they will be 
discussed in this paper. 

INFANTRY. 

Under Infantry may be classed — 

(a) The Infantry of the Line. 

(b) The Machine Gun Units. 

(c) The Light Trench Mortar Units. 



Corps Administration. 197 

{a) The Infantry of the Line is organised into Brigades, 
which is the largest Unit, composed entirely of Infantry soldiers ; 
the Brigade consisting of four Battalions and one Light Trench 
Mortar Battery. The Brigade is administered by a Staff and 
is under the command of a Brigadier-General. 

The Infantry Battalion is composed of sixteen Platoons 
organised into four Companies, each Platoon under the command 
of a subaltern officer. The Battalion is commanded and 
administered by a IJeutenant-Colonel, who has under him a 
Headquarters which consists of : 

i. Transport personnel, which is responsible for such 
duties as hauling rations from the Battalion Head- 
quarters to the men in the line or in billets, forming 
dumps of rations and ammunition in the forward 
areas, carrying the light machine guns on the line of 
march, carrying reserve ammunition and bombs, and 
so forth. 

ii. Administrative or Orderly Room personnel, who keep 
the records of the Battalion and who deal with the 
Staff of the Brigade. 

iii. Police. 

iv. Medical personnel, who assist the attached Medical 
Officer in the performance of his duties. 

v. Signalling personnel, who are responsible for the 
communication between the Platoons and the Bat- 
talion Headquarters. 

vi. Certain training and instructional personnel, who assist 
the Commanding Officer and Company Commanders 
in the work out of the line. 

vii. Tailors, shoemakers, postmen, etc., whose designations 
speak for themselves. 

The Platoon is the fighting Unit and consists of about 40 
all ranks^ ItTs organised into two distinct parts which must 
work together, viz., light machine gunners and bayonetmen. 
The latter have subsidiary arms, such as the bullet, bomb, 
rifle grenade, etc., but, generally speaking, the bayonet 
takes the position and the machine guns hold it. 

(b) The Machine Guns (as opposed to the light machine 
guns) are organised into Battalions, each Battalion consisting 
of three Companies in each of which are four Batteries, each 



198 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

of eight guns. The Battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, who has a very similar Headquarters to that of an 
Infantry Battalion. The Batter)- is, however, the tactical 
Unit, and is self-contained as regards command and transport. 

There are also in the Corps two Motor Machine-Gun Brigades, 
each of five eight-gun Batteries. 

(c) A Light Trench Mortar Battery forms part of each 
Infantry Brigade. It is composed of Infantry personnel 
transferred from their Units, and contains eight mortars 
organised into four Batteries, each of two mortars, and each 
under the command of a subaltern officer. 



THE ARTILLERY. 

Artillery Batteries are organised into sections consisting 
of two guns, each section being commanded by a subaltern. 

The administrative Unit is the Brigade, where the Head- 
quarters function all important matters outside the work in 
action and the training for action. 

The Divisional Ammunition Column is divided into three 
sections and the section into sub-sections. Each section is 
commanded by a Captain and the sub-sections by subaltern 
officers. 

THE ENGINEERS. 

Corps troops may vary from 20,000 to 50,000 men, and to 
carry out the Engineer Services required the Chief Engineer 
has at Corps Headquarters a C.R.E. Corps Troops, assisted 
by an Adjutant, who administers all Canadian Engineer Units 
and attached Royal Engineer Units other than those of 
Divisions. The Canadian Engineer Units working under the 
C.R.E. Corps Troops are five Army Troops Companies for 
general engineering work, two Tramway Companies for con- 
struction, maintenance and operation of tramways, and one 
Artisan Company made up of returned casualties of low 
categories. 

With each Division to carry out the Engineer Services 
required is an Engineer Brigade, consisting of three Battalions 
Canadian Engineers, and one Bridging Transport Section. 
The Brigade is commanded by a Colonel, with a Staff consisting 
of a Brigade Major, a Staff-Captain " A " and " O," and a 
Staff Captain (Stores and Transport). 



Corps Administration. 199 

Each Engineer Battalion is divided into a Headquarters 
and four Companies. Three of these Companies are organised 
for general engineering work, and the fourth for tunnelling 
and mining work. Attached to each Engineer Brigade is a 
Bridging Transport Section, which carries sufficient pontoon 
and other bridging equipment to enable 225 feet of " medium 
bridge " to be constructed. " Medium bridge " will carry 
field artillery, cavalry in half sections, or infantry in fours. 

THE CAVALRY AND CYCLISTS. 

The Canadian Light Horse is a Cavalry Regiment composed 
of a Headquarters and three Squadrons, each under the com- 
mand of a Major. Each Squadron is divided into four Troops, 
each of about 35 all ranks under a Subaltern Officer. The 
Cavalry Regimental Headquarters is similar, on a smaller scale, 
to a Battalion Headquarters, and administers the Regiment, 
dealing direct with the Corps Staff. The Troop corresponds to 
the Platoon, and the men are armed with the rifle and bayonet 
and the sword, there being a section of light machine guns with 
each Troop. 

Besides the Canadian Light Horse there was on November 
11, 1918, a Squadron of the R.N.W.M.P. with the Corps, which 
was organised as a Squadron of Cavalry and which dealt for 
administrative purposes direct with Corps Headquarters. 

A Corps Cyclist Battalion was also always administered as 
a part of the Corps Troops. This Battalion consisted of 16 
officers and 305 other ranks, and was organised as a Headquarters 
and three Companies on similar lines to an Infantry Battalion. 

THE CANADIAN ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 

The Canadian Army Service Corps under instructions from 
f.Q" Branch is responsible for the arrival from railhead of — 

(a) Ammunition at the Ammunition Refilling Points, 
where it is taken over by the Divisional Ammunition 
Column, and 

(b) Consumable supplies at the Headquarters of Units of 
the Corps. 

To compete with this enormous dutv there are two distinct 
types of transport under the Canadian Army Service Corps, 
viz. : — 

i. The Mechanical Transport. 

ii. The Divisional Train. 



200 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The Mechanical Transport of a Corps may be grouped 
under three heads — 

(a) Mechanical Transport vehicles on charge of Mechanical 
Transport Units, which form a permanent part of 
the Corps. These Units are : 

1 Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company. 

1 Divisional Mechanical Transport Company for 
each Division. 

7 Motor Ambulances per Field Ambulance. 

(b) Mechanical Transport on charge of Mechanical Trans- 
. port Units which, though not permanently forming 

part of a Corps, are in the Corps Area, and at the 
disposal of the Corps, subject to being moved from 
one Corps to another when the tactical situation 
makes it advisable. These Units are : 

Siege Battery and Heavy Battery Ammunition 
Columns. 

Army Brigade Field Artillery Park Sections. 
Auxiliary Mechanical Transport Companies. 
Each Corps has a Headquarters Company at- 
tached to Corps Heavy Artillery, also known as 
Corps Siege Artillery Park. It is composed of a 
Commanding Officer (Major), an Adjutant, a 
Workshop Officer and two Transport Officers. 
Siege Battery and Heavy Battery Ammunition 
Columns, on arriving in a Corps Area, report to 
the Officer Commanding Corps Siege Artillery 
Park by whom they are administered and 
operated while in the Corps. 

(c) Mechanical Transport vehicles on charge of non- 
Mechanical Transport Units such as Corps and 
Divisional Headquarters, Signal and other Engineer 
Units, etc. , which require a certain number of mechanical 
transport vehicles to carry out their work. 

Each Corps has a senior Mechauical Transport Officer 
(S.M.T.O.), who administers the Mechanical Transport 
Units and is responsible for the control, maintenance, 
and economical employment of all the mechanical 
transport in the Corps. 

In addition to the above Units, which constitute the normal 
mechanical transport of a Cprps, the undermentioned Mechanical 



Corps Administration. 201 

Transport Formations have recently been authorised for and 
added to the Canadian Corps : — 

1 Canadian Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport 

Company. 
1 Canadian Engineer Mechanical Transport Company. 

The latter Unit is divided into a Headquarters, two Head- 
quarters sections and four Divisional sections. The latter are 
detailed for duty with the four Engineer Brigades. 

The Divisional Train carries the consumable supplies from 
the Refilling Points to the Headquarters of Units and is divided 
into four Companies, one for the Divisional Troops and one for 
each Brigade of the Division. 

Maintenance.— All Mechanical Transport Formations are 
provided with a mobile workshop, a workshop officer, and a 
staff of artificers, to carry out repairs and keep the vehicles 
in running order. Field Ambulances are attached for main- 
tenance and repairs to the Divisional Mechanical Transport 
Company workshops. Vehicles in charge of non-Mechanical 
Transport Units are attached for maintenance by the S.M.T.O. 
to the various Mechanical Transport Mobile Workshops in the 
Corps. Vehicles that require repairs too extensive to be carried 
out in the mobile workshops without delaying the ordinary 
current work, are evacuated to the heavy repair shops at the 
base or on the Lines of Communication, and replacements are 
automatically supplied. 

Control. — All the mechanical transport in a Corps is con 
trolled by the Corps through the S.M.T.O., who receives his 
instructions from " " Branch of the Coips Headquarters 
Staff. In spite of their designation, Divisional Mechanical 
Transport Companies are Corps Troops and in no way under 
the control of the Division whose number they bear. There is 
a Headquarters to these Units known as Canadian Corps 
Mechanical Transport Column composed of a Major, Adjutant, 
Demands Officer (M.T.), and Artillery Officer. This Head- 
quarters works in conjunction with the S.M.T.O. and has 
its offices with him, thereby doing away with a lot of unnecessary 
clerical work and correspondence and giving the quickest of 
service. 

THE MEDICAL SERVICES. 

Individual officers of the Medical Services are attached to 
practically every Unit of the Canadian Corps. These officers 
are called the Regimental or Battery Medical Officers and have 
a small staff of C.A.M.C, personnel under them for water or 
first aid purposes. 



202 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Apart from these Regimental Medical Officers, the following 
Units are organised : — 

Field Ambulances. There are three Field Ambulances 
with each Division and one with the Corps at large. The latter 
operates the Corps Rest Station. 

A Field Ambulance is a highly mobile Unit which moves 
with, and just back of, the front line. It has 11 officers, includ- 
ing a Dental Officer, and 238 other ranks, seven motor ambulance 
cars, three horsed ambulance wagons, and complete tent age and 
transport for its equipment. 

These Units are so organised as to permit their division 
into three sections, each complete in itself in every way. By 
this means a Field Ambulance Unit can operate one, two, or 
three dressing stations simultaneously. 

Rest Stations, Corps and Divisional. — These stations are a 
development, for most part, of trench warfare, in which troops 
remain stationary for long periods. They are operated by 
Field Ambulances. Their locations while impermanent, unlike 
locations of Field Ambulance Dressing Stations, are not changed 
as a rule while the Corps occupies a certain sector of the Front. 
They are usually located in a back part of the Corps or Divisional 
area. 

They are organised so as to provide accommodation and 
medical care for minor cases and include special clinics for 
certain classes of cases. 

Corps Dental Laboratory. — (The Dental Service of the Corps 
is an integral part of the Medical Services.) A Corps Dental 
Laboratory is peculiar to the Canadian Corps and has proven 
a valuable adjunct of the Service. It is organised as the principal 
dental centre of the Corps, and has a complete staff of dental 
mechanics for the manufacture of dentures of all sorts. 

Motor Ambulance Convoy. — This is a Mobile Medical Unit 
with three officers and 122 other ranks. It has 50 motor 
ambulance cars and its organisation includes a complete mobile 
workshop for all ordinary repairs. 

Sanitary Sections. — A Sanitary Section is a Mobile Medical 
Unit with one officer and 27 other ranks. Its organisation 
provides for the operation of a workshop where sanitary equip- 
ment is constructed. 



Corps Administration. 203 

THE ORDNANCE SERVICES. 

The Ordnance Services of the Canadian Corps are directed 
by the A.D.O.S. at Corps Headquarters, who has as his assistants 
a D.A.D.O.S. and an officer for ammunition duties, and a staff of 
one Warrant Officer, one Staff Sergeant, and two Clerks. The 
A.D.O.S. also administers all C.O.C. personnel in France, outside 
the Corps. 

With each Division there is a D.A.D.O.S. with the rank of 
Major, an Ordnance Officer, who is a Captain or Lieutenant, 
four Warrant Officers and ten other ranks. 

With Corps Troops there is a D.A.D.O.S. (Major), an Ordnance 
Officer, one Warrant Officer, and nine other ranks. 

In addition to the above C.O.C. personnel, each Division has 
an Armourer Sergeant-Major, each Infantry Brigade an Armourer 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, and each Battalion an Armourer Staff 
Sergeant, all of whom belong to the C.O.C. 

Each Divisional Armourers' Shop also has two watchmakers 
for the repair of watches, binoculars, compasses and clinometers. 
Ordnance Corps Troops also has two watchmakers. 

For the repair of guns (Field, Heavy and Siege) and their 
carriages and mountings, and repair of horse transport vehicles 
of all kinds, there are in the Corps two light Ordnance Mobile 
Workshops, and a Medium Ordnance Mobile Workshop. 

These Ordnance Mobile Workshops are each in charge of an 
Inspector of Ordnance Machinery with a Staff of artificers, 
turners, fitters, hammermen, wheelers, etc. 

Each Brigade of Field Artillery and each Battery of Heavy 
or Siege Artillery has an Armament Officer, C.O.C. attached for 
minor repairs and the general supervision of the mechanical 
details of their equipment. 

No stocks are maintained at the Front other than a small 
reserve of box respirators and containers, steel helmets, a few 
odds and ends in constant demand such as camp kettles, etc., 
and a few rifles in the Divisional Armourers' Shops. Each Army, 
however, has a Gun Park where a stock of guns and carriages, 
trench mortars, machine guns and spare parts and accessories 
is maintained. 



204 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

THE SIGNAL SERVICE. 

The Canadian Signal Service consists of the following Units : — 

One Corps Signal Company. 

Four Divisional Signal Companies. 

5th Canadian Divisional Artillery Signals. 

8th Army Brigade C.F.A. Signal Sub-section. 

Canadian Corps Signal School. 

The Corps Signal Company includes, besides the Headquarters, 
one Wireless, two Motor Airline and four Cable Sections, one 
Heavy Artillery and three Signal Sub-sections for the Canadian 
Heavy Artillery Headquarters and Heavy Artillery Brigades. 
Under Corps arrangements two other sections have been organised 
and attached to the Corps Signal Company for the inter-com- 
munication of the Canadian Survey Section and two Tramway 
Companies. 

The Divisional Signal Company includes a Headquarters 
Section, Wireless Section and two Cable Sections, together with 
Signal Sections for the Divisional Artillery Headquarters, 
Artillery and Infantry Brigades, and for the Divisional Machine 
Gun Battalion. Canadian Engineer Brigade Signal Sections have 
not yet been authorised, and added to the Divisional Signal 
Companies. 

The Divisional Signal Company is responsible for communica- 
tion to flanking divisions and all communication to and within 
the Artillery and Infantry Brigades, and other Units within the 
Divisional Area. 

The Signal Companies are roughly divided into the following 
branches : — 

Telephone and Telegraphs. 

Wireless Telegraphy. 

Interception and Policing Sections. 

Visual Signalling Sections. 

Motor-Cycle Rider Despatch Sections. 

Pigeon Service. 

Airline Sections. 

Cable Sections. 

Portable Electric Light and Accumulator Charging 

Section. 
Repairs Shops, Motor Cycle and Mechanical Transport. 
Repairs Shops, Telephone, Telegraph and Wireless 

Instruments. 



Corps Administration. 205 

THE GAS SERVICES. 

The Gas Services have been organised to combat the effects 
of poisonous gas. Appendix IV. shows how the service extends 
over the whole Corps. Each Gas Officer has a small staff of other 
ranks to assist him in his duties. 

VETERINARY SERVICES. 

The Veterinary Services have officers with formations as 
shown in Appendix IV. Each of these officers has a small staff 
of Veterinary personnel under him. The Mobile Veterinary 
Sections and the Canadian Corps Veterinary Evacuating Station 
are the Units at which sick or wounded horses receive treatment, 
and through which they pass for evacuation to the Base, if it is 
considered inadvisable to treat them in the field. 

PAY SERVICES. 

The Canadian Army Pay Corps in the Field has to do with the 
administration of matters relating to Pay and Allowances of all 
ranks. For the organisation and chain of responsibility vide 
Appendix IV. Each Paymaster has an other rank attached to 
him for clerical work, and the Field Cashiers have a small staff. 

POSTAL SERVICES. 

There are 28 Army and Field Post Offices with the Canadian 
Corps, all of which are mobile, located as follows : — 
Canadian Corps Headquarters . . 1 

Canadian Corps Troops . . . . 1 

Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp 1 
Divisional Headquarters . . . . 4 

Divisional Artilleries . . . . . . 5 

Infantry Brigades . . . . . . 12 

Railhead A.P.Os 4 

Each Field Post Office looks after the incoming and outgoing 
correspondence for the formation to which it is attached, and also 
for any troops which may be temporarily administered by that 
Division. 

THE CHAPLAIN SERVICES. 

There is an Assistant Director Chaplain Services, a Deputy 
Assistant Director Chaplain Services, four Senior Chaplains, one 
Corps Chaplain and 90 Chaplains in the Canadian Corps. They 
are distributed as shown in Appendix IV., g., and are of all 
denominations, being distributed to Units as far as possible 
according to the denomination of the personnel. 



206 Overseas Military Forces of Canada 

PART II.— ADMINISTRATION. 

The Canadian Corps is commanded by a Lieutenant-General, 
under whose supervision it is both fought and administered. 

In battle each fighting unit is led and fought by its own 
officers, but in order to co-ordinate the effort the plans are 
drawn up and worked out by the Staff in consultation with the 
commanders of the fighting formations and units. The branch 
of the Staff which deals with the actual plans for a battle or for 
defence is called the General Staff Branch. 

There are of necessity other branches of the Staff which are 
responsible for the administration of the force, the principal 
being — 

(a) The Quartermaster-General Department. 

(b) The Adjutant-General Department. 

The former in close liaison with the General Staff, amongst 
other duties, deals with supplies of rations, ammunition, 
horses and equipment and the transportation of same, trans- 
portation of units from one part of the war zone to another 
billeting of troops and so forth ; the latter in close liaison with 
the Quartermaster-General Department, deals principally 
with supply of personnel, promotions and decorations, organisa- 
tions of medical services, disposal of prisoners of war, and, 
generally speaking, all matters referring to personnel. 

For fighting purposes the Corps is divided into very small 
units, commanded by junior officers ; thus there are 768 Infantry 
Platoons in the Corps, which parties are considered the largest 
that one man can be expected to direct in battle ; on the other 
hand, it is found that one officer can personally supervise the 
training and administration of 16 of these Platoons, which 
number constitutes a Battalion. Four Battalions are grouped to 
form a Brigade, and it is considered necessary to have a Staff 
to assist the Brigade Commander to fight and administer his 
Brigade ; thus the Brigade is the smallest unit with a Staff ; 
and the Brigade Staff works in the three main branches as 
described above. The Divisional Staff co-ordinates the work 
of the three Brigade Staffs, and the Corps Staff of the four 
Divisional Staffs. In this manner the Staff work is eventually 
centralised at Corps Headquarters. 

As regards the Auxiliary Arms, the Artillery, Machine Guns, 
and Engineers, they are administered by their own Staffs, 
working in very close liaison at Divisional and Corps Head- 
quarters, many matters being merged together in the main 
branches of the Staff at Corps and Division. 



Corps Administration. 207 

Diagrams showing the liaison between Commanders and the 
Staffs are attached as Appendix IV. It must, however, be 
realised that the liaison cannot be completely shown, all the 
branches down to the lowest appointment being in the closest 
touch. 

As this section is one on Administration, it is proposed to 
deal with the various functions of the Staff under this heading. 
In saying that the Corps is administered by the Staff, it must 
be realised that it is administered down to the smallest Units 
which it is considered are able to administer themselves with 
the help of the Staff, such as the Cavalry Regiment, the 
Infantry Battalion, the Artillery Brigade, and the Engineer 
Battalion. 

THE STAFF. 

The General Staff, constituted as shown in Appendix IV. is 
responsible for — 

(a) Obtaining and communicating to responsible com- 
manders information : 

i. Of their own forces. 

ii. Of the enemy and the country. 

(b) Conveying the instructions and orders of the responsible 
commanders to those who have to act on them, and 
assisting the latter to carry out these instructions 
and orders in such a manner as will conduce to the 
successful issue of the operations. 

(c) Furnishing timely information to the Staff and 
administrative services and departments as to the 
situation and probable requirements of the troops. 

(d) Keeping necessary records both for present and for 
historical purposes. 

It is also the duty of the General Staff to study the situation 
constantly and to be prepared to suggest plans of operation to 
commanders. 

The information required under (a) i. comprises everything 
that a commander may require to know to enable him to decide 
what it is possible for his own troops to undertake. For this 
purpose the General Staff must always be prepared to lay before 
him, in concise form, statements showing not only the position, 
strength, and movements oi all parts of his forces, but also 
information regarding such important matters as the quantities 



20S Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

of supplies, ammunition and stores available ; the possibilities 
of renewing them ; the casualties that have been suffered ; the 
fatigue and hardships that have been undergone, and the amount 
of " remaining energy " estimated to be still available. 

It is the duty of the senior General Staff officer in each 
Command to arrange for the collection and recording of this 
information, relieving the commander of all concern on this 
account. 

The information must be compiled partly by means of enquiry 
from other branches of the Staff ; partly by arranging for 
necessary reports, verbal or otherwise, from subordinate 
commanders ; and partly by detailing officers for the special 
purpose of observation, and providing them with the means of 
transmitting the results. 

When information reaches Corps Headquarters, the Brigadier 
General, General Staff, is primarily responsible that it is laid 
before the Corps Commander without loss of time, that all 
branches and sections are acquainted with it, and that, if neces- 
sary, it is transmitted to subordinate commands. Whenever 
information is " short circuited " by a subordinate member of 
the General Staff, the senior General Staff officer must be 
informed of the action taken. 

After a plan has been decided it becomes the duty of the 
General Staff, as stated in (b) and (c), to provide for its successful 
execution, not merely by conveying to all concerned the necessary 
orders, instructions and information, but by foreseeing and 
providing for difficulties that may arise, and generally by giving 
every possible assistance to those who have to carry the plan 
through. Constant touch must be kept with all parts of the 
forces in order that commanders may be quickly informed of 
any change in the situation ; so that as a matter of fact the 
B.G.G.S. is the Chief Staff Officer at Corps Headquarters, and 
is the responsible adviser of the Corps Commander on all matters 
affecting military operations, training and staff duties, through 
whom he exercises his functions of command, and by whom all 
orders issued to field Units will be signed (except Corps Routine 
Orders). 

The B.G.G.S. is responsible to the Corps Commander for the 
working out of all arrangements and for the drafting of detailed 
orders regarding : — 

All military operations within the area of the Corps 

operations. 



Corps Administration. 209 

Selection of lines of operations after the general idea 
has been issued by the Army Headquarters. 
All plans for the concentration, distribution and 
movement of the Corps by rail or road in the theatre of 
operations. 

General allotment of areas in which divisions and 
brigades are to be quartered. 

Acquisition and distribution of information about the 
enemy, the country and its resources, secret service, 
ciphers, and the care and disposal of captured docu- 
ments. 

Provision and distribution of maps. 
Preparation of reports, despatches and diaries relating 
to the above. 
Training of the Corps for Battle. 

The General Staff are responsible that with due regard to 
secrecy, constant and accurate information as to the situation 
and probable requirements of the troops is furnished to the 
A.G/s and Q.M.G.'s branches of the Staff in sufficient time to 
enable these requirements to be met. When the military 
situation demands, it becomes the duty of the General Staff to 
advise the Corps Commander or other commanders as to the 
position, movements, or disposal of all impedimenta, including 
supply columns and parks and other L. of C. Units. The 
General Staff must, therefore, keep themselves constantly 
informed as to the distribution of all administrative Units and 
the proposals of the other branches of the Staff with regard to 
them. 

For the purpose of performing these duties, the General Staff, 
under the B.G..G.S., is divided into three distinct branches : — 
i. The Operations or " O " Branch, 
ii. The Intelligence or " I " Branch, 
iii. The Training or " T " Branch. 

The Operations Branch, under the instructions of the G.S.O. 
1st Grade, then becomes responsible — 

For the drafting of the necessary orders and instructions 
for the issue of which the General Staff is responsible ; 
drafts which should be compiled by other branches of 
the Staff , and by the representatives of the Artillery and 
Engineers, being obtained from those concerned. 
For the timely preparation of statements of information 
for circulation by " O " throughout all branches of the 
Staff and to subordinate commanders. 

(642) p 



210 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The Intelligence Branch classities and collates all information 
regarding the enemy, however gained, especial importance being 
attached to the source from which it was obtained, and is respon- 
sible for its communication to the Operations Branch of the 
General Staff. 

The Intelligence Branch is also charged with the duty of 
correcting and supplementing, during the campaign, all the 
information originally placed at the disposal of the Corps 
Commander. 

In battle, the Intelligence Branch must consult with the 
Operations Branch as to measures to be taken to obtain 
information by the action of troops and is responsible that 
systematic arrangements are made through Operations Branch 
for the continuous observation of the enemy's movements, and 
for obtaining and sifting information. The points to which 
attention should be specially directed are turning and enveloping 
movements, the position and strength of the enemy's reserves, 
concentration of force for attack, the approach of reinforcements, 
and signs indicating the exhaustion of ammunition, inclination 
to retire, or disinclination to advance. 

Intelligence Branch should also arrange with Operations 
Branch for enterprises with a view to tapping the enemy's 
telegraphs, telephones and signals, and intercepting his despatch 
riders. 

It is the duty of the Intelligence Branch to prepare a 
summary of the intelligence received, with any deductions which 
it is possible to make therefrom, for the information of the head 
of the Intelligence Branch. The latter is responsible for keeping 
the Operations Branch continually in possession of all information 
which is of value to the Commander in framing his plans. 

The Intelligence Branch must also be prepared to record on 
the " maps of the situation," supplied by the Topographical 
Section, I., such information as is available regarding the enemy's 
forces and their movements, according to the latest data received 
or deduced, care being taken to discriminate between information 
that is believed to be accurate and what is presumed or inferred. 

At the Headquarters of a Division the head of the Intelligence 
Branch is responsible for piecing together the items of information 
as they are received. He must deduce from information received 
the probable trend of events and should suggest the points which 
will repay further investigation. The senior General Staff Officer 
of a Division must rely on the head of his own Intelligence 
Branch for the latest information regarding the enemy. 



Corps Administration. 211 

The ultimate disposal of prisoners of war is a matter for the 
A.G.'s Branch of the Staff. It lies with the Intelligence Branch, 
working in conjunction with the section of the A.G.'s Branch 
concerned, to ensure that men captured from the enemy are not 
passed to the rear before they have been subjected to any interro- 
gation which may be thought advisable. 

Information obtained from prisoners and inhabitants is often 
of special importance, particularly as regards the enemy's order 
of battle. To obtain the best information from them, the 
interrogator must have a good knowledge of the language, and 
must be thoroughly acquainted with the organisation and routine 
of the enemy's army, and the names of its principal commanders ; 
for the more knowledge he displays the more ready will be the 
response. It is therefore desirable that the detailed examination 
of prisoners and inhabitants should be conducted as soon as 
possible by the General Staff. 

The capture of important documents will at once be notified 
to Intelligence Branch at Corps Headquarters, so that instructions 
may be issued, if necessary, for their further examination and 
final disposal. 

The Intelligence Branch is responsible, in consultation with 
the A.G.'s Branch of the Staff, that arrangements are made for 
the collection of printed matter or manuscripts found in places 
lately occupied by the enemy, for searching prisoners and the 
enemy's killed for concealed documents, such as orders, instructions 
and memoranda ; and with the co-operation of the medical 
authorities for doing the same to his sick and wounded. 

The Intelligence Branch is further responsible for the issue of 
maps to all formations. 

The Secret Service Sub-section has been inaugurated, which 
has for its object the prevention of espionage and communication 
amongst enemy agents, to deal with which it has certain powers. 
These are laid down in the Staff Manual, F.S.R., Part II., etc. 
One of them, however, is the control over all civilians in the Corps 
area. 

The B.G.G.S. therefore, besides having the allotment and 
co-ordination of Staff Duties for the whole Corps Headquarters, 
has the officers shown in Appendix V. under his immediate 
control to aid him in carrying out his three main duties, besides 
sundry others who are attached to the Staff, including two 
learners. 

(642) P2 



212 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The third duty of the General Staff, viz., Training, has during 
the war become more and more important, as at least 60 per cent, 
of the time, Units are " at rest " or in training. All this training 
has to be co-ordinated and further special arrangements have to be 
made to train officers and N.C.O.'s in their duties as such. To 
allow of this, schools for all arms have been organised, special 
establishments have been allowed, and very good work has been 
done. The schools which were in existence at the time of the 
Armistice were : — 

The Canadian Corps Infantry School. 
„ Artillery 
„ Signal 
>> i> >» Kj&S 

„ Police 
„ Engineer 
,, „ Machine Gun School. 

The tw r o latter being combined with the Engineer and Machine 
Gun Wings respectively of the Canadian Corps Reinforcement 
Camp. 

Additional to these each Division had organised a school 
running concurrently with its Wing at the Canadian Corps 
Reinforcement Camp. 

It is the special duty of the General Staff to keep " Q " Branch 
informed of the projected movement of troops in order that the 
necessary co-ordination of arrangements for maintenance may be 
made and decisions given as to the relative urgency with which 
supplies, stores, and war material are required. 

In the allotment of quarters, the General Staff, after conferring 
with " Q" Branch, if the tactical situation permits, decides, 
under the orders of the Corps Commander, the general areas to be 
occupied. 

Further, the General Staff must be prepared to assist "A" 
Branch by supplying information in regard to such matters as 
special steps to be taken in connection with the medical and 
sanitary services, and so forth. 

In fact, the great secret of efficient General Staff work is that 
a very true liaison must be kept by the General Staff with not only 
"A" and " Q" Branches of the Staff, but also with the Staffs 
of the subordinate formations and with the Staffs of the Artillery 
and Engineers. 

Lastly, there is under the Intelligence Branch a sub-section of 
the Canadian Corps Survey Section known as the Topographical 



Corps Administration. 213 

Section. This Topographical Section supplies the necessary 
information on maps to all formations in the Corps. 

The General Staff has in this War had to deal with many 
strange children of the War, such as tanks, gas, aeroplane 
developments, sound ranging section, etc., but on the whole the 
duties of the General Staff have remained such as laid down in the 
old Staff Manuals of 1912. The principal change on the General 
Staff has been the tremendous development of the Intelligence 
Branch, a chain of " I " officers and other ranks being formed 
which reaches right down to Battalions. 

The most important duty of the General Staff, therefore, is 
the early promulgation of the Intention to all branches of the 
Staff, i.e., to every officer shown in Appendix V., so that their 
various branches can get ready with Administrative, Artillery 
and Engineer programmes at the earliest possible moment. 

THE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF. 

The chart showing the channels of the Administrative Staff 
is given in Appendix V. 

The Administrative Staff is divided into two distinct branches, 
M Q " Branch and " A " Branch, each maintaining a close liaison 
with the other and with the General Staff. The work of the whole 
is co-ordinated by the D.A. and Q.M.G., who advises the Corps 
Commander on all administrative matters, which, of necessity, 
must be compatible with the situation as represented and 
advertised by the General Staff. 

"Q" BRANCH. 

" Q " Branch is the portion of the Staff dealing with the 
duties carried out by the Q.M.G.'s Department at General 
Headquarters. Most of the officers with whom the A.Q.M.G. 
deals are shown under his initials in Appendix V. 
Generally speaking, the duties are as follows : — 
Details of all moves of troops in the Corps. 
Distribution in detail of quarters, and, when necessary, 
erection of hutting and provision of tent age, or 
hiring of land and buildings. 
Supply of the following : — 

Food, forage, petrol oils, and light. 

Water. 

Remounts. 

Ammunition, bombs, Very lights, etc. 

Equipment, clothing and stores of all kinds. 

Stationery. 



214 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Transport of all the above supplies to the troops. 

Railway and Tramway administration. 

Requisition. 

Control of traffic at all times. 

Arrangements for bathing and laundries. 

Collection of dripping. 

Arranging for canteens. 

Listing and disposal of trophies of war. 

Investigation of claims, both of inhabitants and of all 

ranks. 
Furnishing necessary returns of all the above. 
Courts of Enquiry into any of the above when necessary. 
Registry of Documents. 

Rendering proper accounts for expenditure ot an 

abnormal character. 
Preparation of reports, despatches and diaries relative 

to all of the above. 
Drafting of Routine Orders and instructions in connection 

with the above. 
Veterinary services. 

To go into great detail on all these duties would fill a volume ; 
many of them, such as the arrangements for bathing, laundries, 
canteens, etc., are products of this war, and special staffs have had 
to be formed to organise the work ; many of them will again 
be met with under . the functions of the various services and 
departments. 

It will, however, be noted that whilst the General Staff deals 
directly only with the fighting arms, " Q " Branch of the 
Administrative Staff deals with all services and departments of 
the Corps, and it requires an administrative ability of no mean 
standard to co-ordinate the work of the services and departments, 
so as to have no hitch in the Corps in the use for which it is 
intended, viz., fighting. 

" A " BRANCH. 

" A " Branch is the portion of the Administrative Staff dealing 
with the duties carried out by the Adjutant- General's Department 
at General Headquarters. Most of the officers with whom the 
D.A.A.G. deals arc shown under his initials in Appendix V. 



Corps Administration. 215 

Generally speaking, " A " Branch deals with the following 
matters : — 

Administration of Military Law. 
Discipline. 
Courts of Enquiry. 
Boards. 

Courts Martial. 
Suspension of Sentences. 
Rulings and complaints. 
Police measures. 

Appointment of officers, such as Town Majors, etc. 
Transfers, postings, employment and exchange of all 

ranks. 
Leave and passes for all ranks. 
Enlistments and discharges. 
Applications and enquiries. 
Casualties and invaliding. 
Supply of personnel, dealing direct with the Canadian 

Corps Reinforcement Camp. 
Interior economy. 
Establishments and organisation. 
Pay of all ranks. 
Disposal of prisoners of war. 
Burials and cemeteries. 
Ceremonial. 
Medical services. 
Chaplain services. 
Postal services. 

Preparation of reports, despatches and diaries relative 
to all of the above. 
These matters have in many cases special officers to look after 
them, but the whole has to be reviewed and co-ordinated in the 
" A " office for ultimate submission to the Corps Commander 
through the D.A. and Q.M.G. It will be noted that in many cases 
again the General Staff has to be consulted : thus it is necessary 
that the General Staff notify " A " Branch should an abnormally 
large operation be contemplated, in order that the Medical 
Services shall be given instructions, that the Police shall be warned, 
and that the Reinforcement Camp shall be ready to supply an 
abnormal number of reinforcements. On the other hand, in the 
matter of Establishments, the "A" Branch draw up the Estab- 
lishment and submit it to " G " for criticism, as it is " G " who 
will have to use it, so that again the essence of smooth and 
efficient working is good liaison. 



216 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Added to these two main Branches of the Staff, the Canadian 
Corps has an Assistant Military Secretary, whose duties include 
preparation of correspondence and action in dealing with the 
following subjects : — 

Staff {Officers). — Appointments, including appointments 
to Headquarters, Administrative Services and Depart- 
ments, and Personal Appointments (Orderly Officers, 
A.D.C.). 

Attachments. 

Learners in Staff Duties. 

Certain Regimental Appointments (Officers), e.g., 
Adjutants. 
Quartermasters. 
Lewis Gun and Intelligence Officers. 

Promotions (substantive and acting) . — Recommendations 
for officers of all Arms and Services, except Canadian 
Army Service Corps, which are dealt with by an 
officer appointed as " Officer i/c C.A.S.C. Personnel." 
The promulgation of A.C. and R. Lists and Draft 
Gazettes received from Canadian Section, G.H.Q. to 
Divisions and Corps Troops. 

Promulgation of Command and Staffs Corps Lists to 
all concerned. 

Gradation and seniority of officers. 
Resignations of officers. 
Supernumerary Officers, disposal of. 
Confidential and Adverse Reports. — All officers. 

Honours and Awards. — "Immediate"; preparation of 
Honours Gazette and disposal of allotments granted 
for Foreign Decorations. 

Temporary Commissions, including administration of 
allotments for Cadet Commissions notified by Head- 
quarters, Canadians, through Canadian Section, G.H.Q. 
Routine. — Correspondence with divisions, etc., including 
Imperial divisions attached to Corps on above subjects. 

Policy. — Questions of policy initiated by Corps Com- 
mander or referred to him, arising out of the foregoing. 

These matters normally come under the " A " Branch, but as 
in the Canadian Corps the work was very heavy in this Branch, 
a separate office dealing with the Corps Commander through the 
D.A. and Q.M.G. was inaugurated. 



Corps Administration. 217 

SOME INDIVIDUAL OFFICERS. 

There are now only the functions of individual officers to 
discuss. In many cases their appointment speaks for itself, 
such as the Courts Martial Officer, who is the Judge Advocate's 
representative on all General Courts Martial cases and on any 
Field General Court Martial where the evidence may be com- 
plicated, who reviews all proceedings before sending them to 
Army Headquarters, and so forth. 

Branch Intelligence Officer is a Canadian Corps Officer who 
lives with the Squadron of the R.A.F. covering the Corps front, 
and with whom the Intelligence Branch communicates if they 
wish any particular mission carried out by the R.A.F. This 
officer is further an expert in Aeroplane Photographs, and 
transmits any information he may glean at the Squadron 
Headquarters to Intelligence Branch at Corps Headquarters. 

Corps Camouflage Officer is responsible for the designing 
of camouflage, such as imitation trees for observation 
posts, camouflage to cover champagne machine gun emplace- 
ments, camouflage to mis-shape, etc. 

Town Majors and Area Commandants were created to 
organise the billeting and cleanliness of areas in which troops 
were placed when out of the line. 

Assistant Provost Marshal commands the Corps Military 
Police, and with his assistants is responsible for their organisa- 
tion and efficiency and distribution as required. Before action, 
he is usually supplied with a Road Control Officer who assists 
him in the control of the traffic. He is in charge of the Corps 
Field Punishment Station, and superintends the execution of 
sentences of courts martial when too severe or long to be dealt 
with in their Units. 

His main duties consist of — 

Prevention and detection of crime. 

Arrest of offenders. 

Regularity of road traffic. 

Collection of stragglers during action. 

Custody of prisoners of war. 

Control of civil circulation. 

Surveillance of persons suspected of espionage. 

Corps Burial Officer co-ordinates the work of the Divisional 
Burial Officers, and is responsible for the general supervision of 
burials and cemeteries in the Corps area. 



218 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Deputy Assistant Director of Roads is responsible for the 
construction and maintenance of roads outside the forward 
area ; for this purpose he is in close liaison with the Labour 
Commandant at all times. 

The Camp Commandant commands all details at Corps 
Headquarters, and is the administrative officer for Corps Troops, 
In the latter capacity he is responsible for the housing, rationing, 
clothing, messing, moves and leave of all ranks. He is also 
responsible for the records of all ranks and deals direct with 
3rd Echelon, G.H.O., on all matters pertaining thereto. 

The Labour Commandant administers and commands, under 
G.O.C. Corps, all Labour (with certain exceptions) in the 
Canadian Corps area, inclusive of the Canadian Works Group. 

His staff consists of an Assistant, an Adjutant and the 
necessary clerical personnel. 

The Labour Commandant is responsible that all Labour in 
the Corps area is located and distributed in such a manner that 
the many and varied requirements are met and carried out in 
a prompt and efficient manner, and with the least possible waste 
of man power. 

This is done by keeping in touch with the various Branches 
of the Staff and the representatives of all Administrative 
Services and Departments employing Labour, by constant 
personal inspections of the Labour Units in camp and at work, 
and by various reports, returns, etc. 

The Canadian Light Railway Officer (C.L.R.O.) acts as a 
liaison officer between Canadian Corps and the Army Assistant 
Director of Light Railways (A.D.L.R.). 

Generally, his functions are to assist in the development of 
Light Railways, having special regard to the particular require- 
ments of the Corps. 

Light Railways in the Corps are divided into — 

1. Army Light Railways, which are operated by steam 
motive power in the rear area, and 

2. Canadian Corps Tramways, which are operated by 
petrol engines and operate in the forward area. 

All suggestions for the construction of new lines or sidings 
on Light Railways in the Canadian Corps area (rear) , and which 
are considered to be in the interests of the Corps, are investigated 
by the C.L.R.O. and submitted by him to the A.D.L.R. for 
approval before work is commenced on same. 



Corps Administration. 219 

All trucks required by Artillery Brigades, Ammunition 
Parks, R.E. Material Parks, etc., for removal of ammunition 
and R.E. material from Broad Gauge Railheads to Divisional or 
Brigade Dumps ; also for clearing of rations and any other 
material for use of Corps, and trucks required for transportation 
of troops from one point to another in the Corps area, are looked 
after by the C.L.R.O. Formations requiring such trucks send 
in the night previous to the C.L.R.O. particulars of number of 
trucks required and times and places where they are required. 
The C.L.R.O. makes all arrangements with Army Light Railways 
(Central Wagon Control) for these to be placed as required. 

Should there not be sufficient trucks available to meet the 
demand, the C.L.R.O. takes up with " " Branch the question 
of priority of material and duly notifies formations whose 
requirements cannot be met, in order that other arrangements 
may be made for transport. 

The C.L.R.O. in Canadian Corps also holds the position of 
Field Engineer i/c Tramways, and in this respect he is directly 
responsible to the Chief Engineer, Canadian Corps. All con- 
struction in the forward area on Canadian Corps Tramways is 
referred to the Chief Engineer. 

The Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff send over to France and 
attach to the Corps a number of Instructors. These are dis- 
tributed round the Schools, Units, etc., for instructional work 
in Physical and Bayonet Training, and are all under the super- 
vision of an officer who is attached to the General Staff at Corps 
Headquarters. 

An Assistant Director of Educational Services, with assistants 
in each Division, has been allowed in the Establishment of the 
Canadian Corps. Since the Armistice, the importance of his 
appointment has developed enormously, and when it is realised 
that nearly 75,000 men of the Corps attend his classes daily the 
importance of his work will be appreciated. 

The Corps Salvage Officer commands the Corps Troops 
Salvage Company and is responsible for the collection of salvage 
in the Corps area, and for the sorting, listing, and disposal of 
salvage supplied by the Divisional Salvage Companies. Usually 
wagons are detailed by the Reserve Park to clear back areas 
of salvage and often lorries are detailed from the Senior 
Mechanical Transport Officer. Divisional Salvage Officers are 
also on the establishment. 



220 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The Corps Laundry Officer makes arrangements to wash 
soiled garments collected from the Divisional and Corps bath 
houses, and to supply clean clothing to the bath houses. He 
usually organises area laundries for this purpose, but often has 
to arrange to farm out the washing to civilians. 

The Canteen Officers at Corps and Divisional Headquarters 
arrange Corps Troops and Divisional Canteens in their respective 
areas. They arrange with the Senior Mechanical Transport 
Officer to draw their supplies at wholesale prices from the 
Army Expeditionary Force Canteen Distributing Centre. 

The Claims Officers investigate all claims from inhabitants 
on behalf of " Q " Branch. Some of these are — 

Damage to crops, fields, or pasture land. 
Damage to buildings, etc. 
Personal injuries. 
Occupation of buildings. 
Damage to civilian vehicles. 

If a claim is legitimate and does not exceed a certain sum 
of money, and, of course, providing no individual is to blame, 
the Claims Officer is empowered to adjust the claim on the spot 
If, however, there is any doubt as to the responsibility, or if 
the amount exceeds the sum referred to, all available evidence, 
for and against, must be submitted to the " Claims Commission " 
for instructions or advice. Wilful damage, if the guilty 
individual or Unit can be located, must be paid for by the part}' 
causing the damage. 

So far all the duties have been quoted as undertaken by 
the Corps Staff. The branches and allotment of duties is 
similar in the Divisional Staffs,- the Artillery, Engineer and 
Machine Gun Staffs, down to Brigades of Infantry and Engineers, 
and to Divisional Artillery and Corps Heavy Artillery Head- 
quarters in the Artillery, except that as the numbers to be admin- 
istered decrease so the Staffs decrease, until in the cases quoted, 
the Brigade Majors do the " G " work and the Staff Captain 
" I " the Intelligence, and the Staff Captains the " A " and 
" Q," forwarding their work to be co-ordinated and their 
problems to be solved by the Staff of the higher formation, if 
necessary. 



Corps Administration. 221 

PART IIL-FUNCTIONS. 
THE INFANTRY. 

The Infantry, which it* will doubtless be observed is placed 
first of all the Branches of the Service, is the arm around which 
the Canadian Corps is built. It is the Infantry, with the 
assistance and co-operation of the auxiliary arms of the Services, 
the Departments, and the Staffs, which finally fulfils the 
ultimate duty of the Corps, viz., which fights the battle, takes 
the position and holds it when taken. 

The principal function of the Infantry is, therefore, to fight 
and it is organised and administered with this object in view. 

The actual fighting will be officially described in the history 
which is being written, and it is proposed to deal here with 
the functions of the organisation. 

The Unit of Infantry is the Battalion, and the Battalion 
is divided into a Headquarters and four Companies of four 
Platoons each. These again are divided into four sections, 
each with its own Commander. 

A section normally consists of from six to ten men, being 
considered the largest number of men which one individual 
can control in person, and is the fighting Unit, four of which 
are controlled and directed by a Platoon Commander. 

A Platoon is the largest Unit which it is considered one 
man can personally direct in battle, and is the fighting Unit 
on which a co-ordination of battle plans is based. 

Four Platoons are, again, in one Company for direction 
and administration, and four Companies constitute a Battalion. 

Each Commander, therefore, has his own regular duties 
which are co-ordinated, and assisted by certain permanent 
appointments and other duty officers detailed from time to 
time. 

Duties of a Section Commander. — To look after his section 
at all times, in billets, in the trenches, and on the march. To 
know the characters of his men, their names, and their respective 
abilities and limitations. He should be able to identify any 
man by his movements and the sound of his voice. He is 
responsible for looking after the distribution of food, water, 
and fuel within his section, and for the care which men take of 
their clothing, equipment, and necessaries. He is responsible 
for the manner in which his men turn out on parade and for 
the cleanliness of their billets. He must understand the 



222 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Platoon roster of duties and be acquainted with the allotment of 
tasks. He must know how and see to the carrying out of orders 
from his superiors regarding work, sentry duty, or tactical 
deployment. He must have his section ready to follow him 
and should be ready to lead them wherever the situation 
demands. 

Duties of a Platoon Commander. — He commands his sections, 
and therefore must know thoroughly all the duties and 
difficulties of the Section Commanders. He must inculcate 
discipline and esprit de corps in his Platoon, and train his 
Section Commanders and their understudies in their duties. 
He is responsible for knowing and promulgating all orders, 
including defence schemes and plans for attack. 

He must keep a Platoon Roll Book, with all particulars of 
his men, including previous occupation, and their next of 
kin. He must study the fitting of his men's boots, care of their 
clothing, and the state of their feet. He inspects his Platoon 
daily, being responsible for their appearance and for the 
efficiency of their arms. 

He must be able to and must train his men in the use of 
the weapons with which they are armed, and must train them so 
that he can deploy his sections readily to cope with any situation. 
He must direct his sections in battle and be ready to lead his 
men in any situation necessary. 

He must ensure a proper roster of duties within the Platoon. 

Platoon Sergeant. — He understudies and assists the Platoon 
Commander in every way. He is responsible that all other 
ranks within his Platoon are prompt and punctual at reveille, 
stand-to, and parades. He must keep a Platoon roster. 

Duties of Officer Commanding a Company.— He is primarily 
responsible for the interior management of his Company and 
for their clean and soldierly appearance, for their discipline 
and general well-being. He is responsible for the training of 
his officers and his men. He must know the characteristics 
of his subordinate leaders, and is responsible that his subordinate 
commanders know the exact state of their commands at all 
times. He must develop understudies for every position of 
command in his Company, and while being the greatest influence 
in his Company, he must know that at no time is his Company or 
any part of it a one-man show. He must develop esprit de corps 
in his Company, encourage games, create amusements for his 
men, and make them know that they are well looked after, 



Corps Administration 223 

and that they will always get a fair show. He must write, or see 
that his officers write, to the relatives of all officers and other 
ranks killed, seriously wounded, or missing in his Company. 
He is responsible for the proper conduct of his officers. He 
is personally responsible for all Company funds. He must 
see that rations and clothing are equitably distributed. He 
must co-ordinate the actions of his Platoons in battle. 

For the above purposes he has besides his Platoon Com- 
manders a Second-in-Command, who understudies him in every- 
thing, and whose special function is the comfort of the men, 
their billeting, clothing, cooking, and rationing. He must 
know each Platoon thoroughly, so that as occasion demands 
he can train any Platoon or lead any Platoon in battle. 

The Company also has a Company Sergeant-Ma j or, Company 
Quartermaster-Sergeant, Company Clerk, Cooks and Runners 

The Company Sergeant-Ma j or is responsible for the smartness 
and general appearance of the non-commissioned officers of the 
Company. He must possess a perfect knowledge of drill, and 
must be able to train the other N.C.O's in their use of weapons, 
and particularly their administrative duties. He details all 
Company duties, and must keep proper rosters for same. He 
attends all Company parades and Company orderly room. 
He is responsible for the custody and disposition of Company 
stores and trench stores. He must be capable of taking over 
the duties of the Platoon Commander in action. He must 
understand all orders, administrative or battle, so that he can 
explain them if necessary to N.C.O's, or consider the ideas of 
his N.C.O's. 

The Company Quartermaster-Sergeant takes over the rations 
in bulk from the Quartermaster, and issues them to Platoons 
or Detachments as required, in or out of the Line, reporting to 
the Officer Commanding Company. He keeps a clothing roster, 
ascertains the wants of the Company, and makes his requisitions 
for clothing, equipment, and necessaries to the Quartermaster. 
He personally distributes clothing and equipment. He arranges 
under the Quartermaster any new billeting of the Company, 
and is responsible, under the Second in Command, for the 
men's comfort, and for meals when they return from the line 
or from action. 

The Company Clerk makes out all routine returns, and keeps 
the full nominal roll for the Company Commander. He 
prepares the rosters for the Sergeant-Major. He prepares 



224 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

parade states and strength returns. He does not go into 
action, as he is responsible for Company records when the 
Battalion is in the line. 

For further supervision, the Company Commander details, 
when out of the line, a Company Orderly Officer, whose duty 
it is to inspect all meals and billets daily, and to receive any 
complaints of the men. 

The Company Sergeant-Major details for either four or 
seven-day periods a Company Orderly Sergeant and Company 
Orderly Corporal. 

BATTALION HEADQUARTERS. 

While the Battalion Commander is responsible for every- 
thing, he has two administrative officers, dividing routine 
administration between them, namely, the Adjutant and the 
Quartermaster, who in turn have various specialists directly 
under them. The Adjutant is at once the Office Manager and 
mouthpiece of the Commanding Officer, transmitting orders, 
messages, and information to other officers and other ranks. 
The Adjutant is responsible for dress, drill discipline and 
smartness. He must at all times comport himself in such a 
way as to be an example. His office is called an Orderly Room, 
and he has an Orderly Room Staff, consisting of Orderly Room 
Sergeant and Clerks, to whom he allocates the office work of 
the Battalion, and is responsible for the correctness of every- 
thing which emanates from the Orderly Room. He keeps a 
record of all officers, with full particulars of them and their 
services. Also a Non-Commissioned Officers' Seniority Roster, 
with dates of all promotions, etc. He has kept a record of 
the personal services of everyone passing through the Battalion. 
He is responsible for the correctness and punctuality of all 
returns from Companies for the information of the Commanding 
Officer, and compilation of Battalion Returns to higher Forma- 
tions. These returns are quite multitudinous, relating to 
strength, equipment, situations, etc. He must be firm and 
tactful in his dealings with Officers Commanding Companies, 
who are generally his seniors. He is responsible for reporting 
all irregularities and departures from what should be expected, 
to the Commanding Officer. He is responsible for the issuing 
and service of all Battalion Standing Orders and Battalion 
Routine Orders. He is responsible for the filing and pro- 
mulgation, when necessary, of all orders and regulations 
emanating from higher authority. He keeps a Duty Roster for 



Corps Administration. 225 

officers, and a Leave Roster for officers and other ranks. He 
prepares all cases to be heard at the Battalion daily Orderly 
Room, and where the accused are remanded for Court Martial 
he has taken summaries and usually acts as prosecutor, and as 
such is responsible that the case is presented fairly and not 
unjustly. 

He is allowed an Assistant-Adjutant, who, when available, 
understudies him, usually taking over the office routine, while 
the Adjutant devotes more time to drill, smartness, and 
appearance of the Battalion. While the Adjutant is responsible 
generally for the main Headquarters Details, he is usually 
relieved of this by the appointment of one of the other officers 
attached to Headquarters, as Officer Commanding Headquarters 
Company, for rations and discipline. The duties of officers so 
appointed correspond materially to the duties of any other 
Company Commander in addition to his special duties whatever 
they may be. 

The Signal Officer has under him a Signalling Sergeant, 
and a staff of 53 trained Signallers, for the training and efficiency 
of whom he is responsible. In more stationary warfare he 
usually allots four operators to each Company, being responsible 
with the remainder of the Staff for the maintenance of com- 
munication from Headquarters forward. Rear Formations 
take over the responsibility for maintenance of communication 
up to his Headquarters. In other phases of warfare he details 
Signallers as the situation demands. He must be thoroughly 
acquainted with all systems of signalling in use, and where 
possible take over the signalling s3/stem before the Battalion 
goes into the line or to action. It is his duty by day or night to 
maintain communication by the most expeditious method 
possible, be it telephone, visual, wireless, or runners. 

A variable number of Battalion runners also come under the 
Signalling Officer. 

He is responsible that all equipment is complete and service- 
able, including bicycles. 

InteHigenceJDe^ An Intelligence Officer is respon- 

sible fortactical information, for collating same, and keeping 
his Commanding Officer informed of all changes or move- 
ments. He has a Staff of Scouts, Sentries, and Observers, 
for whose training he is responsible. He has charge of all 
maps, and is responsible for any corrections, up-to-date, and 

(642) q 



226 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

for the supply to the proper parties of properly corrected maps. 
In stationary warfare he maintains observation of the enemy, 
and must know thoroughly enemy landmarks in the enemy 
area, the positions they hold, their habits, observing their shelling 
and general activity, keeping close liaison with the Intelligence 
Officers of senior formations, reporting his observations to 
them, likewise recording observations received from them. 
In more open warfare he is responsible for the (1) collection 
of data regarding the area he is in ; (2) observation of our own 
progress, and movement or activity of the enemy. In reporting 
on our own progress he must know the positions of our advanced 
troops, and keep the flanks of the Battalion in touch with 
adjoining Units. (3) At all times he is responsible for routes of 
march, or guiding parties to strange destinations, such as 
assembly, positions, etc. He keeps close liaison with the Artillery. 
He is responsible for collation of daily intelligence records. He 
is assisted by a Scout Officer, who, when possible, understudies 
him, and generally conducts personally advanced reconnaissance 
patrols of " No Man's Land," enemy wire, and enemy positions. 

Lewis Gun Officer. — In each Platoon there are two Lewis 
guns, the gunners for whom are of course under their own 
officers for training and all other matters, but the Lewis Gun 
Officer is responsible for their constant technical training, and 
assists Company Officers when necessary. He is assisted by 
a Lewis Gun Sergeant. He trains special classes of Lewis 
gunners whenever possible. He advises on the tactical handling 
and disposition of guns. He arranges for practice, and 
arranges and supervises fire on the ranges whenever the Battalion 
is out of the line. He is responsible for the maintenance of 
the guns in good order, and for the supply of spare parts. In 
action he usually acts as Liaison Officer with adjoining Units, 
or in conjunction with the Intelligence Officer. 

Bombing Officer and Works Officer. — When possible an 
officer is appointed as Bombing Officer, who also acts as Works 
Officer. He is responsible for the supply of bombs, flares, 
ammunition, etc., the construction of bombing pits when out 
of the line, and the training of all men in the use of bombs. 
He supervises any purely Battalion work in the trenches and 
out of the line, and keeps up liaison with the Engineers. 

Regimental Sergeant-Major.— He must be an example to 
all Warrant Officers and all non-commissioned officers in the 
Battalion in all things, and at all times be able to coach and 



Corps Administration. 227 

instruct them in any of their duties. He acts as a connecting 
link between the Adjutant and the non-commissioned officers 
of the Battalion. He must study critically all N.C.O's under 
him, and be able to report upon their character or efficiency 
to the Battalion Commander, and he must bring to notice any 
breach of duty. He gives out the detail of the Battalion duties, 
and parades guards, picquets, and Battalion duties. He attends 
Battalion Commanders' Orderly Room, and is responsible for 
the presence and parading of other ranks accused, and witnesses, 
or for interviews. He supervises the work of the Regimental 
Police. 

Provost Sergeant. — The Provost Sergeant has a staff of 
Regimental Police, with whom he sees to the carrying out of 
Field Punishment in the proper manner, except that when in 
custody the field punishment men are under the Sergeant of 
the Guard. He finds police for guarding any special stores or 
places of public resort put out of bounds. He acts as escort 
for prisoners who have to travel. In action he finds, with his 
policemen, battle stops and control posts, i.e., men who see 
that no one leaves the action without cause. He usually 
supervises the turning over of the prisoners of war to Brigade 
prisoners of war cages. 

Pioneer Sergeant. — The Pioneer Sergeant has a staff of 
Pioneers whom he uses to further the comfort of officers and men 
by improving billets, beds, latrines, or any other minor repairs 
necessary in the Battalion. He has under him a Sanitary Corporal, 
who sees daily to the care of latrines and refuse. He finds burial 
parties, and makes crosses for those killed in action. In stationary 
warfare he is usually in charge of dug-out material, and with his 
staff works on the final improvements of dug-outs and latrines. 
In open warfare he generally attends to stretcher bearer work 
and salvage parties. 

The Orderly Room Clerk or Sergeant is in charge of the 
regularity of the Orderly Room in general seeing that the 
Adjutant's orders are carried out. He prepares all Returns for 
signature. He is responsible for the punctual despatch of all 
correspondence and for the record of all letters and telegrams. 
He is responsible for indenting in time for all Orderly Room 
supplies, paper, etc., and for the issue of all stationery to Com- 
panies. He is responsible for the discipline of the Orderly Rocm 
Staff, and for disposition of work. 

(642) Q 2 



228 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Gas. — The Battalion Gas Sergeant is responsible for the 
maintenance of efficient Gas respirators throughout the Battalion, 
for the constant testing of same, and for the instructions in the 
proper manner that they should be used. He is responsible, 
when possible, for the making of dug-outs gas proof. He promul- 
gates to all ranks the nature of gases, the way in which they are 
propelled, and the means of detecting same, also the first aid 
necessary in the event of gas poisoning. He is responsible 
immediately after a gas attack that the proper steps are taken to 
dispel the gas from the area. He is responsible for the supply of 
anti-gas appliances, and for their distribution, viz. : such things 
as strombos horns, gongs, fans, etc. He keeps careful note of any 
occurrences relating to gas, advising when " Gas Alert " is neces- 
sary, and making full reports on any gas situation. For these 
purposes he has under him Company Gas N.C.O's, one of whom is 
attached to each Company. 

Battalion Orderly Officer and Orderly N.C.O's simply carry 
out similar duties to those described with Companies, only on the 
broader basis of the Battalion. 

The Quartermaster. — The Quartermaster is responsible for 
the provision of correct rations, of food, forage, fuel, arms, 
clothing, boots, equipment and necessaries, and all articles of 
ordnance stores. He keeps in close touch with the D.A.D.O.S., 
and with the Brigade Supply Officer. He is responsible for the 
proper distribution to companies and other attachments of the 
rations, fuel, etc., and is primarily responsible for the accuracy 
of ration indents. He is responsible for the inspection and 
disposition of kits of Officers and men killed in action and missing. 
He is responsible for the billeting of the Battalion, generally 
preceding the Battalion to a new area, to arrange same, and 
always settling billeting claims. He keeps his own records and 
files of orders relating to his department, receipts, duplicate 
indents, etc. He must keep in close liaison with the Adjutant, 
so that his work harmonises with operations. He sees to the issue 
of all special stores and equipment for action. When the 
Battalion is in action he must get in touch with the requirements 
of rations water and other supplies and see that they are 
delivered. He is responsible for the care of all Battalion stores, 
and that no excess baggage is carried which would make the 
Battalion immobile. 

He has under his immediate command a Regimental Quarter- 
master-Sergeant. The Regimental Quartermaster-Sergeant under- 
studies the Battalion Quartermaster and attends to all issues of 



Corps Administration. 229 

stores, and superintends parties receiving or collecting stores or 
equipment. He supervises the work of the Company Quarter- 
master-Sergeants when with the Quartermaster's Department. 
He is responsible for the discipline and smartness of the 
Quartermaster's Department, and anybody attached to it. He 
has a staff of a butcher and orderlies to attend to the issuing of 
stores. 

Being responsible for the issuance of clothing and boots, he 
has under him shoemakers and tailors. The Sergeant Shoemaker 
must continually make an inspection of the men's boots, seeing 
that they are kept in good repair, and that they fit properly, and 
issue new ones when necessary. 

The Master Tailor sees to the re-fitting of all uniforms ; 
he fixes identification patches on all jackets, and so long as clothing 
can be kept serviceable he sees to repairs. 

A Sergeant Cook has in each Company a Staff of four cooks, 
who are directly under their Company Commander, but who are 
advised daily by the Sergeant Cook as to the best use to be made 
of rations available. The Sergeant Cook is also responsible for 
the efficiency of all cook wagons. 

A Postal N.C.O. receives all incoming mail, delivering to 
Company Quartermaster-Sergeants mail for all ranks with the 
Battalion, and readdresses the mail for all casualties. 

Transport. — The Transport Officer is responsible for the 
discipline and interior economy of his command. He is responsible 
for the condition of all animals and vehicles, which he must 
thoroughly understand. He sees that his horses and mules are 
properly groomed, watered, and fed, paying most careful attention 
to the shoeing, and sees that all sickness, accidents, etc., are 
promptly and properly attended to. He is responsible for the 
drill and smartness, mounted and dismounted, of his Unit, and 
for the horsemanship and driving abilities of his personnel. He 
must see that his harness and saddles are always kept in perfect 
condition and repair ; that his vehicles are always in good 
repair, well oiled and greased, and that full equipment is carried. 
As the Transport is largely a mirror of the Battalion, so he 
must inculcate in his personnel a feeling of pride and esprit de corps 
which will keep his wagons and horses showing to the best advan- 
tage, and instilling pride in the whole Battalion. He keeps a 
duty roster book, both as regards men and animals, and a careful 
record of all his equipment. In action he is responsible for the 



230 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

transportation of rations, water, ammunition, etc., to his 
Battalion. He must find routes and the most suitable place to 
dump his loads. He must have a thorough knowledge of map 
reading, and be able to go to any place at any time, under all 
conditions, day or night, and deliver his loads. His duty is to get 
there, but he must not foolishly sacrifice his animals, personnel or 
loads, as none of them can be quickly replaced. Out of the Line, 
on the march he is responsible for the transportation of all regula- 
tion baggage, and sees that no wagons are unduly loaded, and that 
proper march discipline is maintained by his drivers. Daily 
he draws and delivers rations, fuel, ordnance stores, water and 
other transportation as required within the Battalion. 

He has a Transport Sergeant w r ho understudies him in every 
respect. 

The Second in Command understudies the Commanding 
Officer, assisting and supporting the Commanding Officer in 
every respect. He assists the younger officers in their duties, 
giving them advice whenever necessary. He has charge -of 
regimental accounts, and supervises the running of the regimental 
canteens. He supervises the work of the Quartermaster and the 
Transport Officer, being mainly responsible for everything 
pertaining to the men's comfort and welfare, both in the billets 
and trenches. He makes arrangements for baths, and sees to 
the improvement of the billets and area* He supervises the cooking 
arrangements of the Battalion, and he purchases extra supplies 
to add to the rations of the men. He supervises all workshops 
of the Battalion, such as tailor, shoemaker and pioneers. He assists 
the Battalion Commander in the training when necessary. 

The Commanding Officer.— Although the Commanding Officer 
is responsible for everybody and everything in the Battalion, 
he is primarily responsible for the training, for the fighting 
efficiency of his Unit, and for the discipline. It is his duty to 
develop an esprit de corps and pride in the men in themselves, and 
in their regiment, letting all ranks know of past achievements of 
the Battalion, and inculcating a desire to do even better. He 
holds Office daily for the disposal of offences, and for interviewing 
any other ranks who wish to see him. 

He must know his officers thoroughly, their habits, their 
character, their ability, in order that the responsibilities are given 
to men capable of carrying them, and while being just must never 
hesitate to condemn where necessary, telling his subordinates 
ot their faults and what is required of them. At the same time he 



Corps Administration. 231 

must not fail to let them know when they do good work, and he 
must always be ready to hear and consider their views and any 
grievances. He is responsible for recommending their promotion. 

He must continually study his N.C.O's, knowing any particular 
aptitude of certain of them for various work, or any who warrant 
accelerated promotion. He must have understudies in his 
Battalion for every appointment therein. 

He supervises all correspondence of the Adjutant and Quarter- 
master, dealing personally with correspondence for higher 
authority. He must know everything that goes on within his 
Battalion and that affects his Battalion. The Commanding 
Officer is responsible for the War Diary, and that full and proper 
records are kept of the Battalion. He is responsible that all 
accounts are audited regularly. He must constantly study the 
tactical handling of weapons and men. 

THE MACHINE GUN UNITS. 

HEADQUARTERS CANADIAN MACHINE GUN CORPS. 

The G.O.C. Canadian Machine Gun Corps is the technical 
adviser to the Corps Commander on the tactical employment, 
training, allocation of Machine Gun Units and policy of Machine 
Gunnery in the Canadian Corps. 

He watches on behalf of the Corps Commander the special 
interests of the Machine Gun Corps personnel as regards promo- 
tion and appointments. 

He supervises the tasks of Machine Gun Units and co- 
ordinates the plans of Divisions for the action of Machine Guns 
in operations. 

During active operations he exercises executive command 
over such Units of the Corps as may be placed under his orders 
by the Corps Commandei for this purpose. During the opera- 
tions of 1918 this Mobile Force was designated " Brutinel's 
Brigade," and consisted of the 1st and 2nd C.M.M.G. Brigades, 
Canadian Light Horse, Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion, T.M. 
Sections and Field Artillery, additional Units being attached as 
they were available, and the situation required. 
The Staff of the C.M.G.C. consists of — 

One Staff Officer, who acts as Brigade Major to the 

G.O.C. 
One Staff Captain, who looks after administration, 

strength, promotions, transport, etc. 
One Staff Officer, who carries out the duties of Re- 
connaissance and Intelligence Officer. 



232 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

MACHINE GUN BATTALIONS. 

The Battalion is the Unit for purposes of administration 
and training. The training has been thus centralised to obtain 
uniformity in tactics and greater efficiency in technical training. 

There is no similarity between Infantry Battalions and 
Machine Gun Battalions, either as regards administration or 
tactics. A Machine Gun Battalion can be more closely compared 
to a Divisional Artillery both in its organisation and in its 
tactical distribution. 

In principle the Machine Gun Battalions remain with their 
respective Divisions and participate in all battles, whether 
defensive or offensive, under the command of the G.O.C. 
Division. 

They come, however, under the orders of the G.O.C, 
C.M.G.C., when there is more than one Division engaged, and 
the Machine Gun plans of engagement require co-ordination on 
the Corps Front. 

(a) Battalion Headquarters. — Owing to the fact that a 
Canadian Machine Gun Battalion is operated on a Divisional 
front, the control and administration becomes a difficult matter. 
For this reason the Battalion Headquarters Staff is divided into 
three Departments as follows : — 

i. The " G " Orderly Room, 
ii. The " Q" Orderly Room, 
iii. The Quartermaster's Department. 

Except during active operations these three departments 
are located together at Battalion Headquarters. 

They maintain, however, their separate functions in order 
that, should the Battalion be ordered into action at short notice, 
the machinery of the Battalion will continue without interrup- 
tion. 

The following are the duties of each Department : — 

(1) G.O.R.— The Staff consists of the Adjutant, Signalling 
Officer, Clerks, Draughtsmen and Orderlies. It always ac- 
companies the Commanding Officer, and during active operations 
is located at or near Divisional Headquarteis. It controls the 
Battalion and is responsible for issuing of all orders, including 
operations, administration, training and discipline. It is also 
responsible for co-ordinating the Signal Communications within 
the Battalion. 



Corps Administration. 233 

(2) Q.O.R. — The Staff consists of the Assistant Adjutant, 
Paymaster, Clerks and Orderlies. 

During active operations it is usually located with the 
Machine Gun Companies or Batteries in Divisional Reserve 
under the orders of the Second in Command of the Battalion, 
thus forming a Second Echelon. All orders for the Medical 
Officer and Quartermaster's Department pass through this office. 

It is responsible for all the records of the Battalion, including 
Nominal Rolls, Card System, Registers, Field Conduct Sheets 
and daily Routine Orders. It prepares all " A " and " Q" 
Returns ready for the signature of the Officer Commanding. It 
ensures that all orders issued by the G.O.R. affecting the rear 
Echelon are promptly carried out. 

It is further responsible for the training and discipline of all 
ranks of the Battalion in its vicinity. 

(3) Quartermaster' s Department. — The Staff consists of the 
Quartermaster, Assistant Quartermaster and Clerks. 

It is responsible for the correct provision of rations, fuel, 
forage, arms, clothing and ammunition. When the Battalion 
is on the move it arranges for all billets and accommodation 
required. During active operations it receives orders through 
the Q.O.R. 

(b) Battalion Commander. — Under normal conditions the 
Officer Commanding makes his Headquarters with the Machine 
Gun Battalion. Too much of his time should not be absorbed 
by Staff work, and in this connection his subordinates should 
be used freely for minor reconnaissances, etc. At the same time 
he must keep in close touch with the tactical situation and shoud 
report frequently to the General Staff of the Division. 

Arrangements are made by the General Staff for him to have 
access to all tactical papers of instructional value, together with 
orders, instructions and correspondence which either directly 
or indirectly affect Machine Guns. 

The services of the Officer Commanding are available as 
required by the Administrative Staff in dealing with all matters 
affecting personnel, establishments, and equipment of Machine 
Gun Units. 

During active operations the Officer Commanding, with a 
suitable proportion of his Headquarters Staff, must be located 
at the Headquarters of the Division. 



234 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The principal duties of the Officer Commanding are : — 

(1) To administer and command the Machine Gun Battalion. 

(2) To direct the tactical action of the Machine Gun Batteries 
under his command, in accordance with the orders of the G.O.C. 
Division, and in close co-operation with the other arms. 

(3) To be responsible for arranging and carrying out reliefs 
of Machine Gun Batteries, and for the maintenance of strength, 
both in personnel and material, of the Machine Gun Batteries 
in the line. 

(4) To advise the Divisional Commander regarding the 
distribution and employment of the Machine Gun resources of 
the Division in relation to the tactical situation. 

(5) To prepare for the approval of the G.O.C, the plan of 
operations for the Machine Guns of the Division, both in Offence 
and Defence, and to co-ordinate the plans with those of the 
Divisions on either flank. 

(6) To be responsible for keeping Infantry Brigades in the 
Line informed as to the disposition of the Machine Guns covering 
their respective sectors, and to ensure that close and constant 
liaison is maintained between Infantry and Machine Gun Units. 

(7) To supervise on behalf of the G.O.C. the carrying out of 
the instructions regarding Machine Gun Units both in Offence 
and Defence, and to ensure continuity and method in the siting 
and construction of Machine Gun Emplacements in the Divisional 
Area. 

(c) Company Commander. — The Company has no administra- 
tive functions. It is a convenient echelon for the co-ordination 
of the Machine Gun Batteries, the supervision of their tactical 
handling, and the maintenance of good liaison with the Infantry. 

The principal duties of the Company Commander are : — 

(1) During active operations he establishes his Headquarters 
at the Headquarters of the Infantry Brigade whose section his 
Batteries are covering. 

(2) He supervises the work of the batteries in the line and 
ascertains personally that close liaison is maintained with the 
Infantry and Artillery. He visits all Infantry sectors covered 
by his guns and ensures that Battery Commanders are con- 
versant and in close touch with the situation on their own and 
neighbouring fronts. 



Corps Administration. 235 

(3) He must be thoroughly acquainted with Canadian Corps 
" Trench Standing Orders " and " Trench Standing Orders for 
Machine Guns " issued by Armies, and will ensure that they 

lare conscientiously carried out by the Batteries under his 

[command. 

(4) He controls and supervises the tactical handling and 
draining of his Batteries, with as little interference as possible 
'with the Battery Commanders, leaving to the latter the fullest 

measure of initiative. 

(5) He is responsible to the Officer Commanding for th? 
I interior management of his Company and for the discipline, 
| cleanliness, and soldierly appearance of all ranks. 

(6) He must know the capabilities of all ranks under him, 
and be in a position to suggest suitable officers for promotion. 

(7) He ensures that the Company Officer's Mess is properly 
conducted and accounts paid promptly. 

(8) He is responsible that all reports and returns required 
by Battalion Headquarters are rendered promptly and correctly. 

(9) He ensures that the kits of all deceased officers and men 
are promptly despatched to Battalion Headquarters. 

(10) He encourages and promotes games, sports, and 
amusements. 

(11) He brings to the notice of the Officer Commanding 
any irregularities with which he has not sufficient power to 
deal with himself. 

(d) Battery Commander. — The Battery is essentially the 
tactical Unit, and is the smallest Unit detailed for attachment 
to Infantry Brigades or Battalions. It is self-contained as 
regards command, transport, and personnel except Signallers, 
who are with the Company Headquarters and are distributed 
as the situation demands. 

The principal duties of the Battery Commander are : 

(1) During active operations he will establish his Head- 
quarters at the Headquarters of the Infantry Battalion whose 
sector his guns are covering. 

(2) He supervises the work of his sections in the Line and 
ascertains that close liaison is maintained with the Infantry 
and Artillery. He visits all Infantry sectors covered by his 
guns and ensures that section Commanders arc conversant and 
in close touch with the situation on their own and neighbouring 
fronts. 



236 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(3) He must be thoroughly acquainted with " Canadian 
Corps Trench Standing Orders " and " Trench Standing Orders 
for Machine Guns" issued by Armies, and will ensure that they 
are conscientiously carried out by the sections under his 
command. 

(4) He controls and supervises the tactical handling and) 
training of his sections. 

(5) He is responsible to his Company Commander for the 
efficiency, discipline, administration, equipment, and training 
of his Battery. 

(6) He is responsible that his Battery transport is in good 
condition and always ready for immediate action. 

(7) He promulgates all orders to his officers, N.C.O's and 
men. 

(8) He must know the capabilities of all ranks under him, 
and be in a position to advise his Company Commander 
regarding promotions. 

(9) He ensures that the kits of all deceased officers and 
men are promptly despatched to Company Headquarters. 

(10) He encourages and promotes games, sports, and 
amusements. 

(11) He ensures that all reports and returns required by 
Battalion and Company Headquarters are rendered promptly 
and correctly. 

(12) He supervises the Battery roster of duties. 

(13) He is responsible for the clothing, fuel, rations, and 
ammunition for his Battery. 

(e) Section Commander. — His principal duties are : 

(1) He is responsible to his Battery Commander for the 
efficiency, discipline, and administration of his section. 

(2) Being the officer in closest contact with the men, he 
must acquaint himself with their characters, previous employ- 
ment, good points, and limitations. He should know every 
man in his section personally and be able to recognise them by 
voice. 

(3) He must have in his possession at all times a full nominal 
roll of his section, showing full names, number, date of birth, 
age, and address of next of kin of every man. He will ensure 
that every N.C.O. has a similar roll of the men under their 
Command. 



Corps Administration. 237 

(4) He inspects his men on all parades and at " Stand to " 
during action. 

(5) He must be acquainted with all " Trench Standing 
Orders," and insist on them being carried out. 

(6) He supervises the cleaning of his section guns and 
inspects the fighting equipment regularly. 

(7) When in action he establishes liaison with the Infantry 
Units in his vicinity and those over whom he is ordered to fire. 

(8) He inspects the billets of his men regularly and looks 
after their comfort, including food, water, clothing, arms and 
equipment. He encourages sports and everything likely to 
improve their morale. 

(9) He ensures that his section carry out their duties 
conscientiously both in and out of the line, and promulgates 
all orders affecting them. 

(10) He ensures that the kits of all deceased N.C.O's and 
men are promptly despatched to Battery Headquarters. 

CANADIAN MOTOR MACHINE GUN BRIGADE. 

These Brigades are Corps Troops, and as a general rule are 
held in Corps Reserve ready to support at short notice any 
part of the front which may be threatened. Owing to their 
mobility they can be quickly moved from one part of the front 
to another. 

As previously explained in para. I., these Units are also 
employed with Brutinel's Brigade, being utilised to advance in 
front of the Infantry, seizing tactical positions and breaking 
up the defence of the enemy. 

(a) Brigade Headquarters. — Owing to the mobility of a 
Motor Machine Gun Brigade and the fact that they are liable 
to move at short notice to operate on a wide front, their Head- 
quarters are organised on the same lines as a Battalion of the 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps, being divided into the same 
three departments. (See para. 2 (a).) 

(b) Brigade Commander. — The duties of this officer are 
similar to those of a Battalion Commander with the exception 
that he locates his Headquarters with the formation he is 
operating under, and maintains liaison with all the Machine 
Gun and other Units in his area. 



288 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(c) Battery Commander. — The duties of this Officer are 
similar to those of a Machine Gun Battalion Battery Commander, 
with the exception of having motor transport in place of horsed 
transport. (See para. 2 (d). 

(d) Section Commander. — Duties similar to those of a 
Machine Gun Battalion Section Officer. (See para. 2 (e). 

CANADIAN MOTOR MACHINE GUN M.T. COMPANY. 

This Company is the Unit which supplies the Motor Machine 
Gun Brigades with their mechanical transport. It is divided 
into a Headquarters and two Sections. One Section is attached 
to each Brigade and comes under their tactical control. 

The M.T. Company is self-contained, having its own work- 
shops and repair sections. It is responsible for keeping the 
vehicles in good running order and ready for immediate action. 

It is a C.A.S.C. Unit, and is administered by the S.M.T.O. 
Canadian Corps Headquarters. 

LIGHT TRENCH MORTAR BATTERY. 

The main function of a Light Trench Mortar Battery is the 
employment of a light and readily mobile weapon for dealing 
with enemy works or activity which by nature of the ground it 
is difficult for Artillery to cope with, or from proximity to our 
own lines dangerous for other weapons to deal with. 

The weapon employed, the 3-in. Stokes Gun, is sufficiently 
mobile to be moved from point to point very quickly to engage 
targets immediately they are seen. Its range is only 700 yards. 

A Battery has for its administration a Battery Commander 
and four Subalterns, and sufficient personnel to allow five 
gunners to each Mortar. The entire personnel is detached from 
Infantry Battalions within the Brigade. This personnel being 
inadequate when the Mortars are actively engaged, sufficient 
further personnel is usually temporarily attached from the 
Infantry Battalions of the Brigade concerned. 

Each Gun Crew has its leader who, is responsible for the 
care of the weapon. He must know the faults and errors of 
his gun thoroughly, and when shooting be able to observe and 
correct his fire where necessary. He must keep thoroughly 
clean any ammunition allotted for use of his gun, and personally 
supervise the fusing of all ammunition. He must know the 
qualities of each man in his crew, and continually instruct his 
crew in the use of the weapon and the care of the ammunition. 



Corps Administration. 239 

The four subalterns normally have command of a Section of 
two guns each. In Trench Warfare, however, where Light 
Trench Mortars have been of the greatest use, as the Mortars are 
generally widely scattered over the Brigade Front, it is necessary 
to conduct reliefs of the officers, giving them charge of a varied 
number of guns according to the grouping ; and out of the line, 
as there are no specialists, the varied work of the Unit must be 
done by Roster, which the Battery Commander keeps. 

Each subaltern must have a very thorough knowledge of 
map reading, ranges and compass work, as when fighting it is 
his duty to pick up his own targets, to know the enemy trench 
system thoroughly, and by cross bearings absolutely locate any 
targets. He must be able to train also his men in every detail 
of the Mortar, the ammunition, and means of locating targets. 

The Battery Commander must personally supervise all the 
routine and administration in his Battery. He usually employs a 
senior N.C.O. as Battery Sergeant-Major, and this N.C.O. must 
be, as other Sergeant-Majors, responsible for discipline, smart- 
ness, and general conduct of the men, setting a perfect example 
to them. He must know the use of the gun thoroughly and be 
capable of instructing his N.C.O's in their duties, and the men 
in every respect. In action he is usually responsible for the 
supply of ammunition to the gun, to the maintenance of reserve 
dumps of ammunition, and in Trench warfare to the supplies 
necessary for gun-pits. 

Another N.C.O. is detailed for duty as Quartermaster- 
Sergeant, and he draws all supplies from Ordnance, and is 
responsible for the delivery of rations and clothing in and out 
of the Line. He takes Mortars and parts to the Inspector of 
Ordnance Machinery for repairs, and indents upon the Ordnance 
for such new parts as may be necessary. 

The Battery Commander receives his orders from Brigade 
Headquarters, keeping in close touch with them to co-operate 
with other weapons against any targets which Brigade lays 
down, and keeps close liaison with Battalions to deal with any 
activity of the enemy immediately within their sight. 

He is responsible for the training of his men in every respect, 
and for the full employment of his weapon. He must continually 
select new targets, and select and have improved firing positions. 
He must always be able to devise means of coping with any 
enemy annoyance to the Battalions in the lines, and must act 



241) Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

as a pacifist with Battalion officers who dislike Trench Mortars 
too close to them in the trenches owing to the enemy fire which 
they draw. 

Owing to the small personnel in Trench Mortar Batteries, 
ammunition is generally carried up by Infantry parties, and 
again to overcome the resultant dislike of the Infantry, the 
Battery must prove its usefulness. 

Gun-pits, whenever possible, must be thoroughly constructed, 
so that they can stand hits from enemy artillery and yet carry 
on. They must be very carefully concealed, and allowance 
made for the ammunition, which must be kept dry. 

In open warfare, guns of the Battery are usually attached 
to Infantry Battalions under one of the officers to cope with 
any Machine Gun emplacements, or other fortified places which 
hold up an advance. This requires quick eye for ground, as 
unless the gun is fired from a fold in the ground permitting 
protection from direct fire the crew can be readily knocked 
out. After positions have been gained, it is the duty of the 
guns immediately to occupy positions to cover approaches, so 
that the consolidation of ground gained can be carried out. The 
Battery Commander in this case acts as Liaison Officer at 
Brigade, and looks to the supplying of his guns with ammuni- 
tion. 

ARTILLERY. 

G.O.C., R.A., Canadian Corps. — The G.O.C., R.A., acts in the 
capacity of Artillery adviser to the Corps Commander and directs 
the Artillery policy with regard to the situation. 

During battle conditions all Artillery, field and heavy, with 
the Canadian Corps is placed under the direct control of the 
G.O.C., R.A., in order to co-ordinate the artillery effort. 

The G.O.C., R.A., is at all times responsible for the ad- 
ministration of all Canadian Artillery Units in France, with the 
exception of the Canadian Anti-Aircraft Batteries, which are 
an army formation. 

Brigadier-General, Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery.— The 

B.G., H.A., is responsible to the G.O.C , R.A. for the tactical 
control of all Heavy and Siege Batteries with the Canadian 
Corps. He is responsible for the carrying out of all destructive 
bombardments opposite the Corps front with the exception of 
counter battery work. The B.G., H.A., is responsible for the 
administration of all Canadian Heavy and Siege Batteries. 



C.OCR.A. 
Canadian I Corps 



FFICE 



C0C.R.A. 



G.S.0.2 . Staff Captain (A AQ .) 

Operations. Administration. 

Preparation of Orders. Promotions. Appointments. 
Schemes and Plans of Battle, Supply ofAmmunitioh, 
TrainincMoves & Reports . Guns & Equipment, 

Re-inforcements. 
Commands all Heavy Artillery "\ 
ofthe Corps, Allots Tasks .Organ- ^,^^ 

IZES AND CARRIES OUT ALL 5cHEMESW| 

of Operations following Policy G.0.C.CC.H.A. 
laid down by GO.C.R.A. / r** 



Staff Captain (int .) 

Reconnaissance. 

Collecting Information 

from all Sources, Maps. 

Air Photographs & War Diary 



D iv. Arty, 
(Same) 



T 



s Appendix Vd 

RACDN.CORPS. 
9.3 19. 

llery adviser to the Corps Commander, 
ands all Artillery ofthe Corps during Corps Operations, 
sters Personnel of all Artillery oftheCorps atalltimes 
esponsible for Technical Training of all Artillery, 
des the Artillery Policy. 




,., . C ounter Battery Office 

Responsible for Imformation j 

regards Hostile Artillery.SchemesJ — ►C.B.S.O.-' 

and Fi re Orders. To deal with same. , 



Canadian Corps 
SurveySection 



Staff Captain (opertions ) 
Operations, 
Fire Orders 
& Reports. 



Staff Captain (int) 
Intelligence. 
Records ofHostile Btys., 
Air Photos & Maps. 



Div.Arty. 

(Same) 



T 



D iv Arty. 
(Same') 



ARTILLERY ADVISER TO DiV.CMDR. 
BELONGING TO OR ATTACHED TO TH 



Commands all F.A. 
e Division. 



Div.Arty 
C.R., 



Brigade Major 

Duties 
Correspond to 



Staff Capt(AAQ- ) 
Duties 



Correspond to 
those of G.S 02at thoseof S.C. (A& Q.)at 
R. A. Corps. R. A. Corps. 



eIg 



Div.Arty 
(Same) 



Staff C apt, (int .) 

Duties 
Correspond to 

THOSE OfS.C.(INT)AT 

RACorps. 



Staff Lieut . 
Ammunition 
Accounting. 



Brigade Major 

Duties 

Correspond to 

thoseofGS.0.2to 

R. A Corps 

Re 



StaffCapt. (A) 
Administration. 
Discipline. 
Promotions 
Appointments 
■inforcements Etc. 



Bde.CG.A. 
(Same) 



O.C.Boe.CG.A . 



Adjutant. 



I J 

C.G.A. Boe.R. 



Bde.C.GA 

(Same) 



BoE.R.GA 
(Attached) 



BOE.C.F.A. 
(Same) 



Q.CBoe.C.F.A . 



Staff Capt.(Q ) 



Billets 
Supply of Amm. 

Guns& 
Equipment 
Remounts. 



Staff Lieut . 

Reconnaissance, 

Intelligence, 

Air Riotos, 

Maps. 



Div.Arty. 
attahed 
(Same) 



Orderly Officer. 



Adjutant 



1 J 

(Army)Bde.C.F.A. (Army)BoeR.FA 
(Same) (Attached) 

(Attached) 



A DlVlSIONALARTI LLERY 

is am i nteo ral part of a 
Division and is normally 
under Tactical Command 
ofthe g 0-c. of the 
division. During "Corps 
Operations" however 
all divisional artill- 
eries are placed under 
direct Command ofthe 
O.O.C. R.A. Cdn. Corps. 



Oroerly Officer. 



I 4 I J 1 1 

60Pdr.Bty. 60Pdr.Bty 6Hw.Bty. 6How.Bty. 8How.Bty. 92HowBty. 



i — i — ri 

I8Pdr.Bty I8Por.Bty. IBPdr.Bty. 4-5How.Bty. 



Mixed Bde . 2-60 pdr. Btys. Mobile B de 2-60 pdr. Btys Howitzer Bde . 3- 6 How. Btys . 
2-6'_ How. „ 2-6 "How. „ /- HeavyHow.Bty. 8 or92 

l-d-2 " » 



2165.3.19. Yrr R2067 



Corps Administration. 241 

Counter Battery Staff Officer. — The Counter Battery Staff 
Officer is the Staff Officer of the G.O.C., R.A., responsible to 
him for the organisation and execution of all counter battery 
work of the Corps, in accordance with instructions issued by 
the G.O.C., R.A. For this purpose the Counter Battery Staff 
Officer is given a priority call on certain of the Heavy and Siege 
Batteries supporting the Canadian Corps. 

During extensive operations, such as the Battle of Vimy, 
Hill 70, Passchendaele, etc., all Canadian and Imperial Artillery 
supporting the Canadian Corps come under the command of 
the G.O.C., R.A. The extent of the Artillery Command on 
these occasions was as follows : — 

Battle of Vimy . . 848 guns 45,760 Artillery personnel 

Hill 70 .. .. 466 guns 25,520 

Passchendaele . . 587 guns 32,755 ,, ,, 

March-April, 1918 .. 564 guns 31,620 

The amount of ammunition expended by the Artillery in 
large operations is enormous, and one of the most difficult 
problems to be solved by the Corps Staff is the provision and 
accumulation of gun ammunition preparatory to an operation, 
and its supply to the batteries in the course of an operation. 

This will be realised when it is stated that during the 
Passchendaele Battle alone, lasting 30 days, the Canadian Corps 
Artillery fired 2,100,000 shells of all kinds. If this amount 
of ammunition could be loaded on one train, the length of this 
train would be 17J miles. 

The distribution of the Artillery generally consists of 6-in. 
and 9.45-in. trench mortars near the front line, throwing 52- lb. 
and 150-lb. bombs a distance of from 1,200 to 2,400 yards 
respectively. 

An An ti- Aircraft Battery — five sections, 10 guns, 13-pounder, 
mounted on motor lorries. 

Field guns, about 3,000 to 3,500 yards from the front line, 
for the rolling barrages and S.O.S. 

Heavy and siege guns, from 60-pounder to 9.2-in. for 
harassing fire, demolition, counter battery work and gas shelling 
at ranges of from 10,000 to 14,000 yards, both delay and 
instantaneous fuses being used. 

Counter Battery Work.— The enemy area is divided into 
squares. Batteries are located by flash spotters, sound rangers, 
(642) r 



242 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

aeroplane and ground observation. A crime sheet is prepared 
for each enemy battery as located, showing its position, activity 
and general targets. 

Destructive and neutralising shoots are directed by aeroplane 
with wireless or balloon with telephone, or from ground observa- 
tion. Neutralising is effected by shrapnel or gas shell. 

Enemy batteries are located by the intersection of flashes, 
sound ranging, or by direct observation. On a report of activity, 
offending batteries can almost immediately be located. 

Super-howitzers and guns are often in support of, although 
not belonging to the Corps. These are 12-in. and 15-in. 
howitzers firing shells weighing 750 lbs. and 1,400 lbs. re- 
spectively, 9-in. guns firing shells weighing 380 lbs. and 6-in. 
Mark VII guns firing shells weighing 100 lbs. The former are 
on railway mountings. 

Observation Posts and Communications. — O.P.s are the eyes 
of the Artillery and practically of the Corps. They are manned 
by an officer and telephonists with wires to Batteries, Brigades, 
Divisions and Corps Headquarters. Aeroplanes signal by 
wireless when targets of opportunity are seen. 

Divisional Artillery. — The function of the Divisional Artillery 
is to render direct support to the Infantry of the Division. The 
Batteries take up positions averaging 3,000 yards behind the line 
held by the Infantry, and render this support by means of 
engaging all enemy targets seen by ground observation and by 
forming protective barrages in the event of the enemy attacking. 
The support to the Infantry during our own attack is rendered 
by means of the Batteries taking up suitable positions to form 
creeping barrages which move forward and have the effect of 
keeping the enemy down while our Infantry assault. 

The Divisional Artillery fires shrapnel and high explosive, 
and is also provided with gas and smoke shell for special tasks. 

Heavy Artillery. — Heavy batteries (60-pounders) are used 
principally to neutralise hostile batteries and to harass the 
enemy on roads and lines of approach beyond the range of field 
artillery. 

Siege Artillery. — The Siege Batteries (6-in., 8-in., and 9.2-in.) 
are used principally in counter battery work, to destroy to the 
enemy the value of his Artillery, and also for the purpose of 
bombarding houses, trenches and strong points which contain 
machine guns or riflemen which might hinder our advance. 



Corps Administration. 243 

Siege Batteries are also used for cutting wire entanglements, for 
which purpose an instantaneous fuze is used. Shell filled with 
this fuze has great effect against personnel, and are used on 
enemy's most likely assembly areas when it is expected he may 
be massing for an attack. 

Anti-Aircraft. — Anti-Aircraft Batteries engage all enemy 
aircraft which come within range, principally by direct fire, 
but in special cases these Batteries are organised for the defence 
of cities and great railway centres, and in such cases during 
darkness, when searchlights are unable to pick up enemy 
aircraft, these Batteries form barrages with a view of preventing 
the enemy from reaching any objective which he may wish to 
bomb. 

Medium Trench Mortar. — The Medium Trench Mortar 
Batteries (6-in. mortars) are used principally to destroy machine 
gun emplacements and trenches and wire in the enemy's front 
systems. They are also very valuable for counter mortar work 
against the enemy's trench mortars. 

Heavy Trench Mortar. — The Heavy Trench Mortar (9.45-in.) 
are used similarly to the mediums, but owing to the greater 
weight of shell and range have greater effect. 

The Subaltern. — In all natures of Artillery the subaltern 
normally commands a section (two guns). He is responsible 
in every way for his command, and in addition assists the 
Battery Commander in observation and liaison duty. During 
trench warfare it is necessary at all times for every battery to 
have a forward observation officer, and as the Battery Com- 
mander is responsible for the whole of the fighting of the Battery, 
it is the custom to have subalterns, in turns, remain on duty in 
forward observation posts. In each Battery there are super- 
numerary subalterns to assist. Batteries in action have an 
officer at the headquarters of the Infantry formation supported, 
and a subaltern is required to perform this liaison duty. 

The Captain. — The Captain of the Battery is second-in- 
command of the Battery, and in addition is responsible for the 
supply of ammunition, rations, clothing and equipment, and 
all duties pertaining to transport. 

The Battery Commander. — The Battel y Commander is 
fully responsible for the fighting and administration of the 
Battery which is the fire Unit. He is responsible for all 

(642) R 2 



244 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

mathematical calculations and orders relating to firing. He 
selects his Battery positions, organises his observation post, 
communication and liaison with the Infantry, and instructs his 
Captain in relation to the ammunition supply. 

The Brigade Commander. — The Brigade Commander receives 
a task for his Brigade and is responsible for the allotment of 
tasks to his Batteries, and for the organisation of the tactical 
scheme, by which support is given to the Infantry by means of 
his Batteries. 

ENGINEER SERVICES. 

The Chief Engineer is the technical adviser of the Corps 
Commander on all Engineer Services, and administers the 
Canadian Engineer personnel in France. His staff consists of a 
Staff Officer, a Staff Captain for " A " and " " duties, a Staff 
Captain for Stores and Transport, and four Field Engineers : one 
each for defences, water supply, tramways and roads. Assistant 
Field Engineers may be attached as required in times of stress. 

The Engineer Services within the Corps are divided, roughly, 
into Divisional areas and Corps area. A line of demarcation is 
settled upon in front of which Divisions are responsible for 
carrying out the work. In rear of this line extends the Corps 
area, in which work is carried out by the C.R.E. Corps Troops, 
or directly under the Chief Engineer. 

When the Canadian Corps undertakes an operation involving 
more than one Division the Engineer Units are pooled and come 
under the executive control of the Chief Engineer for the 
operation. 

Under the Chief Engineer are defences, roads, tramways, 
water supply, offensive and defensive mining, tunnelling, bridging, 
demolition, the supply and manufacture of the necessary 
engineer stores, and the construction of accommodation for 
troops and horses. 

Defences. — The general policy concerning Defences and their 
nature and siting is laid down by the General Staff, and the 
Defences are constructed by or under the supervision of the 
Engineers, the Officers Commanding Engineer Brigades being 
responsible in the Divisional areas and the Chief Engineer in 
the Corps area. 

In this manner Defences in depth are ensured. 

The Corps Machine Gun Officer selects the machine gun posi- 
tions and works up a scheme for the " heavy " machine gun 



Corps Administration. 245 

defence of the various trench systems, and when approved by the 
General Staff, the construction of the machine gun emplacements, 
dug-outs, tactical wiring, etc., are carried out under the Chief 
Engineer. 

Under the category of Defences is included wiring, construc- 
tion of trenches, deep dug-outs, gun and machine gun emplace- 
ments, offensive and defensive mining, Infantry subways, 
preparation of roads, bridges, machinery, etc., etc., for demo- 
lition, construction of Infantry and mule tracks, roads, deep 
dug-out or protected accommodation for Regimental Aid Posts, 
Advanced Dressing Stations, Battalion, Brigade and Divisional 
Headquarters, and the camouflage of this work to protect it 
from ground or aerial observation. 

The Artillery are particularly affected by the provision of the 
following : — Tramways and roads to enable the guns to be got 
into position, and to ensure their ammunition supply ; materials 
for and the placing of camouflage ; materials for and the 
construction of gun emplacements, ammunition recesses and 
dug-outs for the protection of guns, ammunition and personnel 
from hostile fire. 

Housing, Water, Roads, etc. — An important duty is the 
construction of the necessary facilities for the existence of what 
is practically a " moving citv," with a population varying from 
105,000 to 160,000 men and from 25,000 to 60,000 horses.'the whole 
or part of which moves on short notice. This involves the 
provision and erection of the necessary hutting for Headquarters, 
officers and men, and, in winter, standings and shelters for horses; the 
necessary sanitary arrangements, such as ablution tables, latrines, 
and the construction of bath houses, laundries, disinfectors, 
incinerators, etc. ; the provision of water for man and beast, 
and the hundred and one things which are necessary for the 
maintenance of this population in the Field. Arrangements 
have also to be made for the reception of the necessary supplies, 
rations and forage, ammunition, etc., provided by " Q " Branch. 
This involves arrangements for railway sidings, " in " and " out " 
roads to them, and the development and maintenance of well- 
defined traffic routes, to enable the heavy traffic to move without 
interruption. Supplies and ammunition, under " Q " arrange- 
ments, are cleared to dumps and refilling points, from which 
they are distributed, and at these dumps and refilling points 
facilities have to be provided for means of access and footings, 
cover from weather and protection from bombs and shell-fire. . 



246 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Arrangements made by the Medical Services for the handling 
of sick and wounded involve provision of roads or tramways for 
their evacuation, and the construction of Regimental Aid Posts, 
Advanced Dressing Stations, Main Dressing Stations, and 
Casualty Clearing Stations. 

Engineer Purposes, etc. — The purpose of the Engineers is 
to apply engineering science to the emergencies of modern 
warfare, in order to protect and assist troops ; to ameliorate the 
conditions under which they are serving, and to facilitate 
locomotion and communication. 

In addition to the defences of the sectors actually held, 
defences in rear must be provided in case of an enforced retirement, 
and in the case of an advance the provision of the necessary 
communications, material and defences, to enable the troops to 
hold the ground they have gained. 

In addition to the provision and maintenance of the necessary 
roads to enable the movement of traffic of the Corps, the 
construction of forward roads, field tracks, Infantry tracks, etc., 
to enable the Corps to advance, must be undertaken. As this is 
in the Forward Area, it generally has to be carried out at night 
and under great difficulties. In the case of an enforced retire- 
ment provision for the demolition of roads and bridges and 
anything which will obstruct or delay the enemy, must be made. 

Tramways. — The construction, maintenance and operation of 
tramways in the Forward Area are carried out by the Engineers. 
The line of demarcation between the Army organisation of light 
railways and Corps tramways is roughly the points to which the 
Army light railways can safely deliver in bulk by steam in day- 
light. All operation in front of this is carried out by the Corps 
tramways, which take over the cars at the transfer sidings and 
deliver in detail forward The Canadian Corps Tramway 
Companies operate and maintain about 75 miles of line in the 
Forward Area and handle the delivery of ammunition to all 
guns with positions otherwise inaccessible, trench munitions 
and supplies to the Forward Area, they carry working parties, 
Brigade reliefs, evacuate wounded to the dressing stations, 
and are being used for specific offensive operations. In the 
Corps Area about 150 trains a day are operated forward and an 
approximate daily tonnage of about 2,000 tons is carried into 
the Forward Area, practically all of which would otherwise 
have to go in by horse transport, pack mules, or be carried in 
by hand. 



Corps Administration. 247 

Water Supply. — In addition to the provision of water 
supply necessary for drinking, cooking arid washing for the men 
and water for the horses, arrangements have also to be made to 
take care of a sudden advance into a new area of the large number 
of men and horses involved, an area in which little is known of 
the facilities for water supply. An important feature of the 
question of the water supply for horses is that they must all be 
watered three times a day, and the strain on the available supply 
comes on at approximately the same hours. As it is very uncertain 
that engines or pumps will be available, methods have frequently 
to be improvised. 

Mining and Tunnelling. — Defensive mining is carried out 
to protect our lines from attack underground by the enemy and 
to ascertain his whereabouts underground and his intentions. 

Offensive mining is carried out to attack the enemy workings, 
to destroy enemy strong points, to defilade the fire from machine 
gun nests which cannot be reached, to break a hole through the 
enemy's first defence system, to blow communication trenches 
to connect our system with his and to provide a passage covered 
from view for our troops. 

Tunnelling is carried out to provide shell-proof cover in dug-outs 
for the Headquarters, the personnel of the Units in the Forward 
Area, and subways to facilitate the passage of men in the Forward 
Area through a zone which is subjected to heavy shell fire. 

Bridging. — Provision must be made for the construction 
of necessary bridges to facilitate traffic in the areas occupied, for 
duplicates of bridges likely to be destroyed, and for any bridges 
required in an advance. Careful arrangements must be made for 
the destruction of all bridges in a retirement. 

Inundations. — During the retirement of the German Army 
from August, 1918, to November 11, 1918, very successful 
demolitions were carried out on canal locks, canal banks, etc., 
which resulted in the inundation of many square miles of country, 
and the rendering useless for navigation of the network of canals 
which exist in France and Belgium. The repair of the banks, 
locks, etc., was carried out by the Engineers, and the natural 
flow of water regulated, so that in a comparatively short time 
the canals were once more open for navigation. The draining of 
the inundated area was also carried out by the Engineers. 

Camouflage. — The provision of material and supervision of 
the erection of camouflage, cover for guns, headquarters, 
sleeping huts, machine gun emplacements, observation posts, 



24S Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

etc., is carried out by the Engineers. During the operations 
from August 8 to 19, 1918, over 100,000 square yards of 
camouflage material were issued and erected, and during the 
operations from August 26 to November 11, 1918, over 150,000 
square yards were issued and erected. 

Engineer Stores. — It is now impossible to purchase any 
stores or material locally, as the country has been stripped, 
and the French Authorities reserve to themselves anything which 
is left. In consequence the requirements of the Corps as regards 
engineer stores have to be foreseen, estimated, and asked for 
six weeks ahead, and obtained through regular Army channels 
from outside sources. Engineer stores include cement, cor- 
rugated iron, felt roofing, steel joists and rails, posts and wire 
for entanglements, shelters, wire netting, expanded metal, 
hurdles, canvas and frames for revetting, trench boards, bricks, 
baths, stoves, ironmongery, timber of all sizes, electrical stores, 
mining and tunnelling stores, water pipes and fittings, pumps, 
etc. 

The stores and materials are received in bulk at the Corps 
R.E. Park established at broad gauge railheads. From there 
they are allotted to the Coips or Divisional Engineer Services, 
and transported by light railways or tramways, lorry or wagon 
transport to Advanced Corps R.E. Park, Divisional R.E. Park, 
Advanced Divisional, Brigade and Battalion Dumps. 

At each Corps R.E. Park workshops are established wherein, 
as far as possible, timber is re-sawn to sizes required, and made 
up into standard designs for mining frames, revetting fiames, 
trench boards, notice boards, gun emplacements, sectional huts, 
targets, trench bridges, infantry bridges, artillery bridges, 
etc. In addition to the sawmills', tinsmiths, and plumbers' 
shops, blacksmiths' shops, machine shops, paint shops, etc., 
are in operation to produce articles which can be obtained in 
no other way, and to save Divisions as much work as possible. 

Should the programme of work required to be carried out 
on the Corps front in a given time be more than can be undertaken 
by the Canadian Engineer Units available within the Canadian 
Corps, the situation is met by the attachment, under Army 
Orders, of Royal Engineer Units for work under the Chief 
Engineer. 

Battalion, Canadian Engineers. — A Battalion, Canadian 
Engineers, is responsible for the carrying out of all work that 
may be allotted to it by the Brigade. In stationary warfare or 
war of movement it is given a definite section, and the Battalion 



Corps Administration. 249 

Commander is responsible to the Brigade Commander, who, in 
turn, is responsible to the Divisional Commander, that defences, 
trenches, roads, accommodation and water supply in that 
area are constructed and maintained at all times. Engineer 
Battalions are available for holding the line in defensive 
and offensive operations, searching for, removing and negativing 
land mines, delay action mines, " booby traps," etc. ; helping 
the Infantry forward by constructing foot bridges over rivers, 
canals, swamps, etc., and clearing the way, constructing light 
bridges and preparing roads for horse transport to permit the 
field guns and ammunition to get forward ; constructing heavy 
bridges and repairing roads for passage of heavy guns and 
lorries ; rapid development of water supply for all purposes 
as the advance progresses ; rapid construction of light railways 
to get ammunition and supplies forward and also save lorry 
transport and the roads ; removal of obstacles of all natures 
to the advance, such as clearing roads of felled trees, filling in 
of craters, or draining off of inundations. 

Tunnelling Companies, Canadian Engineers.— During sta- 
tionary warfare these Companies are employed under the 
Controller of Mines (Army). They are responsible for the 
offensive and defensive mining (both shallow and deep), also 
for the construction of deep dug-outs, Infantry subways, etc. 

During mobile, offensive warfare, they are employed in 
searching for, removing, and negativing land mines, delay 
action mines, booby traps, etc ; maintenance and repair of 
roads, removing of obstacles, etc. 

During the German Offensive in March, 1918, they were 
also employed in the construction of trenches, machine gun 
emplacements, dug-outs, wiring, etc., in the rear area. 

Army Troops Companies, Canadian Engineers. — These Com- 
panies are employed under the C.R.E., Corps Troops, for 
engineering work in the Corps aiea. The work is very varied 
and comprises construction, maintenance, and development of 
water supply, construction and repair of bridges, construction 
and maintenance of trenches, machine gun emplacements, 
wiring, etc., operation of Corps workshops and Corps R.E. Parks, 
hutting, etc. 

Anti- Aircraft Searchlight Company, Canadian Engineers. — 

The Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Company, Canadian Engineers, is 
employed under the Anti-Aircraft Defence Commander (Army), 
and works in conjunction with the Anti- Aircraft Batteries in 
protecting the Corps area from hostile aircraft. > 



250 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Tramway Companies, Canadian Engineers. — Tramway Com- 
panies, Canadian Engineers, were organised to handle forward 
transportation and distribution problems. All tramways in 
the Forward Area are constructed and maintained by these 
Companies. They carry both heavy and field gun ammunition 
and deliver direct to the batteries. They also carry forward 
engineer material and assist in the transportation of troops, 
the evacuation of wounded to the rear, the delivery of rations 
and water to the Forward Area, and evacuation of salvaged 
material. The average daily tonnage handled by Corps Tram- 
ways varies between 1,500 and 2,000 tons. 



THE CAVALRY AND CYCLISTS. 

The Corps Cavalry and Cyclists have not had much oppor- 
tunity during the war of fulfilling the functions allotted to 
them in the manuals, which were fighting, and the protection of 
other Arms. They have mostly been used as observers and 
working parties during stationary warfare, to augment stretcher 
bearers and other service, during the trench to trench warfare 
of 1916 and 1917, and as ordeilies and messengers during the 
last few months of the war in the semi-open warfare. In such 
duties thev have been invaluable. 



THE CANADIAN ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 

The Canadian Army Service Corps is, as is generally known, 
subdivided into Mechanical and Horse Transport Units and 
formations of supply, and in the discharge of its prescribed duties 
in the Field since the Spring of 1915 has operated in a variety 
of ways more or less closely connected w r ith the specific work for 
which it was created. The vehicles of each Mechanical Transport 
Unit were primarily ear-marked for certain specific purposes. 
The work of a Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company is to 
ration the personnel and horses of formations in the Corps that 
do not form part of a Division. A Divisional Mechanical Transport 
Company's work, primarily, is to draw the supplies and Field 
ammunition required by its Division. In practice, however, 
all the Mechanical Transport is " pooled " and the lorries not 
required for the work for which they were primarily intended, 
and which must take precedence over all other duties, are detailed 
by the S.M.T.O. for the carriage of R.E. stores, road material, 
troops and any other duties necessitated by the conditions 
obtaining at the time. 



Corps Administration. 251 

This system makes for flexibility, inasmuch as it permits of 
transport being diverted to the work that is most pressing at the 
time, reduces dead mileage to a minimum, and makes it possible 
for the Mechanical Transport at the disposal of a Corps to cope 
with conditions that may be constantly varying. In general, 
however, its responsibilities may be classified under one or other 
of the following headings : — 

(a) The efficient maintenance of the mechanical and horsed 
transport serving the Corps Headquarters and Troops, the four 
Divisions, and the 5th Divisional Artillery. 

(b) (i.) Demands for, and control of, adequate supplies of food, 
forage, fuel, etc., and their distribution, on the basis of respective 
strengths, from the nearest railheads to all Units and formations 
forming part of the Corps and Divisional establishments or 
temporarily attached thereto for rations ; (ii.) The supplementa- 
tion of such supplies, where necessary, by local requisition (more 
particularly as regards fuel, fodder and vegetables) ; (iii.) The 
administration of, and accounting for, any such supplies captured 
from the enemy ; (iv.) The temporary rationing of civilians in 
areas recovered from enemy control. 

(c) The haulage from railhead of practically all stores equip- 
ment, mail, etc., consigned or for issue to formations or individuals 
in the forward area. 

(d) The performance of any detailed duties at any time 
involving the use of transport other than that assigned under 
establishment to Units of other Branches of the Service. 

The administration of this service within the Corps is assigned 
to Corps " A " and " " Branches, from whom emanate instruc- 
tions to each Divisional " A " and " O." Who in turn deal 
principally with two C.A.S.C. Units, — one, known as the 
Divisional Mechanical Transport Company, consisting of 
9 Officers and 346 O.R., under the command of a Major, and 
furnished with 85 motor lorries, — now pooled for general services ; 
the other, the Divisional Train, commanded by a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and comprising 24 Officers, 412 Other Ranks (including a 
supply section of 48 O.R.), with 390 horses (314 H.D.) and 158 
waggons — usually termed second line transport to distinguish it 
from Unit's regimental (first-line) transport, with whose inspection 
the Officer Commanding Train is charged, and for whose efficiency 
as senior Transport Officer of the Division, he is primarily 
responsible. 



25'2 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

As regards the Divisional Mechanical Transport Company, 
many transport duties are assigned to this Unit, but in the limits 
of this report it will only be possible to deal with the handling of 
rations and other Army Service Corps supplies. The Company 
is divided as regards its lorry convoy into a Divisional Troop 
Section and three Infantry Brigade Sections — corresponding with 
the four companies and refilling points of the Divisional Train. 
The sections report at railhead, which during the summer of 1918 
varied in distance 10 to 20 miles from the righting area. Owing 
to the systematic destruction by the enemy during evacuation, 
of railways and bridges — destruction which continued far more 
rapidly than the facilities for repair — it was frequently necessary 
for the Mechanical Transport convoy to make wide detours 
in bringing supplies to points where they could be turned over 
to horsed transport. On other occasions the supplies had to 
be dumped at a considerable distance behind the front line, 
in consequence of the damaged roads being impassable for lorries, 
and picked up by waggons and limbers, which in emergencies 
could proceed across fields or otherwise evade mined points and 
shell-holes. During the past summer's operations both Mechani- 
cal Transport and Heavy Transport played a very important 
part, the former in hauling supplies expeditiously over great 
distances which occasionally intervened between railhead and 
refilling points ; the latter, in carrying them forward in spite 
of all obstacles, thus making it possible for the Infantry and 
Artillery to follow up rapidly a fast-retiring army which w T as 
causing all possible damage to rail and road in order to protect 
itself from absolute destruction. Railways are, of course, 
useful only so long as they are kept repaired and plentifully 
supplied with fuel ; and Mechanical Transport, with its heavy 
3-ton lorries, is only of service whilst the surface of the roads 
remains hard. But the faithful horse and mule, plod on 
perse veringly through mud and slime, occasionally on short 
rations, and often during the darkness of the blackest nights, 
guided only by the lights of the Infantry flares ahead. Last year 
the supply waggons of the Artillery frequently travelled with the 
guns, supplies being so off-loaded that it was not necessary for 
the gunners to leave their posts, as a detail could carry them 
from the point where they were dumped — and cooked on an 
open brick fire — to the gun-pit. 

The duties of a Divisional Train include (as already men- 
tioned) the receiving and transmitting of supplies to the 
numerous Units composing a Division, and also the transporting 
of Units' baggage, both personal and technical. Each of the 



Corps Administration. 253 

four Companies is divided into three parts, namely Headquarters 
Section, Supply Section, and Supply and Baggage Transport 
Section ; and to each of these an officer and two N.C.O.'s are 
attached. To No. 1 Company, which is more than twice the 
strength of the Brigade Companies, are allotted the duties of 
rationing and transporting baggage for what are known as the 
Divisional Troops, which include two Brigades of Artillery, the 
Divisional Ammunition Column, one Machine Gun Battalion, one 
Engineer Battalion, three Ambulances, one Signal Company, and 
various small Units included in a Divisional Establishment. Each 
of the three Brigade Companies is responsible for feeding and 
transporting the baggage of one Brigade of Infantry. All are 
provided with trained artificers, saddlers, wheelers and farriers, 
who subject, to their Commanding Officer and Company 
Commander, are charged with the responsibility of keeping in 
good repair the harness and waggons, and of supervising the 
horse-shoeing of the Units served by their respective Companies. 

When any such Units are ordered to move, the " " Branch 
of the Division, which deals with such matters, advises the Officer 
Commanding Train of the pending movement. The Senior Supply 
Officer is similarly warned, with a view to the amendment, if 
necessary, of existent arrangements as to indents for and distri- 
bution of rations. The Commanding Officer in turn issues orders 
to Company Commanders concerned, as to where and when Units 
are expected to move, and directs any necessary postings between 
Companies of transport drivers and waggons, to serve their Units 
within a new ration group, should a change become necessary for 
topographical reasons. These redistributions may occur in the 
case of any formation except the two Brigades of Artillery 
and the Divisional Ammunition Column, which always remain 
with No. 1 Company. 

Concurrently, the Senior Supply Officer, a Major on the 
strength of the Train, having been advised by Division " Q " 
of changes in connection with railhead, Army Service Corps 
supplies, and components of the Divisional ration group, issues 
instructions to his four Supply Captains (one for each Train 
Company) as to any alterations in the feeding strength of their 
Units, and in case of movements, locates new refilling points if 
necessary. This is usually done in conjunction with the Officer 
Commanding Train, and orders covering movements, locations 
of Units, varying feeding strengths, switches of formations 
between ration groups, positions of new dumps, and movements 
of supply details, transport turnouts, etc., and instructions in 
connection therewith, are issued to all Company Commanders 



254 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and Supply Officers, a copy being sent to the Officer Commanding h 
and the Senior Officer of the Mechanical Transport Company, to |j 
inform them of the new locations where lorries are required to | 
dump supplies. This is necessitated by the fact that the lorries | 
are loaded at railhead in bulk for the four groups. 

The nature and quantity of such supplies depends upon the || 
indents received from Units, consolidated by the Brigade Supply j 
Officer on Army Form 3316, and by the Senior Supply Officer on I 
Army Form 3317, and forwarded to the S.O. of the Mechanical 
Transport Company. On arrival of the supplies by motor | 
transport at their respective refilling points, these points being 1 
usually located in the Forward Area, they are off-loaded, and I 
a check made by the Supply Officer as to quality and quantity. I 
The Supply details attached to the dump then apportion them I 
to the different Units of their particular group, and they are 9 
loaded on the waggons and limbers of the Divisional Train and I 
transported to the Quartermaster's stores of the respective 1 
formations. They are once more checked in order to ascertain | 
whether they comply with the requirements set out in the indents. | 

Summarising this, the normal procedure, it may be seen that I 
the delivery of rations, etc., from railhead to the point where they | 
are taken over by the Units' first line transport, involves two ! 
hauls, one by lorries of the Divisional Mechanical Transport I 
Company to the respective Refilling Points (or " Supply j 
Dumps "), the other by horse transport from the Dumps, 9 
after subdivision, to all the Units and Formations of the various | 
groups, ranging from small isolated parties of three or four men | 
(e.g., Town Major's staffs or guards of ammunition dumps) to a I 
Battalion of over 900 men and 55 animals. 

This sequence of functions is not invariably followed. It is 
occasionally necessary for Train Transport to haul from railhead 1 
to the dumps, or even to the Units' lines, owing to the Mechanical 8 
Transport being withdrawn on account of the condition of the 1 
roads, or for other duties. As a rule, under such circumstances, I 
the first line transport picks up its Unit's supplies at the refilling | 
point, and carries it to the Quartermaster's stores, or beyond. 

A few words regarding the method of indenting for supplies. I 

Each Unit prepares, daily, a statement on Army (Form) B. 55 of r 

the number of personnel and of horses (the latter classified under I 

three categories) for whom rations are required, together with | 

a list of articles usually termed " Sundries," such as oils and | 

disinfectants, likely to be needed. At the supply dumps the | 

A.B. 55's for the group are tabulated on Army Form W. 3316, ' 



Corps Administration. 255 

and the 3316's daily compiled for the four refilling points are 
collected by the Senior Supply Officer, consolidated on Army 
Form W. 3317, and forwarded to the S.O. Mechanical Transport 
Company. Such demands as are urgently needed and cannot 
be drawn from the pack train may be obtained from Field 
Supply Depots or reserve stores located in the forward area. 
The period elapsing between the time an A.B. 55 is submitted 
and the date on which the rations are consumed is usually four 
days. For example, indents are submitted and consolidated 
on the 1st of the month, for rations to be drawn from the pack 
train on the 2nd, for issue to Units from the dumps on the 3rd, 
and for consumption on the 4th. The correct distribution of 
the supplies as between the four Groups is determined by the 
S.O. Mechanical Transport Company by reference to A.Fs.W.3316. 

In addition to superintending the distribution and haulage 
of supplies for all Units of the Division, and ensuring that 
sufficient baggage waggons are always available for the use of 
Battalions in the event of a sudden move, the Commanding 
Officer of the Train, in his capacity of senior Transport Officer, is 
responsible for the proper upkeep of First Line transport, and in 
the discharge of this duty, assisted by his Company Commanders, 
one Major and three Captains, holds monthly inspections and 
renders detailed reports containing criticisms and suggestions for 
the guidance of Units' Transport Officers. 

The problem of subsistence for the inhabitants of reclaimed 
towns and villages in Northern France and Belgium was a 
necessary incident of the rapid advance of the Canadian Corps 
in the Fall of 1918, subsequent to the capture of Cambrai. The 
rapidity with which Divisions' responsibilities increased in this 
respect may be illustrated from the experience of the 4th Canadian 
Division. On the 19th October last a telegram was received 
from 10th Brigade Headquarters by the Senior Supply Officer 
that the town of Abscon contained 2,300 civilians who must be 
fed, if possible, on the following day. Later on the same day, 
the occupation of the large town of Denain and the necessities 
of 5,000 inhabitants were reported, the ration figure being later 
increased to 15,000, and the next day to 28,000. The Corps 
organised a special branch to arrange for feeding civilians in 
its area, and placed in charge an Officer of the 1st Divisional 
Train who, working in conjunction with the French mission, 
kept hourly in touch with the situation and instructed Senior 
Supply Officers as to their respective ration groups. Depots of 
"iron rations" and jam and milk, had been established at different 



256 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

points by the Army. To supply requirements on the 20th, 
rations were made available from the Railway Supply Officer's 
store at Arras, through a special liaison officer, and were then 
hauled over this great distance by lorries of the Mechanical 
Transport Company. The supplies were delivered to the Maires 
of the towns requiring them, and instructions given as to the 
manner of distribution, depots being opened by the town 
authorities and rations handed out to civilians calling for them. 
Receipts were obtained from the Maires and forwarded through 
the usual channels to the Deputy Director Supply and Transport 
of the Army to which the Corps was then attached. In pursuance 
of arrangements previously entered into with the French Govern- 
ment, the Division's responsibility for feeding civilians should 
have expired after four days, large stores having been accumulated 
for them at Boulogne ; but owing to transportation difficulties 
the first French pack train did not arrive until November 5. 
Needless to add, the relief convoys were very heartily welcomed 
by the local population and a very large number of areas benefited 
by their prompt activity. 

Many and varied have been the duties performed by Mechanical 
Transport and Train Transport, as the following examples 
amply show : — 

In the Spring of 1916, the 2nd Canadian Divisional Train was 
asked to transport a large number of gas cylinders to an advanced 
position. To carry out this project successfully, it was necessary 
to bind all waggon wheels with old automobile tyres, pad loose 
parts of the waggon with canvas, muffle chains and loose parts 
of harness with sacking, and, upon approaching the Line, to cover 
the horses' hoofs with the same material. Thanks to these 
precautions, the operation was carried out with very slight loss of 
life, although at this point the width of No Man's Land was much 
less than usual, and the roadway was almost continuously swept 
by machine-gun fire. 

At Albert, in the Fall of the same year, train transport 
was employed to draw cars of ammunition on the light railway 
to Sausage Valley, prior to the fall of Courcelette. 

From January, 1917, until two weeks before the attack on 
Vimy Ridge, the Trains were supplying convoys of from ten to 
forty waggons per night, to haul 18-lb. shells to advanced 
Artillery positions. 

During September, 1917, a large programme of work for the 
Engineers was carried out by the 4th Train in the Forward Area, 



Corps Administration. 257 

and over 1,130 waggons were detailed for day or night duty, 
exclusive of hauling of supplies. 

About the same time, the 2nd Train successfully delivered 
Engineer material by night almost to the Front Line, for the 
construction of an Advanced Dressing Station preparatory to the 
Sallaumines attack. 

In November, during the period of intense fighting near 
Passchendaele, horse transport was largely employed in the 
hauling of miscellaneous material, such as barbed wire and trench 
mats, to assist in consolidating our advanced positions ; and 
heavy bombing and shell fire alike failed to divert the convoys 
from delivery of their supplies. 

During the latter part of the summer of 1918, both men and 
horse were taxed to the utmost in hauling supplies 20 to 30 miles 
per day over muddy roads, byways and even fields, and in some 
Trains heavy losses were incurred from enemy action. In no 
instance, however, were Units deprived of their rations. 

The foregoing is necessarily a light sketch of a large subject, 
and it is felt that it does less than justice both to the mechanical 
or horsed transport Units, with whose unobtrusive but capable 
and conscientious work it is designed to deal ; but it is hoped that 
enough has been said to indicate that the Canadian Army Service 
Corps in the Field, in all its branches, has played an indispensable 
role in Corps operations, with efficiency and success. 



THE DIVISIONAL TRAIN. 

The Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding the Train is directly 
responsible to the G.O.C., Division for all executive duties in con- 
nection with supplies and transport. In the discharge of these 
functions he must keep in close touch with the " A " and " " 
branches of the Division. As Senior Transport Officer he is 
responsible to the G.O.C. for the efficiency of all First-Line 
transport. 

The Senior Supply Officer is charged with the duties arising 
from the supply requirements of the Division as embodied in 
formations' demands, and attends to the taking over of all 
rations, forage, and Army Service Corps supplies, inspects them 
as to the quality and quantity, and supervises their proper 
distribution to the four Companies' dumps. He chooses new 
refilling points according to the locations most favourable for 
their establishment, readjusts the constitution of the various 

(642) S 



258 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

ration groups as may be necessary owing to movements of Units ; 
ensures that Units' Quartermaster Stores do not accumulate 
supplies, furnishes the Officer Commanding Mechanical Transport 
Company with a daily statement as to the feeding strength of 
the four Groups, and is generally responsible to the Commanding 
Officer for the efficient rationing of all Units on the strength of or 
attached to the Division. 

The Officers Commanding the four Companies of the Train 
attend to the proper maintenance of personnel, horses and 
vehicles, on the strength of, or attached to, their respective Com- 
panies. They usually inspect and report upon the condition of 
First-Line transport within their Group, superintend the internal 
economy of their Companies, and carry out all routine duties 
and special transport or other details, which may be assigned to 
them. 

The Supply Officers are each in charge of one Refilling Point 
staffed by nine other Ranks. They collect the daily A. B. X55's 
from Units of the Groups, tabulate these demands on A.F. W. 
3316, and forward the latter to the Senior Supply Officer for the 
information of the Officer Commanding and the Supply Officer 
Mechanical Transport Company, retaining one copy to enable 
a correct distribution to be made to Units on the basis of indents 
when supplies are received Any shortages or defects of quality 
are notified at once to the Senior Supply Officer. They frequently 
visit Units' Quartermasters to receive complaints, and either 
make adjustments or report the circumstances to superior 
authority. To sum up : they are primarily responsible for 
maintaining the proper quality and quantity of Army Service 
Corps supplies in their Group. 

Officers in charge of Horse Transport Sections of Companies 
supervise the upkeep of their sectional turnout within the lines 
and accompany them on supply or baggage convoy, besides 
taking their share in the ordinary Company routine. In the case 
of the section allotted to transport of supplies, the Lieutenant 
i/c Section is expected to be present at the refilling point and 
to ensure proper loading, to enforce discipline en route, and to 
satisfy himself that all supplies are delivered to the Units to 
which they are assigned. Should loss or accident occur 
through enemy or other causes, he must immediately report the 
circumstances to the Supply Officer of his Brigade in order that 
the Unit may not be deprived of rations. 



Corps Administration. 259 

The Requisitioning Officer, as his title implies, was included 
in Train Establishment, to obtain locally, such Army Service 
Corps supplies as might be needed to supplement receipts from 
the daily pack train. As a matter of practice, he has usually been 
engaged on other duties, and in the case of the 4th Canadian 
Divisional Train, has been continuously " on Command " with 
the Central Purchase Board since the winter of 1916-17. 

THE MEDICAL SERVICES. 

Functions. — The work of the Medical Service of the Corps 
is : (1) Preventive ; and (2) Corrective. 

(1) Preventive — This aspect of the Service is concerned 
with maintaining the health of the Forces and in avoiding 
impairment of effective strength through sick wastage. It 
includes the supervision and control of hygienic and sanitary 
conditions in every way. 

It deals with : 

The hygienic and sanitary conditions of all places occupied 
or frequented by troops, including trenches, dug-outs, billets, 
barracks, messrooms, cook-houses, ablution and bath-houses, etc. 

The sufficiency, quality, wholesomeness of food, its proper 
storage, preservation, and preparation. 

The potability of, and the purification of water. 

The personal cleanliness of troops and the adequacy and 
proper construction of bath-houses. 

The sufficiency and cleanness of clothing, blankets, etc. 

The vermin disinfectation of clothing, blankets, etc., the 
adequacy and proper construction of disinfestors. 

The inoculation and vaccination of troops. 

The isolation of cases of infectious disease and of contacts, 
their disinfection and the disinfection of their billets, clothing, 
blankets, etc. 

The location, adequacy, and proper construction of latrines, 
urinals, grease traps, garbage pits, and incinerators, and their 
maintenance in a sanitary condition. 

The proper disposal of excreta, garbage, sullage, etc. 

The sanitary condition of horse standings and the proper 
disposal of manure. 

The prompt burial of dead animals 

(642) S 2 



260 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In all previous wars the sick wastage was many times more 
than the wastage of battle. The perfection of the preventive 
work of the Medical Services has entirely changed this, and the 
incidence of sickness has become less than in civil life. 

(2) Corrective. — This aspect of the Service is concerned with 
the treatment and care of sick and wounded, as far as this is 
practicable in the zone of military operations, and with the 
disposal of casualties. 

The Corps, being a battle formation, must be kept mobile 
and cannot be burdened with casualties who will be ineffective 
for more than a short period. Therefore such casualties, 
whether sick or wounded, are evacuated at once from the Corps 
to Casualty Clearing Stations which are outside the Corps and 
battle zone. 

While the particular functions of certain Medical Units are 
of a preventive aspect, and of others of a corrective aspect, 
all members of the Medical Service are specifically charged 
with the duty of concerning themselves with the incidence and 
spread of disease amongst the troops or amongst the surrounding 
civil population. 

Deputy Director Medical Services. — This officer is the 
responsible adviser of the Corps Commander in all Medical 
Service matters, and is in charge of all aspects of the Medical 
Service of the Corps. He is assisted by a Deputy Assistant 
Director Medical Services. 

Assistant Director Medical Services. — There are four ; one 
with each Division. An A.D.M.S. is the responsible adviser 
of the G.O.C. the Division in all Medical Service matters within 
the Division and, under the D.D.M.S., is in charge of the 
Division Medical Services. 

Assistant Inspector of Drafts. — This officer is directly under 
the D.D.M.S. His function is to hold Medical Boards for the 
purpose of classifying troops in categories according to their 
physical fitness. This enables the authorities concerned to 
assign soldiers to their duties for which they are physically 
fit. The Units of the Corps are reviewed in this way every 
two months. 

There is a Medical Officer attached to each Unit from the 
C.A.M.C. He must regard himself as an officer of the Unit. 
He is responsible to the Commanding Officer for the health of 
the Unit ; that all sanitary arrangements are beyond reflection, 
and that all sicknesses are immediately and properly attended 



Corps Administration. 261 

to.T He is responsible that measures are taken to prevent or 
check disease, and to alleviate all evil effects from strain and 
exposure. He must study human nature very thoroughly, 
dealing firmly with any malingerers or shirkers, and con- 
siderately where attention is required. He must take pre- 
cautions against the spread of any contagion, and advise as 
to baths and disinfection of clothing. He must at all times 
watch very closely to see that sore feet receive proper atten- 
tion. 

Out of the Line he holds daily sick parades and inspections, 
superintending the evacuations where necessary. In the line 
he is governed by conditions, and attends to wounded imme- 
diately at his dressing station if practicable, but otherwise 
wherever they may be. He also visits each day all posts to 
see if any men on duty require attention. He is responsible 
for the training of the Unit Stretcher Bearers, and he is 
responsible for their supplies, and for the supplies of all medical 
stores. He has his own immediate staff for the maintenance of 
his Dressing Station, also a Sanitary Corporal, who works with 
the Pioneers ; and a water detail that takes special charge of 
the water carts, and of the testing of all water supplies, to 
ensure that only good water is issued to the men. He is 
assisted by : 

Medical Orderly. — One to each Unit. These soldiers have 
undergone the regular course of C.A.M.C. training and are 
proficient in dressing, bandaging, disinfection of apparatus 
and instruments, etc. 

Stretcher Bearers. — There are 16 to each Unit, with additions 
as necessary during battle. They are not C.A.M.C. personnel, 
but are trained by the R.M.O. in stretcher drill and are detailed 
by him for duty during battle. 

Water Details. — Five to each Unit. They are not C.A.M.C. 
personnel, but are trained by the R.M.O. in the sterilisation 
and handling of water supply. They carry on under his 
supervision. 

Field Ambulances. — The function of a Field Ambulance is 
to collect and concentrate casualties from Units, give them 
medical care and treatment as far as this is practicable in the 
forward zone, and finally to make disposition of them either by 
returning them to their Unit for duty or by evacuating them to 
a Medical Formation more permanently located for further 
medical care and treatment. 



262 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

A Field Ambulance is the essential battle formation of the 
Medical Services. Its organisation must be kept in the highest 
state of perfection to withstand the heavy strain of battle. 
A Canadian Field Ambulance has handled more than 4,000 
battle casualties in 30 hours, and given each case good attention. 

During a battle a requisite number of Field Ambulances 
is divided into sections, each of which operates an Advance 
Dressing Station. This A.D.S. collects and concentrates 
casualties from several Units. Main Dressing Stations are 
operated by still other Field Ambulances, and these collect and 
concentrate the casualties from several A.D.S's and evacuate 
them to the Casualty Clearing Stations back of and outside the 
Corps. 

As a rule, remedial measures for battle casualties that are 
undertaken by Field Ambulances, are confined to the sustaining 
of the patient in the best possible condition until he can reach 
the Casualty Clearing Station, where complete operating and 
other hospital facilities exist that cannot be maintained in 
the changing battle zone. Therefore, only minor surgery is 
done at Field Ambulances as a rule, except that emergency 
major operations are undertaken at Main Dressing Stations 
in cases of urgent necessity. 

Rest Stations. — There arises a class of sick or wounded, 
most of whom are able to be up and about, whose ailments 
are not of a severe nature or prolonged. It is found, particularly 
in quieter periods, that wastage can be reduced by retaining 
these cases in the Corps. For this purpose " Rest " Stations as 
required are established in the back part of the Corps area. 
These Stations are operated by Field Ambulance personnel. 

At the Corps Rest Station there is a Skin and Scabies Centre, 
and an Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Centre, where special treat- 
ment is available, and where defective vision is corrected with 
spectacles. 

Motor Ambulance Convoy. — The function of this Unit is 
the transport of wounded from Main Dressing Stations to 
Casualty Clearing Stations. It works in close co-ordination 
with Field Ambulances, which it must keep clear of congestion. 
It is a very important branch of the Medical Services, par- 
ticularly in battle. 

THE ORDNANCE SERVICES. 

The Ordnance Corps is responsible for the supply of guns, 
arms, equipment, clothing and stores of all kinds to the troops 
in the field. The supply of ammunition is not made by Ordnance, 



Corps Administration. 263 

but the Assistant Director Ordnance Services of the Corps is 
responsible for the location and arrangement of dumps, care 
and preservation of ammunition, and for all technical questions 
in connection therewith. , For this purpose he has at his 
disposal one or more Ammunition Sections detailed from the 
Army, each consisting of one officer and nine other ranks. 

The Armourers are charged with the supervision and repair 
of all rifles, revolvers, machine guns and bicycles in the Corps. 
Minor repairs are carried out regimentally by the Battalion 
Armourer Staff Sergeants and Armourer Corporals, of whom 
there are four in each Battalion, and more important repairs 
are effected in the Armourer Shop, there being one of these in 
each Division, the personnel being found from the Divisional 
Armourer Sergeant-Major, the three Brigade Armourer Quarter- 
master-Sergeants, and two or more of the Regimental Armourer 
Staff Sergeants, assisted by men attached from Battalions 
who have had experience as mechanics in civil life and are 
being trained to qualify as Armourer Corporals. 

The Light Shops deal with field guns and carriages and 
transport vehicles, and to a certain extent with heavy Artillery, 
and the Medium Shop with heavy and siege equipments. In 
each Arm} r there is an Ordnance Mobile Workshop Heavy, which 
has more elaborate machinery than the light or medium shops, 
and which is capable of undertaking the most delicate and 
extensive repairs. Equipments, the repairs to which are 
beyond the scope of the Corps shops, are sent to the heavy 
shop. 

All demands for guns, arms, clothing, equipment and stores 
are submitted by Units to the Deputy Assistant Director 
Ordnance Services administering them. 

Units' indents are checked by the D.A.D.O.S. with the 
Mobilisation Store Table of the Unit, which lays down, in detail, 
the stores the Unit is entitled to, and with the D.A.D.O.S's 
records of issues to, and returns from, the Units concerned. 

Each indent bears a certificate of the Commanding Officer 
of the Unit that the stores demanded are to replace those lost 
or rendered unserviceable through the exigencies of the Service, 
or that they are a first supply. In the latter case the authority 
for the issue is quoted. 

In the case of demands for stores to replace unserviceable 
articles the indent is only passed when it is accompanied 
by the unserviceable articles, which are then returned to the 
Base as salvage. 



264 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In the case of guns, carriages, sights, or optical instruments 
and vehicles, the indents for replacements must be supported 
by certificates of an I.O.M. that the articles demanded are 
beyond repair in the local shops. 

Indents may also be submitted for certain articles of officers' 
clothing and equipment, on repayment ; but this is discouraged, 
as in each Army there is an Officers' Clothing Depot where 
officers can obtain direct almost anything they require. 

When indents have been checked they are passed to the 
Base or to the Gun Park, as the case may be, for supply. 

Demands for certain articles which come under the head 
of what is known as " bulk," such as clothing of all kinds, 
horseshoes, mess tins, steel helmets, anti-gas appliances, etc., 
are consolidated into one demand for each Division or Corps 
Troops and sent by the D.A.D.O.S. to the Base by wire. A 
fixed programme exists for the days of despatch from the Base 
of the different natures of " bulk," so that everybody knows 
exactly on what day of the week they will arrive at railheads. 
For instance, boots, uniforms, drawers, puttees, etc., are loaded 
at the Base on Mondays and arrive at railhead the following 
Wednesday ; shirts, socks, etc., are loaded on Wednesdays 
and arrive at railheads on the following Friday. Stores other 
than " bulk " are despatched from the Base as soon as the 
demands for them are received. It usually takes five days 
from the time a D.A.D.O.S. receives an indent till the articles 
demanded are ready for issue. 

Stores from the Base are sent up to Divisions and Corps 
Troops daily in the Supply Pack Trains and are off-loaded at 
Division and Corps Troops Supply railheads. 

Here they are collected by the lorries attached to each 
Divisional and Corps Troops Ordnance and taken to the different 
refilling points, where they are collected by the regimental 
transport of the Units for which destined. 

THE SIGNAL SERVICE. 

The Corps Signal Company is responsible for communication 
with Flanking Corps, Division, Heavy Artillery, R.A.F. 
Squadrons, Kite Balloons Sections and Survey Sections, Anti- 
Aircraft Sections attached to the Corps, as well as all Railheads 
Supply Depots, Ammunition Dumps, Labour Units, Special 
Companies R.E., M.T. Units, Area Commandants, Ordnance 
Workshops, Staging Camps, C.C.S., Field Ambulances, etc., in 
the Corps area. 



Corps Administration. 265 

It is responsible for the construction and maintenance of 
all airline routes in the Corps for the use of the Artillery 
Division, Royal Air Force, Balloon Sections, Anti- Aircraft, 
Tramways and Survey Sections. 

Wireless Telegraphy. — There are 20 Spark, 34 Continuous 
Wave, and 32 Loop Set Wireless Stations ; also 24 Power 
Buzzer-Amplifier Stations and two Interception and Policing 
Sets on the Establishment of the Canadian Corps. 

Continuous Wave Wireless is the latest and most up-to-date 
system of wireless communication, and has proved to be 
invaluable, especially during the last five months of the war. 
It has been used very extensively during the active operations 
for keeping in touch with Independent Forces, Observation 
Groups, and for communication between Infantry and Artillery 
Brigades and Divisions when telephone communication was 
impossible or temporarily interrupted. 

The Interception and Policing Sets were used for the col- 
lection of information from messages and conversations passing 
over enemy telegraph and telephone systems, and for the 
policing and regulating of the traffic on our own systems in 
order to reduce to a minimum the amount of information 
intercepted by the enemy. 

During the march to the Rhine, the existing routes did not 
always permit of even Corps and Divisions being connected 
by telephone, but constant touch was maintained between 
Brigades, Divisions, Corps, Army and Flanking Units by 
wireless. 

Visual Signalling. — This form of communication is used 
mainly in emergencies when it is impossible to maintain 
telephone communication during an action. For use in France, v 
the Lucas Lamp has been found to be the most efficient piece 
of Visual Signalling apparatus. 

Pigeon Service. — During trench warfare 1,000 pigeons are 
required for the Corps Pigeon Service. Birds are delivered by 
two motor cyclist despatch riders and taken into the trenches 
from these points by Battalion and Battery Pigeoneers. In 
normal trench warfare about 100 pigeons are sent forward 
daily and released after 24 hours' tour of duty. 

In order to maintain sufficient Battalion and Battery 
Pigeoneers it was necessary to train 30 men per week as 
Pigeoneers. 



266 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Lines. — The open wire telegraph and telephone lines of the 
Corps are constructed and maintained by the Airline and 
Cable Sections. 

In the forward area, during trench warfare, cables are buried 
to a depth of over 6 feet for protection against shell-fire. The 
minimum number of pairs — 25 ; maximum — 50 in a trench. 
This work is usually superintended by the Officer Commanding 
Divisional Signals in whose area cables are being buried, assisted 
by officers and men from the Corps Cable Sections. The 
test point and routes are manned and maintained by Area 
Signal Officers and Corps Signal Company personnel. 

Despatch Riders. — The work of a Despatch Rider, especially 
in the winter or in the forward area, is extremely difficult 
and hazardous on account of bad roads and shell-fire. 

When an advance is made over a well-developed system of 
trenches where roads have been obliterated, it becomes necessary 
to attach Mounted Troops to the Signal Companies to assist 
in the delivery of despatches. 

Portable Electric Lighting and Accumulator Charging. — 

The Corps Signal Company has three portable 3 K.W. Electric 
Lighting sets on its charge. Each Divisional Signal Company 
has one for the lighting of the Headquarters Offices, and the 
charging of accumulators for the wireless sets. In addition, 
each Divisional Signal Company is provided with a small 
1 K.W. set for charging accumulators in the forward area. 

Stores. — All Telephone, Telegraph, Wireless, Visual Signal- 
ling Equipment, Cable, Airline and expendable stores required 
for use of the Signal Companies, Artillery, Infantry, Machine 
Gun, Engineer Signal Sections of the Canadian Corps, as well 
as all attached formations, are drawn and issued by the A.D. 
Signals' Stores, the personnel for this work being supplied by 
the Corps Signal Company. 

Canadian Corps Signal School. — The Corps Signal School was 
organised to train Signallers of other branches of the Service. 
It was found that Signallers were arriving in France as reinforce- 
ments without any knowledge of the latest equipment in use in the 
field, as sufficient technical equipment had not been provided 
in England for the Canadian Signal Training Depots. Under 
present arrangements, all Signallers arriving as reinforcements 
from the various wings are sent immediately to the Signal 
School for training until demanded by their Units. They are 



Corps Administration. 267 

given instruction in Station Work, Fuller Phones, Loop Sets, 
Power Buzzer-Amplifier Sets, Pigeons, Splicing, Testing and 
Jointing of Cables. Only Signallers who are passed as qualified 
in the use of all equipment are permitted to be sent as reinforce- 
ments to their Units. 

GAS SERVICES. 

Functions. — The Gas Services, Canadian Corps, is essentially 
an advisory and defensive organisation, existing for the pre- 
vention as far as possible of casualties from enemy gas. 

In addition, the Chemical Adviser co-operates with the 
Corps Artillery, in particular with the Counter Battery Staff 
Officer, in arranging our gas shell attacks on enemy targets. 

The Unit is executive in so far as the issue of Box Respirators, 
Alarms, and other gas defensive equipment is concerned. 

Its functions may be summarised as follows : — 

The training of all troops in Gas Defensive Measures as 
regards use of equipment and action to be taken under varied 
conditions of enemy attack by gas. 

The transmission to all concerned of the latest information 
concerning the enemy's methods of gas warfare and our own. 

The collection and distribution of all intelligence obtainable 
on the Corps frontage, and of specimens of all gas warfare 
material captured from the enemy. In particular the examina- 
tion of captured or " blind " enemy gas shells, with a view to 
the early discovery of the use of any new gas. 

Gas officers act in an advisory capacity to the headquarters 
staff to which the}' are attached in all technical matters. 

Constant study and research for the improvement of our 
own gas appliances and methods of warfare. 

The issue and maintenance to all troops of an efficient Box 
Respirator, individually fitted to each man and properly tested 
in gas at the time of fitting. In this connection the Unit has 
salvaged, repaired, and re-issued nearly half of the total number 
issued within the Corps, representing a total saving up to the 
present of several million dollars. This work is confined to the 
Canadian Corps so far as the B.E.F. is concerned, and has not 
been adopted as a general measure outside. 

The upkeep of alarm systems, the gas-proofing of dug-outs, 
etc., within the Corps area. 

So far as possible, the collection and maintenance for Canada 
of all available information, technical and otherwise, regarding 
Gas Warfare. 



268 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

VETERINARY SERVICES. 

While the primary aim of the Veterinary Services is the 
reduction to the lowest possible degree of preventable animal 
wastage, these Services have activities that ramify in many 
directions from this central idea. These activities can best 
be defined in a survey of the duties and responsibilities that 
devolve on the administrative officers. 

Assistant Director of Veterinary Services. — The designation 
of " A.D.V.S." as applied to the position of this officer within 
the Canadian Corps, while not a misnomer, is still not fully 
indicative of his duties. The A.D.V.S., Canadian Corps, apart 
from his regular veterinary duties, carries out the duties of 
Assistant Director of Remounts. Thus the position is a dual 
one, and embodies the direction of two Services, which in 
the Imperial Forces are conducted as separate departments. 
Also the position of A.D.V.S., Canadian Corps, by virtue of the 
unique situation of the Corps in comparison with like formations 
in the B.E.F., is a complex one. As Assistant Director of 
Veterinary Services this officer is responsible in a professional 
way to the Director of Veterinary Services through the D.D.V.S. 
of the Army to which the Corps may be attached ; while in all 
matters relative to administration and operations he is directly 
responsible to the Canadian Corps Command. The same applies 
in the matter of remounting of troops, the A.D.V.S., as chief 
Canadian Remount Officer in the Field, dealing directly with 
Army Remounts in a general way on the one hand, and being 
responsible to the Quartermaster General's Branch for ad- 
ministration and correct accounting on the other. In short, 
the duties of the A.D.V.S., Canadian Corps, may be explained as 
involving responsibilities in the prevention, in so far as possible, 
of animal wastage, and the repair of such wastage when it does 
occur. 

Deputy Assistant Directors of Veterinary Services. — The 

duties and responsibilities of these officers may be taken as 
largely an epitome of the duties and responsibilities of the 
A.D.V.S., Canadian Corps. In them is vested the conduct and 
administration of the Veterinary and Remount Services of the 
Divisions, they being responsible to the Divisional Command and 
to the A.D.V.S. Obviously the duties of the D.A.Ds. V.S. are 
of a more active nature than those of the A.D.V.S. The 
D.A.Ds. V.S. are in closer relation with the practical work of the 
Services, personally supervising the daily professional activities 
of their veterinary officers and ensuring that animal management 



Corps Administration. 269 

within their respective formations is maintained at the highest 
possible standard. They must be constantly alive to the 
general condition of all animals under their charge, with a view 
to determining causes of wastage ; they must scrupulously 
guard against possible outbreaks of contagious and infectious 
diseases ; and must ensure that feeding, watering, grooming, 
shoeing, etc., are given the most careful attention. Sanitary 
horse and wagon lines must be maintained under any and all 
conditions of weather and active operations, and regulations 
and orders to this end must be rigidly enforced. Inspections 
of the condition of the animals of Units are carried out at a 
moment's notice by the D.A.Ds. V.S., while general inspections 
by the A.D.V.S. are carried out in like manner. 

Veterinary Officers. — All Veterinary officers of the Divisions 
are responsible to the A.D.V.S. through the D.A.Ds. V.S. and 
to their immediate officers commanding. Their duties call for 
sound judgment and often for quick decisions. All matters 
pertaining to the direct veterinary care of the animals of their 
Brigades and Units come under their supervision ; while it is on 
the veterinary officer that the Commanding Officer relies for 
advice in general affairs of horse management. In the case of 
Corps Troops (Units not forming part of the Divisions) and all 
Units and formations attached from time to time to the Corps for 
administration, the A.D.V.S. carries out administration direct 
and personally supervises the care of the animals and the details 
of horse management. 

Mobile Veterinary Section. — There are four Mobile Veterinary 
Sections of Canadian Corps, one as a Unit of each full Division. 
These sections, as the designation indicates, are of a mobile 
nature, and act as the first channel of evacuation in the field. 
Sick and wounded animals are received into these sections, 
given " First Aid " treatment where necessary, and passed on 
down the line on their way to Base Hospitals. The personnel of 
a Mobile Veterinary Section consists of one officer and 19 other 
ranks ; and particularly during active operations, this officer 
and his N.C.O.'s and men have arduous duties. During opera- 
tions, advanced collecting posts are thrown out into which 
severely wounded animals are received and conveyed by 
ambulance to the Mobile Veterinary Sections. 

Veterinary Evacuating Station. — The Veterinary Evacuating 
Station of Canadian Corps is a Unit with an establishment of 
one officer and 38 other ranks. The function of this Unit is 
that of a casualty clearing station for the Mobile Veterinary 



270 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Sections. All animals passing through the Mobile Veterinary 
Sections are evacuated to the Veterinary Evacuating Station, 
and through the V.E.S. are evacuated to the Base for treatment. 
At the V.E. Station a motor horse ambulance is constantly in 
readiness to collect animals that cannot be moved on foot. 
The V.E.S. of Canadian Corps is not confined to the reception of 
Canadian animals alone, but receives and evacuates animals 
from any Mobile Veterinary Section that may be' operating in 
its area. 

Sergeants, Canadian Army Veterinary Corps. — The field 
duties of these N.C.O's consist in rendering " First Aid " treat- 
ment in the absence of the Veterinary Officer, in reporting to 
the Veterinary Officer cases of sickness and injury, in constantly 
being on the alert for symptoms of contagious and infectious 
diseases, and in keeping watch for irregularities in animal care 
and management. In times of active operations the Sergeant, 
C.A.V.C, supplements in many ways the work of the Veterinary 
Officer, and under his officer's supervision acts as " dresser " of 
simple and minor injuries. The service rendered by these 
N.C.O's has been invaluable. 

THE PAY SERVICES. 

It is the duty of Paymasters to distribute cash and obtain 
receipts for payments made, accounting for same through the 
Field Cashiers to the Paymaster-General. 

In addition to the distribution of funds, Paymasters maintain 
a regimental nominal roll, and are responsible for all entries in 
Active Service Pay Books affecting accounts. 

They make advances of pay to officers, issue cheques to men 
proceeding on leave, attend to various matters regarding Pay 
and Allowances, Separation Allowances, Remittances of officers 
and other ranks, and Wills. They audit and are responsible for 
canteen books, and from time to time undertake special duties, 
such as procuring subscriptions to War Loans, etc. 

Subject to the chain of responsibilities and duties shown in 
Appendix IV., the Field Cashier of the Canadian Corps receives 
his orders from the Corps Commander as issued through the 
" A " Branch of his Staff. 

POSTAL SERVICES. 

Incoming correspondence is received through two channels : — 

(1) Unit letter and parcel mails are loaded at the Base in 

trucks for Corps Army Post Office and Divisional Railhead 

Army Post Offices, which are despatched by supply trains to 



Corps Administration. 271 

the appropriate supply railheads of the formation, thence by 
lorry to the Field Post Office, and by horse transport to the 
Units. 

(2) All correspondence posted in the B.E.F., complimentary 
and subscribers' copies of the London daily papers, the 
" Canadian Daily Record," ordinary and official correspondence 
from the United Kingdom, Canada, etc., for Army, Corps, 
Division and Brigade Headquarters, are sent up by lorries from 
the Base. Hence they connect with the Corps postal lorry at 
the Army Postal Depot, the latter connecting up with the Corps 
and each Division under its administration. It is thus possible 
to obtain London daily papers at the Front the day following 
publication, and frequently (when the Packet arrives early at 
the Base Port) on the night of publication. 

The Railhead Army Post Office with each Division is situated 
at the supply Railhead, and moves with its Division on a change 
of Railhead. This office operates as a mobile Depot for the 
Divisional mails and is connected by lorry with the Corps, and 
thence with the Army and the bases. It consolidates the out- 
going mail for the five Field Post Offices of its Division into 
complete despatches for the Corps, Army, General Headquarters, 
Bases, Departments of the G.P.O., London, and Provincial 
centres in England where necessary. Similarly all incoming 
mails for the Divisions are sent to the Railhead A. P.O. and are 
there separated, loaded on lorries, and despatched to the F.P.O, 
from which the Unit collects its mail. A daily service is main- 
tained for all Units, both for incoming and outgoing mails, 
while there is a twice daily service for official correspondence 
posted in and addressed to formations within the Army area. 
The Corps F.P.O. , in addition to handling the correspondence 
proper to Corps Headquarters and Corps Troops, acts as a 
connecting link between Corps and its Divisions, and as a transfer 
point for letter mails to and from Divisions and points outside 
the Corps area (i.e., Army, General Headquarters, Bases and 
the United Kingdom). 

All letter mails for the United Kingdom and Overseas are 
despatched daily to the Base by lorry, arriving in England the 
afternoon of the following day. 

Treatment of Correspondence undeliverable with the Unit. — 

Normally correspondence is redirected by the Unit mail orderly 
in cases of detached personnel and delivery is thus secured 
through the ordinary channels. In the case of casualties, 
however, the Unit is not for some time aware of the man's where- 



272 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

abouts, and this class of mail is sent to a Canadian Postal 
Branch at Canadian Section, General Headquarters, 3rd Echelon, 
where it is redirected, as soon as hospital reports are received, 
to the addressee's hospital location. Indefinitely addressed 
correspondence is similarly dealt with and redirected from Base 
Records. In no instance is correspondence returned to the 
sender in Canada as " undeliverable " unless the addressee has 
been killed or posted as missing, and then only after the endorse- 
ments have been verified from records. 

Each Army and Field Post Office is fully equipped with 
stamps, facilities for cashing and selling postal orders, and 
handling incoming and outgoing registered correspondence. 
The Staff is composed of recognised employees of the Post Office 
Department, Canada, and the same attention as in civil life is 
given to every detail of the work. 

THE CHAPLAIN SERVICES. 

Chaplains. — Chaplains are appointed from the Canadian 
Chaplain Services to Brigades The Chaplain's first great duty 
is to minister to the spiritual needs of the men, and to sustain 
or improve their morals, emphasising the importance of morals 
as a factor in morale. His position is peculiar in that it brings 
him closer to the men in many ways than the officer who must 
exact discipline, but at the same time the Chaplain must con- 
sider himself as a soldier, respecting discipline and authority. 

The Chaplain is responsible for Church Parades under 
instructions from the senior Chaplain, and under the approval 
of his Commanding Officer in the Unit to which he is attached. 
He has a unique opportunity on these weekday occasions, if a 
broad-minded man, to reason with those under his care on the 
necessity for the highest standard of conduct, thus supporting 
his Battalion in the achievement of morale. He is generally 
responsible for the promotion of entertainments for the men, 
and being in touch with the Y.M.C.A., in assisting in the pro- 
motion of recreation and the providing comforts for the men. 
Latterly, he has been invaluable in conducting and organising 
educational classes. 

In action the Chaplain acts under instructions from his 
senior Chaplain, advised by his Commanding Officer. At times 
he must be detached to and employed at Field Dressing Stations, 
but generally he is found with the Medical Officer of his Unit, 
or at that place where his services can be utilized to the best 
advantage to the greatest possible number, i.e., at the point where 
wounded and dying men will be brought from all quarters of 
the battlefield. 



Corps Administration, 273 

In stationary warfare, however, the Chaplain visits men in 
the trenches, and give encouragement or consolation as seems 
most suitable. The Chaplain is the man to whom the Unit looks 
for a fit and safe standard of living. Sincerity, above all things 
is most to be desired, and good broad views of human life. 
Honour where honour is due, and common sense and charity to 
those who stray. In action he is responsible for burials and for 
reporting particulars of the graves, etc., to the Divisional 
Officer, and to the Unit to which the deceased belonged. 

PART IV.-MISCELLANEOUS UNITS. 

The Canadian Corps Survey Section. — This is a Unit admin- 
istered by the Artillery and is divided into four sections as 

follows : — 

Artillery Observation Section. — This section is composed of 
two officers and 88 other ranks and operates six Observation 
Posts. 

Its duties consist of the accurate location of hostile Batteries 
by means of bearings taken of their flashes, and the registration 
of our own guns by bearings taken on air bursts. 

Intelligence Observation Section. — This section consists of 
one officer and 40 other ranks, and operates Observation Posts 
covering the Corps frontage, collecting all possible information 
concerning the movements of the enemy and reporting points of 
interest of an intelligence nature. They are charged chiefly 
with the watching of the rear areas opposite the Corps frontage, 
reports on the forward areas being left to the Brigade and 
Battalion Observers. 

Headquarters Section. — This section consists of one officer 
and 14 other ranks. The duty of this section is to collect and 
co-ordinate the information supplied by the two groups. 

In addition to this, one N.C.O. and seven men are charged 
with the task of the location of our own Battery positions and the 
preparation of fighting maps for the same. During a period 
of advances, such as was experienced during the last three 
months of the war, the Artillery Observation Section and the 
Intelligence Observation Section are combined. 

They maintain usually three Observation Posts covering 
the Corps frontage and that of Flanking Divisions. They 
are constantly moving forward, keeping in touch with the 
advancing Infantry. This is done very largely by a screen of 
scouts thrown forward from the posts. Each post uses, as a 
rule, six scouts and two German-speaking personnel, the latter 
being employed to obtain identifications. 

(642) T 



274 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

When possible, scouts make a tour of the frontage allotted 
them three times daily. 

The Posts are kept in communication with Headquarters 
by means of wireless (C.W. sets). These sets have a radius 
of about 1,200 yards. 

In order to keep in touch with Counter Battery and Heavy 
Artillery it is necessary for the Headquarters Section to be 
located close to Heavy Artillery Headquarters or one of their 
forward exchanges. This, owing to the limited range of the 
wireless sets, very often necessitates the establishment of 
forward Headquarters. Under such conditions, the topographers 
(battery locaters) are used as a staff to man the report centre. 

Headquarters Draughting Section. — Composed of one officer 
and 26 men attached to Corps Headquarters. This section is 
responsible for the reproduction and distribution of maps 
throughout the Corps. Five men of this section are attached 
to the Branch Intelligence Officer for interpreting and repro- 
ducing information obtained from aeroplane photographs. 

The Headquarters Draughting Section is detached and forms 
part of the " I " Branch at Corps Headquarters. 

The Y.M.C.A. — The Canadian Y.M.C.A. in France is a Unit 
of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, with an authorised 
establishment of officers and other ranks. It seeks to serve 
all the Canadian Forces in France, although most of the 
work is naturally with the Canadian Corps. The work in 
France is administered from the Corps where Y.M.C.A. Head- 
quarters are established, with stores, equipment and offices. 
The organisation within the Corps consists of a Headquarters 
Company and a Field Company with each Division and with 
Corps Troops. The other ranks employed in the Corps area 
are administered through the 9th Canadian Area Employment 
Company, which was organised for this specific purpose. All 
officers and other ranks employed outside the Corps are admin- 
istered through the Y.M.C.A. Military Services Department. 

The Canadian Y.M.C.A. within the Corps is administered as 
a Department of Canadian Corps Headquarters, and the Senior 
Officer reports to the D.A. and Q.M.G. through the usual 
channels. 

From the Y.M.C.A. point of view the Senior Officer is 
advised by an Executive Committee composed of the depart- 
mental heads and the senior officers of Divisions. 



Corps Administration. 275 

The Senior Officer also reports to the Chief Supervisor, 
Canadian Y.M.C.A., London, and through him is responsible to 
the National Council, Y.M.C.A., Toronto. 

The Y.M.C.A. is not a Church or sect, but acts on behalf of 
all the Churches in Canada in providing comfort, entertainment, 
and inspiration for the troops. In carrying out this programme 
the work falls into five well-defined departments : — 1. Business. 
2. Athletics. 3. Entertainment. 4. Educational. 5. Religious. 
The Y.M.C.A. does not claim to exercise exclusive control in 
any of these departments, but acts rather as a supplementary 
agency in organising and promoting the voluntary activities 
of the troops. 

The Canadian Y.M.C.A. secures its financial support from 
three sources : — 1. Government assistance through the main- 
tenance, pay, and allowances of personnel. 2. Public subscrip- 
tion. 3. Canteen profits. This income has increased very 
rapidly since the beginning of the War, and the total amount 
received has been expended on service to the troops, with the 
exception of the funds now being used as capital for the support 
of canteen operations. As soon as this service is reduced or 
eliminated the amount so employed will also be expended in 
general service to the troops. 

The Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp. — The Canadian 
Corps Reinforcement Camp was organised in order to provide a 
Department directly under the Corps Commander which would 
be responsible for getting reinforcements to Units without delay. 
A certain percentage of reinforcements for the Corps is always 
kept at the Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp for immediate 
despatch to the Corps should they be required. 

The organisation is into Wings, and these are : 
1 Wing to each Division. 
1 Wing dealing with Artillery. 
1 Wing dealing with Engineers. 
1 Wing dealing with Machine Guns. 

The Wings were given an Establishment of administrative 
and instructional personnel. 

The Wings are mostly near the Base, and a Staging Camp 
was opened near Corps Headquarters at which the reinforcements 
rest on their way to join their Divisions. 

(642) T2 



276 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



APPENDIX I. 

COMPOSITION OF A CANADIAN DIVISION. 

A Major-General in command. 

Four Infantry Brigades, each consisting of : — 

A Brigadier-General. 

A Headquarters. 

4 Battalions. 

1 Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops, consisting of : — 

The Divisional Headquarters. 

Headquarters Divisional Artillery. 

Two Brigades R.F.A., each consisting of : 

3 six-gun batteries, 18 pdrs. 

1 six-gun battery, 45 in. Howitzer. 
Two Medium Trench Mortar Batteries. 
One Heavy Trench Mortar Battery. 
Divisional Ammunition Column. 

A Canadian Engineer Brigade, consisting of : 

A Headquarters. 

3 Battalions, C.E. 

1 Bridging Transport Section, C.E. 

Divisional Signal Company. 
One Machine Gun Battalion. 
Divisional Employment Company. 
Divisional Train. 
Three Field Ambulances. 
Mobile Veterinarv Section. 



Corps Administration. 277 

APPENDIX II. 
CORPS TROOPS AS ON NOVEMBER 11, 1918. 

Canadian Corps Headquarters. 

The Canadian Light Horse. 
One Squadron R.N.W.M.P. 
Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion. 

Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery. 
5th Canadian Divisional Artillery. 
8th Army Brigade C.F.A. 
*" E " Battery Canadian Anti- Aircraft. 

C.R.E. Corps Troops Headquarters — 

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Army Troops Companies, C.E. 

Pontoon Bridging Company, C.E. 

1st and 2nd Tramway Companies, C.E. 

* Anti- Aircraft Searchlight Company, C.E. 

Canadian Corps Signal Company. 

1st and 2nd Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigades. 
1st Canadian Divisional Mechanical Transport Company. 
2nd „ 

«jro. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

4th „ 

Canadian Corps Troops Mechanical Transport Company. 
Canadian Motor Machine Gun Mechanical Transport Com- 
pany. 
Canadian Engineers Mechanical Transport Company. 
8th Army Brigade C.F.A. Park Section, 
t Canadian Corps Siege Park. 

5th Canadian Field Ambulance. 

*lst Canadian Casualty Clearing Station. 

*4th 

1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th Canadian Sanitary Sections. 

Canadian Corps Dental Laboratory. 

8th Canadian Ordnance Mobile Workshop (medium). 
8th „ „ „ „ (light). 

26th „ „ „ „ (light). 

Canadian Corps Survey Section. 

Canadian Corps Military Police. 

5th Canadian Area Employment Company. 

Canadian Corps Veterinary Evacuating Station. 



278 h. 

* Canadian Works Group Headquarters — 

1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Canadian Infantry Works Compar. 
6th. 7th. Sth and 9th Canadian Area Employment 
Companies. 

Canadian Corps Labour Reinforcement PooL 

Canadian Corps Salvage Section, 
^nadian Corps Burial Section. 

* Normally administered by Army Headquarters. 
f All Imperial personnel. 

X::;. — There i : troops attached to the Canadian 

Corps, but they were not Canadian Units 






APPENDIX H I . 

CANADIAN CORPS HEAVY ARTILLERY. 

Headquarters. 
is: Brigade ] G.A. 

Headquarters 

1st Canadian S:e§:e Battery, 9 2 in. Howi: 
3rd „ 6 in. 

7th ,, „ „ 6 in. 

9th „ „ 6 in. 

2nd Brigade, C.G.A. 

Headquaners. 

Is: Canadian Heavy Battery 60 rxir. 

2r.i z>di. 

6 in. Howitzer. 
8 in. 
92 in. 
6 in. 

3rd Brigade, C.G.A.— 

Headquarters. 

8th Canadian Siege Battery, 8 in. Howitzer. 

10th „ „ „ 6 in. 

11th M „ „ 6 in. 

12th „ :n. 



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APPENDIX VII. 

TRANSLATION OF INITIALS. 

" A " Branch The Adjutant General's Branch of the Staff. 

A.A. . . . . Anti-Aircraft. 

A. A. and Q.M.G. Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster 

General. 
A.C. and R. . . Appointments, Commissions and Rewards. 
A.D.C. . . Aide-de-Camp. 

A.D.E.S. . . Assistant Director of Educational Services. 

A.D.M.S. . . Assistant Director of Medical Services. 

A.D.O.S. . . Assistant Director of Ordnance Services. 

A.D.V.S. . . Assistant Director of Veterinary Services. 

A.G. . . . . Adjutant General. 

A.P.M Assistant Provost Marshal. 

A.Q.M.G. . . Assistant Quartermaster General. 
B.G.G.S. . . Brigadier General of General Staff. 

D.A.A.G. . . Deputy Assistant Adjutant General. 
D.A.D.A.P.S. Deputy Assistant Director Army Postal 

Service. 
D.A.D.C.S. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Chaplain 

Services. 
D. A.D.M.S. .. Deputy Assistant Director of Medical 

Services. 
D. A.D.O.S. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance 

Services. 
D.A.D.R. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Roads. 
D. A.D.V.S. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Veterinary 

Services. 
D.A. and Q.M.G. Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster General. 
D.D.M.S. . . Deputy Director of Medical Services. 

C.A.G.S. . . Canadian Army Gymnastic Staff. 

C.A.P.C. . . Canadian Army Pay Corps. 

C.A.P.S. . . Canadian Army Pay Services. 

C.A.S.C. . . Canadian Army Service Corps. 

C.C.H.A. ' . . Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery. 
C.C.R.C. . . Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp. 

CD. A. . . Canadian Divisional Artillery. 

r F (Chief Engineer. 

( Canadian Engineers. 
Canadian Field Artillery. 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps. 
Corps Machine Gun Officer. 



A. .. 

.G.C. 
.G.O. 



C.F. 
CM 
CM 
CM.M.G. Brigade Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade. 



Corps Administration. 



293 



CO. . . . . Commanding Officer. 

C.O.C. . . . . Canadian Ordnance Corps. 

C.R.A. . . Commanding Royal Artillery. 

C.R.E. . . Commanding Royal Engineers. 

G. . . . . General Staff Branch of the Staff. 

G.H.Q. . . General Headquarters. 

G.O.C. . . General Officer Commanding. 

G.O.C. R.A. . . General Officer Commanding Royal Artillery. 

G.S.O. 1, 2, or 3 General Staff Officer, 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Grade. 

H.Q. . . . . Headquarters. 

I. . . . . Intelligence Branch of the General Staff. 

I. (b) . . . . Secret Service Branch of the above. 

M.O Medical Officer. 

N.C.O. . . Non-Commissioned Officer. 

Q.M. . . . . Quartermaster. 

Q.M.G. . . Quartermaster General. 

O. . . . . Operations Branch of the General Staff. 

O.R. . . . . Other Ranks as distinct from Officers. 

R.N.W.M.P. . . Royal North West Mounted Police. 

Y.M.C.A. . . Young Mens' Christian Association. 



294 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



APPENDIX VIII. 

ORGANISATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FUNCTIONS 

OF DEPUTY ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S BRANCH 

CANADIAN CORPS HEADQUARTERS. 

ORGANISATION. 

The Branch of the D.A.A.G. is composed of : — 

A. Officers. 

D.A.A.G Major F. W. Miller, M.C. 

Staff Learner (Attached) . . Major A. McMillan, D.S.O. 
Court Martial Officer (Attached) Major E. N. Armour. 

Total Officers, 3. 

B. Other Ranks. 

1 Superintending Clerk (Warrant Officer). 
1 Staff Sergeant. 

3 Sergeants. 
7 Privates. 

4 Orderlies. 

1 Sergeant Typewriter Mechanic. 
Total Other Ranks, 17. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

The Branch is primarily administered by the D.A.A.G., 
subject to the direction and control of the D.A. and Q.M.G., 
Canadian Corps. 

The relationship of the Branch to the other Branches in the 
Corps, and to the other Services generally and the channels of 
communication between them, is shown by the diagram, 
Appendix I., attached hereto. 

But it must be understood that, while this diagram indicates 
the system of organisation, mobility is always assured, and the 
system is sufficiently elastic to meet all the varying conditions 
which may arise. 

The organisation aims at a due subdivision of labour and 
decentralisation of responsibility among subordinates, each 
individual being given duties which he can perform adequately ; 
at the same time, the central control and co-ordination of 
subordinate parts for the attainment of the common objective 
is assured. 



Corps Administration. 295 

FUNCTIONS. 

The work of the Branch of the D.A.A.G. comprises : — 

Discipline. — Including the discipline of Units, Officers, other 
ranks, Courts of Enquiry, Boards, Courts Martial, and Suspended 
Sentences. 

There is no subject of more importance to the Army than 
that of discipline. It is the means by which the Army is held 
together and carries on. Without discipline all military bodies 
become mobs, and worse than useless. 

It is a particular function of the D.A.A.G. Branch to see to 
the maintenance of discipline throughout the Corps, and while 
the responsibility for the discipline of a Unit rests in the first 
instance on the Commanding Officer, supervised by the Brigade 
and Divisional Commanders, the general direction and super- 
vision rests with the D.A.A.G. 

To maintain discipline and award punishments for military 
offences, the Commanding Officer of the Unit has ample powers 
of summary punishment. For more serious cases the offender 
is sent for trial by a Field General Court Martial, which has 
plenary powers of punishment. For the trial of all serious, 
difficult or complicated cases the Court Martial Officer, a trained 
legal expert, attends. He records the evidence and advises the 
Court on all points of law and procedure. 

But discipline enforced by punishment alone is a poor sort of 
discipline which will not stand any severe strain. What is 
aimed at is the high state of discipline which • springs from a 
military system administered with impartiality and judgment so 
as to induce on all ranks a feeling of duty and the assurance that, 
while no offence will be passed over, no offender will be unjustly 
dealt with. 

In order to give men who have committed serious military 
offences through exhaustion, temporary loss of nerve, or other 
causes, an opportunity of redeeming their character and earning 
the remission of their sentences the Army (Suspension of 
Sentence) Act was passed. This Act provides that when any 
soldier is sentenced by a Court Martial to penal servitude or 
imprisonment he will not be committed to prison, but will be 
kept under arrest until the directions of the " Superior Military 
Authority," that is, the Commander-in-Chief or the Army 
Commander, are received. The Act does not affect the rights of 
confirming and reviewing authorities to commute or remit the 
sentence of the Court Martial, but where such authorities 



296 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

consider that sentences of penal servitude or imprisonment 
should be carried out they state this definitely in a separate 
minute when forwarding the proceedings giving their re- 
commendations. When a sentence has been suspended by a 
" Superior Military Authority," the Unit concerned is at once 
notified by telegram, stating the date of suspension, and the 
soldier under sentence is released from arrest. He thereupon 
becomes free from any disability in respect of the sentence 
which has been suspended. 

Where a sentence has been suspended the case may at any 
time, and must at intervals of not more than three months, be 
reconsidered by a " Competent Military Authority," who is 
usually the Brigade Commander or other officer holding an 
equivalent or superior command. If on the reconsideration of 
the sentence it appears to the " Competent Military Authority " 
that the conduct of the soldier has been such as to justify a 
remission of the sentence he shall remit it. If he does not think 
the soldier's conduct deserves the remission of the sentence, he 
may bring it forward for reconsideration at a later date. If, on 
the other hand, the soldier's conduct justifies it, the " Superior 
Military Authority " may order that the soldier be committed to 
prison to serve the sentence. 

The working of the Act has been most satisfactory. It has 
resulted in the prevention of crimes committed with a view of 
evading duty. At the same time, the Act enables clemency 
to be extended to soldiers who have been guilty of grave military 
offences, and gives them the opportunity during the period of 
the suspension of their sentences of expiating their offences by a 
period of good conduct or by gallant or meritorious acts. 

Military Law. — The administration of Military Law and the 
compilation of regulations relating thereto, rulings and com- 
plaints. 

The D.A.A.G. is responsible that Military Law is correctly 
and uniformly administered throughout the Corps, and in 
accordance with the King's Regulations and the orders and 
rulings of higher authority from time to time issued. 

He must also see that all amendments to the Army Act or 
other statutes relating to the Army, as well as any changes in 
the King's Regulations, Rules of Procedure, etc., are immediately 
brought to the notice of lower formations. The compilation of 
all regulations and rulings of higher authority for reference and 
promulgation is one of the important duties of his Branch. 



Corps Administration. 297 

He also examines and advises on all complaints of officers 
and other ranks before forwarding them to higher authority, 
and is responsible that any complaints meriting redress are 
given effect to immediately. 

Executive Duties connected with the Appointment of Officers. 

(other than Staff and Administrative Appointments). — Personal 
services, special appointments, such as Town Majors, Area 
Commandants, etc., transfers, postings, employments, exchanges, 
leave and resignations. 

The appointment of Staff and Administrative Officers and 
the promotion of all officers is handled by the Assistant Military 
Secretary. 

Questions relating to the Supply of Military Personnel to 
the Army, including strengths, reinforcements, labour, employ- 
ment, and man power. 

During the year 1918 the demand for reinforcements was 
extremely heavy on account of the continued activity at the 
front. 

At the commencement of the enemy's Offensive all 
Battalions of the Canadian Corps were brought up to full 
strength, and the Canadian Corps Reinforcement Camp at 
Aubin St. Vaast was filled with reinforcements. 

In order to facilitate the despatch of reinforcements to Units 
a Branch of the C.C.R.C. (known as the Advanced C.C.R.C.) 
was formed in the Corps Area, and from this Advanced C.C.R.C. 
reinforcements could be sent to Units on very short notice 
and with very little delay. 

When the Canadian Corps entered the Line to participate 
in the Battle of Amiens, all Units were up to strength, and 
from 6,000 to 8,000 reinforcements were in the immediate 
vicinity, ready to be despatched to the different Units engaged 
on the shortest notice. 

In order to be better able to follow up every success gained, 
the experiment of reinforcing Infantry Units actually in action, 
without withdrawing them from the Line, was put into effect 
for the first time in warfare and proved successful, as Battalions 
withdrew from the fight at practically the same strength as 
they entered. 

As the demands for reinforcements became more acute, it 
was decided that reinforcements in England with only 10 



298 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

weeks' training would be sent to France instead of waiting to 
complete the usual 14 weeks. This, however, proved un- 
satisfactory, and was discontinued. 

As the Corps advanced so the advanced portion of the 
C.C.R.C. moved forward, and in order to obviate reinforcements 
arriving at Units in an exhausted condition, Staging Camps 
were organised between the Advanced C.C.R.C. and Units, so 
that the troops could be rested and receive proper meals before 
joining their Units. 

Interior Economy, including establishments and organisa- 
tions. 

1. It is apparent that every Unit in the Army must have 
an Establishment, that is to say, a definite limitation of the 
personnel, animals, and material which comprises it. 

It is only by means of establishments that the fighting or 
effective strengths of Units can be ascertained, and a direct 
control maintained over supplies of personnel, animals, ammuni- 
tion and equipment. One of the great factors, however, which 
conduced to make the Canadian Corps such an effective fighting 
force, was the readiness at all times to discard establishments 
which had proved themselves unsuitable to changed conditions. 

Alterations in establishments which were necessary to meet 
new conditions of warfare were made and approved, due regard 
being had to the interests of economy. 

It has been a recognised principle in the Canadian Corps 
that organisation must not be allowed to become stereotyped. 

The value of elasticity in the power of creating new 
organisations to meet new conditions was early recognised 
and was a decisive factor towards success. 

2. Prior to 1918 the majority of Canadian Units with the 
Canadian Corps were organised on Imperial Establishments. 
These, to a certain extent, proved unsatisfactory, and early in 
the year steps were taken to revise the existing establishments. 
A number of new establishments were submitted and approved, 
and a large number of the existing establishments were modified 
to meet the requirements of the Corps. 

Among the former the following may be mentioned : — 
Canadian Machine Gun Corps. 
Canadian Engineers. 

Canadian Machine Gun Corps Mechanical Transport 
Company. 



Corps Administration. 299 

Canadian Engineers Mechanical Transport Company. 
Divisional Mechanical Transport Companies. 
Canadian Corps Troops Mechanical Transport 

Company. 
Y.M.C.A. and Chaplain Services. 
Labour. 

Prior to reorganisation the Machine Gun organisation of 
the Corps consisted of one Machine Gun Company per Division 
and the following Motor Machine Gun Brigades : — 

1st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade. 
Yukon Motor Machine Gun Brigade. 
Eaton Motor Machine Gun Brigade. 
Borden Motor Machine Gun Brigade. 

The Machine Gun Companies were disbanded, and in their 
place were substituted one Machine Gun Battalion per Division. 
Each Battalion consisted of three Machine Gun Companies. 
Likewise the Yukon, Eaton and Borden Motor Machine Gun 
Brigades were merged and known as the 2nd Canadian Motor 
Machine Gun Brigade. 

The organisation of the Canadian Engineers did away with 
twelve Field Companies C.E., four Pioneer Battalions, and 
two Tunnelling Companies. 

The present organisation of the Canadian Engineers consists 
of twelve Battalions C.E. (three to each Division, comprising 
an Engineer Brigade) and one Bridging Transport Section 
with each Division. 

The reorganisation of the Machine Gun Corps and the 
Engineers necessitated better arrangements being made for 
transportation, and to attain this the Machine Gun Mechanical 
Transport Company and the Engineer Mechanical Transport 
Company were organised. At the same time the whole of the 
Mechanical Transport of the Canadian Corps was reorganised, 
each Division and Corps Troops having one complete Mechanical 
Transport Company. 

The Spiritual and Recreational welfare of the troops also 
received consideration. The existing organisation of the 
Y.M.C.A. and Chaplain Services were found to be inadequate, 
and resulted in the formation of the 9th Canadian Area 
Employment Company. This Company found the personnel 
for duty with the Y.M.C.A. and Chaplain Services, and were 
allowed a certain number of N.C.Os. for the more responsible 
positions in these two organisations. When personnel were 



300 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

not needed by either of these two organisations they were 
returned to the 9th Area Employment Company to be used 
on other duties, but they were always available to be returned 
as occasion required. 

During the year the two Labour Battalions were merged 
into four Canadian Infantry Works Companies and one Group 
Headquarters, the entire organisation being administered by 
the Labour Commandant, who had his headquarters at Corps 
Headquarters. 

Practically all establishments in use with the Canadian 
Corps were amended during the year to meet existing conditions. 
The establishment of Canadian Corps Headquarters was given 
careful consideration and various amendments were made. 
In view of the increasing volume of work handled by the various 
Departments of Corps Headquarters it was found necessary 
to increase the establishment for clerical labour, thus enabling 
clerks to draw a higher rate of pay than would otherwise have 
been possible. 

The establishments of Division and Brigade Headquarters 
were also amended. 

The establishment of Canadian Infantry Battalions was 
increased to 966 other ranks, and in addition an over-posting 
of 100 other ranks was approved, making a total strength of 
1,066 other ranks. 

Personal Services of other ranks, including postings, transfers, 
promotions, summary reductions, clerks, courses, passes, permits, 
and leave. 

The Corps has always enjoyed a generous allotment of 
leave for all ranks, a privilege which has contributed in a great 
measure to physical fitness and morale. 

Personnel are eligible for ordinary 14 days' leave to the 
United Kingdom every three months. The allotment, however, 
is dependent upon train and boat accommodation, and naturally 
the military situation. It is not possible, therefore, to grant 
leave so frequently. 

Leave privileges are also extended to France, Belgium, 
and Italy. 

In special cases where the circumstances warrant it leave 
to Canada is granted for varying periods, and special leave 
to the United Kingdom is allowed for a period exceeding the 
14 days. 



Corps Administration. 301 

A leave warrant to the United Kingdom includes free 
transportation from the Unit in the Field to the applicant's 
destination. This arrangement is not applicable to leave 
on the Continent. 

A special train and boat service is operated for leave personnel 
only. The leave train in France runs between the Divisional 
Railhead and the Base Port. It is aimed to have the boat 
leave with as little delay as possible after the arrival of the 
train. Boat sailings, however, are dependent upon tides and 
other factors, and it frequently occurs that leave personnel 
are delayed at the Port in France. To provide for this, Rest 
Camps have been established, where sleeping accommodation 
and food are obtainable. A special leave train meets the boat 
at the Port in England and conveys the personnel to London, 
from where the journey is continued by regular trains. 

All other ranks receive an advance of pay prior to proceeding 
on leave. 

Pay of Officers and other ranks, including separation 
allowance and gratuities. 

Enlistments and Discharges. 

Demobilisation. — Demobilisation implies the depletion of 
a military force, and the return to civil life of the personnel 
composing it. 

An Army is not ordinarily organised for self-disintegration, 

and consequently, marvellous as is the existing machinery and 

infinitely various the functions that it enables it to perform, 

j it must be altered and supplemented in many directions for 

the business of demobilisation. 

Plans must be prepared and special organisations created 
to deal with the various stages through which the Units must 
i pass. 



Arrangements must be made for the collection and disposal 
of arms, equipment, transport and animals. 

Thus an entirely new set of Army Forms have been brought 
into use in order to carry out the documentation of personnel, 
etc. Special guards and working parties have been provided 
to handle the equipment, etc. Certain officers and other ranks 
have been specifically told off in each Unit to deal with the 
necessary preparation of documents and dispersal schemes. 



302 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Le Havre was set aside as a Port of Embarkation for the 
Canadian Forces in France. 

At this Port a Camp, known as the Canadian Embarkation 
Camp, has been created with a capacity of approximately 
6,000 troops, and a staff capable of carrying out the necessary 
administrative functions. 

The Units are moved by rail from their present area to 
the Embarkation Camp. Ordinarily the movement of troops 
from the Port of Embarkation to England is at the rate of 
1,000 soldiers per day. 

A Concentration Camp known as the Canadian Corps Camp 
has been organised at Bramshott, England, with a capacity 
of approximately the strength of a Division. 

On arrival in England, Units proceed by rail to this Camp, 
and there they are finally completed with respect to documenta- 
tion, last pay certificates, etc. All ranks are given eight days' 
leave of absence before sailing for Canada. 

The Dominion of Canada has been divided into 21 Dispersal 
Areas, each with a Dispersal Station. 

The Port of Halifax has been selected as the Port of 
Disembarkation, and from there the Units proceed to their 
respective Dispersal Areas by specially organised rail service. 
All personnel are conveyed to their homes at public expense. 

Applications and Enquiries of all kinds concerning the troops. 

Spiritual Welfare of the Troops. — The work of the 
Chaplain Services covers a considerable area. In addition to 
the spiritual and moral side of the work much has been done in 
the interest of the Troops to provide for their social requirements. 
In this latter direction a great deal has been done for the welfare 
of the troops in providing canteens, reading rooms, games, etc. 

Too much cannot be said also of the services of the Y.M.C.A. 
in the interests of the troops with respect to the supplying of 
sporting material, provision of recreation rooms, and entertain- 
ments. 

Medical Services, including Sanitation. — This subject is too 
detailed and lengthy for a report of this nature, so it has been dealt 
with in a separate report by the Deputy Director Medical Services. 

Casualties and Invaliding. — This is the subject of detailed 
regulations, which are attached as Appendix II. herewith. 



Corps Administration. 303 

Police Measures and A.P.Ms. — The principal functions 
of the Provost Branch, under the direction of the Assistant 
Provost Marshal, are as follows : — 

The prevention and detection of crime. 
The maintenance of order under all circumstances .. 
The enforcing of regulations. 
The arrest of offenders. 
The regulating of road traffic. 
The collection of stragglers. 
The custody of prisoners of war. 
The control of civilian circulation. 

The surveillance of persons suspected of espionage (in 
consultation with the Intelligence Branch). 

The selection of personnel for Provost Service is a matter of 
great importance, even more so than in the case of policemen in 
civil life. The Military Police must be tactful, intelligent, and 
determined. 

Personnel supplied to the Provost Branch are as a rule green 
men drawn from the Units, and require to be thoroughly trained 
and master the existing regulations before they become efficient in 
the duties which they undertake. 

Prisoners of War, including detention, provision and disposal. 

As prisoners of war furnish valuable and first-hand information 
regarding the enemy, the condition of his forces, and his 
intentions, the prompt collection of all prisoners of war is 
of first importance. 

The arrangements regarding prisoners of war must necessarily 
vary according to circumstances, but as a general rule the following 
is the usual procedure adopted. When an attack is to be carried 
out Divisions arrange temporary Cages for the reception of 
prisoners, situated at convenient locations, as close behind the 
firing line as is practicable. To these Cages the prisoners collected 
by Brigades are sent. A Corps Advanced Cage is established in 
rear thereof to collect the evacuations from the Divisional Cages. 
The Advanced Cage evacuates to the Rear Corps Cage, which is 
situated between Corps and Army Headquarters, and where all 
Corps prisoners are detained until they are turned over to the 
Army for disposal. 

All prisoners of war are subjected to careful search, interro- 
gation, and examination by specially trained Officers under the 
control and direction of the General Staff, and information thus 



304 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

gained is immediately available for use. When prisoners reach 
the Advanced Corps Cage they are sorted, their Units are identified, 
and more particular information obtained, and so on till the process 
is completed. 

During this process the prisoners have to be provisioned and 
their wounded given medical attention. When it is considered 
that during the first 24 hours of the battle of Amiens between 
6,000 and 7,000 prisoners of war passed through the Advanced 
Corps Cage some idea of the work and administration involved 
can be had. 

Burials and Cemeteries. — The responsibility for the selection 
of sites for burial ground for British soldiers, and for the control 
and supervision of cemeteries, rests on the Director of Graves 
Registration and Enquiries, who works under the Adjutant 
General, General Headquarters. 

A Burial Officer is appointed for Corps Headquarters and one 
for each Division, whose duties comprise the general supervision 
of burials and cemeteries in their respective areas. 

Whenever an interment is made the Chaplain who conducts 
the ceremony must ensure : — 

(a) That the report on the prescribed form is completed in 
triplicate, and forwarded to (i.) The Director of Graves Regis- 
tration and Enquiries, War Office ; (ii.) The D.A.D.G.R. and E. of 
the Army in which the Corps is serving ; (iii.) The D.A.G.,G.H.Q., 
3rd Echelon. The report referred to contains full particulars of 
the deceased, i.e., name, initials, regimental number, unit, date of 
death (wherever possible, , and the map location of the grave. 

(b) That the grave is suitably marked in such a way as to 
ensure identification. For this purpose pegs are kept by a soldier 
in charge of all authorised cemeteries. Full particulars of the 
deceased as mentioned in (a) are entered on the labels attached to 
the peg. At the earliest opportunity a wooden cross bearing the 
same particulars is erected. In cases where the erection of crosses 
is difficult, or has to be delayed, a record written with hard black 
pencil is in addition to be placed in a bottle which is half buried 
(neck downward) at the foot of the grave. 

Plans are in preparation for the erection of a specially 
designed headstone over the grave of each Canadian soldier. 

It has been urged that arrangements be made for the exhuma- 
tion of all bodies of Canadian soldiers buried in Germany for 
reinterment in Allied soil, and it is hoped that this request will 
receive approval in due course. 



Corps Administration. 305 

The greatest possible care is taken to ensure that the bodies 
of all Canadian soldiers killed in action or dying on service are 
buried according to the rites of their religious denominations. 

Ceremonials and Bands. — Preparation of orders, reports, 
despatches, correspondence, and diaries relative to the above. 

CASUALTIES. 

1. Returns. — Two separate Casualty Returns will be sent in. 

"A" — A return of estimated casualties only, to be used 
during heavy fighting. 

"B " — A return of Official casualties accurately compiled. 

"A" ESTIMATED CASUALTY RETURNS. 

(i) Divisions in which any Battalion (or Regiment) has suffered 
50 or more casualties will wire the number by Battalions (or 
Regiments) not later than 8.00 p.m. daily toA.G.,G.H.Q.,repeated 
to A.H.O. (A) and Canadian Corps " A." 

These will be repeated. 

For Canadian Troops to A.A.G., Canadian Section, 3rd 

Echelon. 
For British Troops to D.A.G., 3rd Echelon. 
For American Troops to Headquarters, 2nd American 

Corps. 

If further heavy casualties have occurred during the night 
another wire should be sent next morning as soon as the total 
approximate numbers per Battalion (or Regiment) can be 
estimated, but no wire is to be sent unless at least 50 more 
casualties have occurred in any one Battalion (or Regiment) 
since the previous wire. 

(ii) The casualties will be reported by "phases" ; the date of 
commencing and closing each phase will be notified from this 
office. The duration of each phase will vary according to the 
fighting, and the number of casualties suffered, but normally 
will be about three weeks. 

(iii) Each wire will include the numbers already reported 
since the commencement of the phase in the previous wire, and 
will begin with the following words: "Total estimated casualties 
from" (here insert commencement of phase). The word 
" additional " will on no account be used in any wire. 

(iv) When a Division is resting it will take the opportunity 
to verify the casualties it has reported for the current phase, and 

(642) X 



306 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

on going into action for the second or third time will start 
reporting from the corrected figures, and not from zero, unless in 
the meantime a new phase has been commenced. 

(v) Approximate casualty wires are only to be sent in for 
Machine Guns, Cavalry, and Infantry, and should not include 
R.A. and R.E. 

(vi) When Divisions are withdrawn from the line they 
will take the first possible opportunity of reporting by wire to 
the A.G., G.H.Q., the strength in officers and other ranks of 
Infantry Battalions, Pioneer Battalions (British), and Machine 
Gun Battalions. This will be repeated — 

For Canadian Troops to A.H.Q. "A"' Canadian 
Corps " A ' " and A.A.G., Canadian Section, 
3rd Echelon. 

For British Troops to A.H.Q. and D.A.G., 3rd Echelon. 

(vii) The following code will be used for each Cavalry and 
Infantry Division in telegraphing casualties. 

(a) Regiments and Battalions will be represented by the 
alphabetical letters in order of succession as shown in 
the " Order of Battle " (" I," " J " and " O " being 
omitted), i.e., 

A British Infantry Division will be represented by the 
following Battalions — 

A D G P 

B E H 

C F K 

A Cavalry Division will be represented by the following 
Regiments 

A D G 

B E H 

C F K L (for Jodhpur Lancers. 

The codes for Canadian Units have been published under 
D.A.G.S./4578/3-C of 8-7-18. 

(b) If a Battalion (or Regiment) has not had an increase of 
50 casualties since the previous wire, it will not be 
referred to in the next wire. 

(c) The words " Officers " and " Other Ranks " are not to 
be employed in these telegrams, numbers simply being 
used in each case separated by the word " and." If 
there are no officer casualties the word " Nil " must be 
used ; " aaa," representing full stop, will not be used. 



Corps Administration 



307 



(viii) The following are two examples : — 
1st example : — 

A.G., G.H.Q. 

Total estimated casualties from March 10, A 2 and 
50 C British 1 and Nil Indian 1 and 57 F. Indian Nil 
and 51 1. British 2 and Nil Indian 3 and 200 Xa 
1 and 10 adsd A.G. G.H.Q. repeated D.A.G. 3rd 
Echelon G.H.Q. A.H.Q.A. and Canadian Corps A. 

4th Cavalry Division. 

2nd example : — 

A.G., G.H.Q. 

Total estimated casualties from March 10, B 5 and 31 
C 1 and 50 E Nil and 61 F 3 and 200 K 1 and 58 
XCD 1 and 25 Addsd. A.G. G.H.Q. repeated A.A.G. 
Canadian Section 3rd Echelon and A.H.Q. " A " 
and Cdn. Corps "A." 

4th Canadian Division. 

These mean that these two Divisions have had the following 
total casualties from March 10 to the date the wires were 
despatched : — 

4th Cavalry Division. 



17th Lancers 


2 Officers and 50 ( 


19th 








British 


1 




„ Nil 


Indian 


1 


>> 


„ 57 


38th Horse- 








British 


Nil 


> > 


„ Nil 


Indian 


Nil 


>* 


„ 51 


Jodhpur Lancers — 








British 


2 


>> 


,, Nil 


Indian 


3 


>) 


„ 2 


Machine Gun Squadron 


1 


a 


„ 10 



4th Canadian Division. 
? Canadian Inf. Battalion . . 5 Officers and 315 other ranks. 



P 

>> >> 

7 

is >> 

? 

? . 

? Battalion, CM.G.C. 

(642) 



1 

Nil 
3 
1 
1 



50 
61 

200 
58 
25 



X2 



308 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(ix) Machine Gun Battalions. — Whenever the total casualties 
suffered by a Machine Gun Battalion exceed 25 all ranks an 
estimated casualty wire will be sent by the Division concerned as 
provided above for Infantry. 

Machine Gun Battalions in reporting casualties will forward 
a new report whenever unreported casualties amount to 25 or 
over, these being reported to the nearest 25. 

In the case of a decrease in estimated casualties amounting 
to 25 or over it will be reported to the nearest 25. 

Canadian Machine Gun Battalions will show the classification 
of casualties in C.M.G. Divisions in a D.R.L.S. message addressed 
to Canadian Corps " A " only. 

(x) Motor Machine Gun Brigades. — Whenever the estimated 
casualties in a Motor Machine Gun Brigade exceed 20 all ranks 
an estimated casualty wire will be sent to Canadian Corps " A " 
only. 

Motor Machine Gun Brigades will show in estimated casualty 
wires the classification of casualties in the cases of gunners, 
drivers, and signallers ; other specialists will be shown as " other 
ranks." 

The classification of these " other ranks " will be shown in a 
D.R.L.S. message referring to the casualty wire in which they 
were reported. The D.R.L.S. message will be addressed to 
Canadian Corps " A " only. 

2. " B " Official Casualty Returns. 

(i) Official casualties will be reported as follows : — 

(a) By Divisional Artilleries by wire to the Division under 
which they are at the time, repeated to Canadian Corps " A," 
made up to 12 noon, required by 8 p.m. daily. The figures shown 
in these wires will be included by the Divisions in their own 
official casualty return as called for in (c). 

During heavy fighting a D.R.L.S. message referring to the 
casualty wire will be sent direct to Canadian Corps " A " by the 
Canadian Divisional Artilleries concerned showing the classification 
of the casualties as reported by the casualty wire. 

(b) By Divisional Signals to the Division under which they 
are at the time, repeated to Canadian Corps " A." Made up to 
12 noon, required by 8 p.m. daily. The figures shown in these 
wires will be included by the Division in their own official 
Casualty return as called for by (c) . 



Corps Administration. 309 

(c) By Divisions including Divisional Artilleries and Signals 
by wire on attached pro forma to Army " A," repeated to Canadian 
Corps "A," made up to 12 noon, required by 8 a.m. next day by 
Army H.Q. and Canadian Corps Headquarters. 

(d) By C.C.H.A. to Canadian Corps " A " and G.O.C.R.A., 
made up to 12 noon, required by 7 p.m. daily. 

(/) By all Corps and Army Troops not included in above to 
Camp Commandant, Canadian Corps, by 7 p.m. daily. Camp 
Commandant will tabulate and forward by D.R.L.S. to Army " A" 
by 8 a.m. next day, repeating to Canadian Corps " A " by 8 a.m. 

(ii) Casualties occurring in personnel of C.C.R.C. will be 
reported to C.C.R.C, repeated to Canadian Corps " A," and must 
not be included in casualty wires or reports. 

(iv) Whenever a battalion has lost 50 or more men missing 
any single day a footnote will be added to the daily casualty 
return, stating how many of them are thought to have been taken 
prisoners by the enemy. 

(v) Before the return is sent in, the names of officers must 
always be verified from the Army List, to ensure that the correct 
initials and spelling are given. If an officer's name is not in the 
Army List, or is wrongly spelt there, the fact will be stated in 
the report. The actual date of the casualty must invariably 
follow the name of the officer. 

When casualties of regimental or General List Officers serving 
with Trench Mortar Batteries are reported, the Battalion from 
which they are detached will be shown, in addition to the Trench 
Mortar Battery on the strength of which they are serving, thus : — 

Lieut. " X " 18th employed Trench 

Mortar Battery ; or, 

Lieut. " X " General List, employed Trench 

Mortar Battery. 

(vi) The casualties in any formation or unit detached tem- 
porarily from one Division to another will be reported by the 
Division to which such formation or unit is attached. This 
Division will repeat return " A " and return " B " to the Division 
from which the formation or unit has been detached. 

(vii) Casualties of officers and other ranks attached or belong- 
ing to Units of Army and Corps Troops will be reported by the 
Unit of Army or Corps Troops concerned in the usual manner, i.e., 
through Divisions by such Units administered by Divisions to 
Corps Headquarters, by such Units administered direct by Corps, 
and to Army Headquarters by such Units administered direct by 
the Army. 



310 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(viii) Medical Units will be responsible for reporting deaths 
of all ranks under their charge. 

3. Special Instructions. 

(i) Battle Casualties to Officers Commanding R.E. Units 
(not C.E. Units) will be reported by wire direct to the A.G., 
G.H.O., by the " A " Staff concerned. All other casualties will be 
reported through the usual channels. 

(ii) If any General Officer, Staff Officer, or Commanding 
Officer is reported as a casualty, the fact will be at once reported 
to A.H.O., and in the case of the two former only will be repeated 
to A.G., G.H.O., except when heavy righting is in progress ; the 
report should contain a brief statement of how the casualty 
occurred. 

(hi) (a) All casualties caused by enemy weapons in use at 
the time as such, and all casualties caused by British or Allied 
weapons which are in action against the enemy, will be reported 
as " Battle Casualties." 

(b) The word " weapon " will be held to include Lethal Gas, 
Mustard Gas, Liquid Fire, High-tension Currents and enemy 
Barbed Wire, as well as all other instruments used in fighting. 

(c) In reporting " Battle Casualties " the terms " Killed in 
action," " Died of wounds," " Wounded," " Wounded at duty " 
or " Missing " only will be used, except in the case of shell shock 
and Lethal or Mustard Gas casualties, where the special nature 
of the casualty will be indicated thus : — 

" Killed in Action (Gas)." 

" Wounded (Gas)." 

" Wounded (Shell Shock)." 

(d) No report of " Wounded (Shell Shock) " shall be made 
except on the authority of the Officer Commanding a Special 
Hospital in accordance with G.R.O. 2384, nor will a report of 
" Wounded (Gas) " be made except in accordance with G.R.Os. 
3127 and 3128. (See Appendix " A.") 

(e) In cases where it is considered desirable to enquire into the 
conduct of an officer or man who is believed to have been taken 
prisoner by the enemy, and a Court of Enquiry is held for that 
purpose, the casualty will be reported as " Missing, believed 
Prisoner of War (Court of Enquiry case)." See para. 2 (b) S.S. 617, 
issued with G.R.O. 2884 

(f) A casualty from mine gas poisoning sustained by an officer 
or man in the course of his duty, and which is not in any way 



Corps Administration. 311 

due to neglect or disobedience of orders, will be reported as a 
" Battle Casualty." 

(g) A casualty arising from any other injury will be reported 
simply as " Injured/' " Died of injuries," or " Killed aaa." (in 
the case of immediate death from injury). When, however, the 
injury is self-inflicted, it will in the first instance be reported as 
" Injured S.I.," " Died of Injuries S.I," or " Killed S.I." (in the 
case of immediate death from self-inflicted injury), until the case 
has been investigated and Army Form 3428 completed, when the 
injury will be definitely classified as " Wilful," " Negligent," 
" Without negligence," or ." Accidental," as the case may be. 

(hi) (h) When an officer or other rank who is both " Wounded 
and Missing " and has been previously reported (1) Missing, 
(2) Wounded, the second notification should read : — 

1. Wounded and Missing, previously reported Missing. 

2. Wounded and Missing, previously reported Wounded. 

In the case where an officer or other rank is reported " Wounded 
and Missing " and it is desired to correct the report, then it must 
be clearly shown whether it is desired to correct the report of 
Wounded as well as Missing, thus : — 

1. Cancel report of wounded and missing, now reported 
wounded. 

2. Cancel report both of wounded and missing. 

(i) All casualties above mentioned, including injuries, will be 
reported by formations in the Daily Casualty Wire to Head- 
quarters of Armies and L. of C. Area, in precisely the same 
manner as Battle Casualties have been in the past. Headquarters 
of Armies and L. of C. Area will include in their daily list to 
1st and 3rd Echelons casualties classified as " Injuries " in the 
same form as Battle Casualties. 

4. The following procedure will be adopted with regard to the 
method of reporting the strength and casualties of Units of the 
U.S. Army attached to British formations. 

It is essential that the figures for British and American 
personnel should be kept entirely separate. 

The weekly strength return of Infantry, Pioneers and Machine 
Gun Battalions will be forwarded by the Division to which these 
American Units may be attached to Army Headquarters in exactly 
the same way that the Weekly Strength returns are rendered for 
the same Units of the B.E.F 



312 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

American Units will be shown at the foot of the form and will 
not be included in the total strength of the Division. 

The Daily Strength return of Infantry rendered by Armies 
will show the strength of American Infantry below the British 
Infantry, thus : — 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

Guards .. ..337 10,694 

A.I. .. .. 90 2,742 

Accurate casualties will be reported daily by Divisions to 
Army Headquarters on a separate return in exactly the same 
manner as the accurate daily casualties of the B.E.F. are reported, 
except that the names of the officers will not be required. 

Armies will compile a separate daily return for American 
Units showing the British Formation to which they are attached. 

Divisions will collect the strength and casualty returns, 
both routine and special reports, of all attached American Units, 
in accordance with orders in force in American Army, and 
forward same to Divisional Headquarters, B.E.F., which is 
responsible for proper disposition as per G.O. 79, G.H.Q., A.E.F., 
1917. 

5. All officers and other ranks who, without any visible wound, 
become non-effective from physical conditions claimed or presumed 
to have originated from the effects of British or enemy weapons 
in action, other than cases of gas poisoning, will not be reported 
as Battle Casualties until they are proved as such by the following 
procedure : — 

{a) If it is essential to transfer them from their Unit or 
Division they will be sent to the special hospital set apart for 
their reception under orders from A.H.O. 

(b) The regimental Medical Officers or Officer Commanding 
Medical Unit who in the first instance deals with a case which it is 
necessary to transfer to the special hospital will not record any 
diagnosis. He will enter on the field medical card or other transfer 
paper the letters " N.Y.D.N.," and any definitely known facts 
as to the true origin or the previous history of the case. 

(c) Army Form W.3436 will be forwarded by the Officer 
Commanding the Special Hospital to the Commanding Officer 
of the Unit to which the officer or man belongs. Commanding 
Officers will complete this form and render it as directed thereon 
with the least possible delay. 



Corps Administration. 313 

(d) If any case arrives at the Base without having passed 
through the Special Hospital, the Officer Commanding the Base 
Hospital will retain the case and notify the local administrative 
Medical Officer, who will report full particulars direct to the 
D. M.S. of the Army concerned. That officer will cause Army Form 
W.3436 to be completed and the case to be classified by the Officer 
Commanding the Special Hospital, who will then notify the 
Officer Commanding the Base Hospital in the usual way. 

(e) In no circumstances whatever will the expression " shell 
shock " be made use of verbally or be recorded in any regimental 
or other casualty report, or in any hospital or other medical 
document, except in cases so classified by the order of the Officer 
Commanding the Special Hospital. The D.A.G., 3rd Echelon, 
will notify the Commanding Officer of the Unit of any case so 
classified. The latter will, in the case of officers, at once report 
this casualty in his next daily casualty return, stating the date of 
the casualty and the D.A.G.'s authority for the classification. 

6. Whenever officers or other ranks are accidentally killed 
or wounded, a brief report will be wired immediately the 
circumstances are ascertained. 

If absence from duty is involved, a written report will also 
be rendered, without delay, of the A.F.W. 3428. 

If the accident is caused by the premature explosion of a 
grenade, particulars on the lines laid down in Army Council 
Instruction No. 1894 of 1916 will accompany the report. This 
information will also be forwarded to Army Headquarters in 
addition to the proceedings when Courts of Enquiry are held 
on the premature explosion of grenades. 

Courts of Enquiry need only be held in cases where a number 
of men are injured by the accident, or when considered necessary 
for the purpose of obtaining informatio.n as to some defect in 
material, or for some other special reason. 

The proceedings of Courts of Enquiry will be forwarded to 
Army Headquarters " A " with the least possible delay. 

7. At the end of each week a separate return (see pro forma 
below) will be rendered, showing the total numbers of missing 
by Divisions (all arms) and the numbers included in the missing 
that are thought to have been taken alive. Due allowance 
must be made for those who were previously reported missing, 



314 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



but who have since rejoined or are now found to have been 
killed. This return will include casualties to 12 noon on 
Sundays, and must accompany the casualty return for that 
day, reaching Army Headquarters at 8.30 a.m. on Monday. 



PRO FORMA. 
SECRET. 

Return of Missing and Prisoners for week ending 

Division. 



Missing. 



Estimated Prisoners. 



Date. 



Officers. 



Other Ranks. Officers. 



Other Ranks. 



Remarks. 



* State here briefly where the action occurred. 

When officers or other ranks are reported missing, a brief 
statement will invariably be rendered, with the least possible 
delay, to Army Headquarters. Whenever possible, this state- 
ment will be included in the Casualty Report, but if this cannot 
be done, it must be stated in the Casualty Report that the 
statement follows. 



CANADIAN DIVISION. 

STATEMENT OF ACTUAL CASUALTIES FROM NOON 

TO NOON 1918. 



Unit. 



Killed. ! Wounded. 



O.R. 



O.R. 



Missing. 



O. ! O.R. 



Date, 
if other 

than 
above. 



Remarks. 



Corps Administration. 

TOTAL BY CATEGORIES. 

Shell Fire | .. 

Rifle and Machine Gun Fire 

Gas 

Aeroplane Bombs 

Grenades and Trench Mortar Fire 

Missing 

Total 



315 



Details of casualties to officers are given on back. 

(Signed) 

Canadian Division. 



Canadian Corps. 
Q.9/37. 

February 26, 1919. 
CANADIAN CORPS-" Q" BRANCH. 
ORGANISATION, ADMINISTRATION AND FUNCTIONS. 
1. ORGANISATION OF CORPS HEADQUARTERS. 

The staff of the Corps Commander comprises three branches, 
"G," "A," and " Q." 

All the orders of the Corps Commander are issued by one 
or other of these three branches of his staff. 

The General Staff ("G") is under the B.G., G.S. (Brigadier- 
General, General Staff). 

The Administrative Staff, which combines " A " and " Q," 
is under the D.A. and Q.M.G. (Deputy Adjutant and Quarter- 
master General). 

The Administrative Staff at the time of the Armistice 
was : 

D.A.and Q.M.G. Brig.-Gen. G. J. Farmar, C.B., C.M.G. 
A.Q.M.G. . . Lieut.-Col. W. B. Anderson, D.S.O. 
D.A.Q.M.G. . . Major B. W. Browne, M.C. 
D.A A.G. . . Major W. Bovey. 

In addition to these Staff Officers, there are a number of 
other officers who are attached and form part of Corps Head- 
quarters, who have special duties, being generally the heads of 



316 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



Their duties are generally 



their respective departments, 
indicated by their titles. 

D.D.M.S. . . Deputy Director of Medical Services. 

A.D.O.S. . . Assistant Director of Ordnance Services. 

A.D.V.S. . . Assistant Director of Veterinary Services. 

S.M.T.O. . . Senior Mechanical Transport Officer. 

C.L.C. . . . . Corps Labour Commandant. 

C.C. . . . . Camp Commandant. 

A.P.M Assistant Provost Marshal 

D.A.D.R. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Roads. 

D.A.D.P.S. . . Deputy Assistant Director of Postal Services. 

F.C. . . . . Field Cashier. 

C.C.A.O. . . Canadian Corps Ammunition Officer. 

There are also others who are not mentioned here, as their 
duties are not particularly administrative. 

Besides these, there are other officers employed on adminis- 
trative work, of whom the chief ones are : 
Corps Salvage Officer. 
Corps Laundry Officer. 
Courts Martial Officers. 
Corps Canteen Officer. 

The actual personnel of " Q " Branch consists of — 
1 D.A. and Q.M.G. 
1 A.Q.M.G. 
1 D.A.Q.M.G. 
1 Staff Learner. 

1 Warrant Officer (Chief Clerk). 
5 Clerks. 
4 Orderlies. 

The composition of the whole of the Corps Staff and attached 
officers on November 11, [1918, is given in Appendix A. 

2. Functions of " Q " Branch. — " Q " Branch deals with 
all questions of supply, equipment, housing, etc., including 
supply of food and forage, ammunition supply, water supply, 
fuel, housing of troops, billeting, hutting and tents, traffic 
control, baths, trophies of war, claims against the Government, 
Courts of Enquiry, provision of horses, veterinary services, 
hire of land, salvage, stores, clothing and equipment, and 
transport. 

Orders for operations or moves are issued by the General 
Staff. Administrative arrangements are carried out or co- 
ordinated by " Q." 



Corps Administration. 317 

The distribution of duties in " Q" Branch between the 
A.Q.M.G. and the D.A.Q.M.G. is given in Appendix C. 

A complete copy of the Canadian Corps Administrative 
Instructions, which are published, amended, and republished 
from time to time, is attached as Appendix VI. 

3. Composition of Corps. — The Corps (Army Corps) consist 
of:— 

Two or more Divisions Corps Troops. 
The Canadian Corps normally comprised the 1st, 2nd, 3rd 
and 4th Canadian Divisions and Corps Troops. 

The normal Order of Battle of the Canadian Corps is attached 
as Appendix B. Besides the Formations and Units included 
here, there are a large number of Army and other Units attached 
from time to time. 

4. Establishments. — In order to give an idea of the strengths 
of various Formations and Units referred to in this report, their 
establishments are summarised and tabulated in Appendix V. 

5. Transport. — The two means of transport with the Corps 
are Mechanical Transport (M.T.) and Horse Transport (H.T.). 
Light railways have also been used to a large extent. The 
Mechanical Transport is generally controlled direct from Corps 
Headquarters through the S.M.T.O. Horse Transport is 
generally controlled by Divisions and by the Units to which 
it is attached. 

The Mechanical Transport Units are organised as a Corps 
M.T. Column, which is commanded by the S.M.T.O., and 
comprises : — 

Headquarters Canadian Corps M.T. Column. 
Canadian Corps Troops M.T. Company. 
1st Canadian Divisional M.T. Company. 
2nd Canadian Divisional M.T. Company. 
3rd Canadian Divisional M.T. Company. 
4th Canadian Divisional M.T. Company. 
Canadian Motor Machine Gun M.T. Company. 
Canadian Engineer M.T. Company. 

The Corps Troops M.T. Company draw, handle, and deliver 
supplies for all Corps Troops not forming part of the Divisions. 

The Divisional M.T. Companies handle supplies and ammuni- 
tion each for one Division, and under the control of the S.M.T.O. 



318 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The C.M.M.G.M.T. Company provides the necessary 
mechanical transport for the technical duties of the two Motor 
Machine Gun Brigades and the C.E.M.T. Company for the 
Engineers throughout the Corps, including Engineer duties 
within Divisions. 

The Corps generally had one " Army Auxiliary (Horse) 
Company " attached, which provided about 100 general service 
(G.S.) wagons for general transport purposes. These were 
allotted and controlled direct by the D.A.Q.M.G. 

The Horse Transport with Divisions consists of the : 
Divisional Ammunition Column (D.A.C.). 
Divisional Train. 
, Transport with individual Units. 

The D.A.C. handles all ammunition used within the 
Divisions, drawing it from railhead, from dumps, or from the 
M.T. Column, and delivers it to Batteries or Units as required. 

The Divisional Train draws all supplies for the Units of 
the Division, divides up and accounts for the supplies, and 
eventually delivers them to the various Units. 

Each Unit (except M.T. Units) has sufficient horse transport 
attached to carry all the stores and supplies of the Unit and to 
carry out the ordinary transport duties required by the Unit 
in action, during reliefs, or on the march. 

The above may be summarised as three " echelons " of 
transport : (1) The Mechanical Transport, controlled by Corps, 
which draws supplies, ammunition, and stores from railhead 
or other sources and delivers to Divisions. (2) The Divisional 
Train and Divisional Ammunition Column, which draw by 
horsed wagons the supplies and ammunition respectively 
from the Corps and deliver to Units. (3) The " First Line 
Transport " of Units, which is under the control of the Units 
themselves and carries out all transport duties within the 
Units. 

These distinct echelons do not exist in the case of Corps 
Troops (extra Divisional Units) ; in the case of Siege Artillery, 
for instance, the Mechanical Transport delivers ammunition 
from the railheads direct to the guns. 

6. Supplies. — The extent to which light railways have 
replaced both M.T. and H.T. is discussed under a separate 
heading. 



Corps Administration. 319 

The term " supplies " covers all consumable provisions, 
including food, forage, fuel, petrol, oils and light. 

One arm of the Service, the Army Service Corps, is responsible 
for the handling and delivering of all supplies to the troops. 
There are supply details with the M.T. Companies and with the 
Divisional Trains (which are A.S.C. Units), and all supplies 
are handled by them. Supplies after being unloaded at the 
Base are shipped by train in " sections " (generally half a train) 
numbered for each formation. At railhead the supplies are 
off-loaded and drawn away by the M.T. Companies to the 
" refilling points," where they are then cut up and apportioned 
to the various Units by the personnel of the Divisional Trains, 
and eventually delivered by the train to the Quartermasters 
of Units at the Unit horse lines or stores. The Quartermasters' 
staff then divides up the Unit's rations amongst the various 
messes, Companies, and Detachments according to strengths. 

It will be seen that the rations for any Unit are thus packed 
for that Unit at the Base, perhaps some five days before they 
are actually consumed by the men. Thus, if the train journey 
from the Base were some 36 hours, the rations are packed in 
railway trucks on, say, " A " day, each truck bearing a large 
paper number corresponding to the " section " of the formation 
for which it is intended. The coal, petrol, forage, and bread, 
and other " components " of the ration may all be packed at 
different bases, but they eventually find their way, through 
railway regulating stations, into the same train and reach the 
railhead, say, on the morning of " C " day. There they are 
unloaded into the lorries of the M.T. Company (or sometimes 
by light railway or by horse transport to economise mechanical 
transport) and transported to the refilling points. After being 
divided up by the men of the train they are then loaded into 
the train wagons on the afternoon of " C " day and the wagons 
remain loaded in their own park overnight. They are then 
delivered to the Quartermasters of Units on the morning of 
" D " day, divided up, and issued to messes, etc., and actually 
consumed by the men on " E " day. 

The strength of Formations and Units varies from time to 
time, and the strength of the " Pack " required for each 
" Section " is notified daily by the Senior Supply Officer (S.S.O.) 
of the Division concerned. It is obvious that any change 
must be anticipated and arrangements made some five days 
in advance, and the difficulty of foreseeing such changes during 
operations is considerable. 



320 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

A " Pack " contains a definite number of complete rations 
according to the strength of the formation for which it is 
intended. Should a formation require more rations the 
difference is made up from " Field Supply Depots " located 
at convenient points along the front. Similarly, any rations 
surplus from the Pack Train are returned to the nearest Field 
Supply Depot. The number of rations kept in a Field Supply 
Depot varies, generally about 50,000 rations. There are two 
or three Field Supply Depots to an Army. . 

The Army is responsible for delivering supplies at the 
railheads. The Corps is responsible for conveying them from 
railhead by lorry or light railway to refilling points. Divisional 
Trains are responsible for getting them to Units, and the Units 
themselves (by pack transport if necessary) to all the troops, 
including those in the actual fighting line. 

The system, as regards the supply of Corps Troops is 
practically the same, but that the M.T. Company delivers 
direct to Units instead of to a "Divisional Train." 

The supplies carried in the field are for each man : 

On the man or in the Field 

Kitchen . . . , . . The unexpended portion of 

the day's ration. Also one 
complete iron ration. 

In the Divisional Train . . One complete ration. 

In the M.T. Company . . One complete ration. 

In addition to the normal supply large reserves are always 
held in the Army areas in Field Supply Depots to provide 
against any breakdown of the normal supply. 

" Q" Branch is responsible for the co-ordination of all 
these services, for arranging the position of railheads and 
refilling points, and generally for the whole service of supply. 

7. Ammunition. — The method of handling and supply of 
ammunition is very similar to that of supplies. The Army is 
responsible for the delivery of ammunition as required at 
railhead. The Corps is responsible for its delivery to Divisions 
at Ammunition Refilling Points (A.R.P.), and the Divisional 
Ammunition Column is responsible for its delivery from there 
to Batteries or other Units. The Corps Heavy Artillery does 
not form part of any Division, and draws its ammunition direct 
by mechanical transport from the Army and delivers it to 
Batteries under Corps arrangements. As with supplies, the 



Corps Administration. 321 

" Q " Branch of the Corps is responsible for the supply, for 
co-ordinating all arrangements, and for anticipating require- 
ments in sufficient time to ensure that a supply is available. 
In order to provide a reserve to meet any emergency the Army 
and the Corps each maintain " dumps " varying in size with the 
possibility or probability of active operations requiring a sudden 
increase in the ammunition expenditure, and probably con- 
taining some thousands of tons. " Q " Branch is responsible 
for the care of all ammunition on charge and for the proper 
accounting for all ammunition expenditure, but not for the 
control of the expenditure, which depends solely upon the 
tactical considerations. 

As regards supply, there are three distinct natures of 
ammunition : — 

Heavy. — For all natures of siege and heavy guns in 
the Corps Heavy Artillery. 

Field. — For field (light) guns and howitzers of 
Divisional Artillery. 

Trench Munitions. — Which includes rifle and machine 
gun ammunition, bombs, grenades, and all natures 
of " fireworks/' i.e., flares and signal lights. 

The Corps M.T. Column, which includes all Divisional M.T. 
Companies, is the Unit which draws all ammunition required 
by Divisions (i.e., field gun ammunition and trench munitions) 
from the Army, either direct from railhead as it arrives or 
from Army Dumps. This ammunition is delivered to Divisions 
as required at their Divisional A.R.P., or is stored by the Corps 
M.T. Column in Corps Dumps until required. At the A.R.P. 
the ammunition is unboxed and drawn forward by the Divisional 
Ammunition Column, which has General Service wagons for 
the carriage of ammunition in bulk, and also Limbered Ammuni- 
tion Wagons, which are fitted to carry a number of rounds 
ready for the gun in individual compartments. Attached to 
the Corps M.T. Column is certain artillery personnel specially 
trained for the care of ammunition handled or stored by the 
Column, and one Artillery Officer, an expert in the care and 
handling of ammunition. This officer (the Canadian Corps 
Ammunition Officer) works directly under " Q" Branch, and 
is the technical adviser in all matters regarding the care and 
handling of ammunition. He also supervises the accounting 
and issue of ammunition of all kinds. 

(642) Y 



322 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Heavy ammunition is not handled by the Corps M.T. 
Column, but by the Corps Siege Park, which is a composite 
Unit comprising the mechanical transport of all Siege and 
Heavy Batteries. It draws all heavy ammunition from the 
Army in the same way, but delivers direct to Batteries. 

In normal trench warfare the mechanical transport of the 
Corps M.T. Column and of the Corps Siege Park is almost 
wholly replaced by light railway, which carries heavy ammuni- 
tion direct from railhead to the guns themselves, and field gun 
ammunition from railhead to the A.R.P., and sometimes even 
from the A.R.P. to the Batteries. The use of light railways 
is described and discussed elsewhere. 

Besides the actual supply of the ammunition there is a 
great deal of work necessitated by the return of the empty 
brass cartridge cases. 

These valuable components in the manufacture of ammuni- 
tion have to be withdrawn from the gun positions under hostile 
fire, re-boxed, and returned to England through the same 
channels through which they were issued. 

8. Movements. — The orders for the moves of Formations 
or Units are issued by " G," but the details of all moves are 
worked out by " Q," and all administrative arrangements are 
co-ordinated and effected by " Q." 

Thus if a Unit is to move by rail the time of entraining 
and departure, rations and fuel for the journey change of 
supply arrangements to the new area, transport to and from 
the railway, etc., must all be considered and arranged by " Q." 
The arrival or departure of any Unit affects all branches of the 
staff, as new arrangements for supply, medical attendance, 
ordnance stores, leave, postal services, etc., must be brought 
into effect, and the early notification of such moves to all 
concerned is one of the most striking characteristics of an 
efficient " Q " Branch. 

9. Quarters. — The discipline and the fighting efficiency of 
the troops depends principally upon the degree of comfort 
which they experience as regards housing, feeding, clothing, 
and bathing. If troops are well cared for in these respects and 
exercised, the rest is simply a matter of training and experience. 
All these administrative arrangements devolve upon the " Q " 
Branch of the Corps or Division concerned. The general area 
to be occupied by any Formation is laid down by " G," but the. 
sub-allotment to Units and the distribution to billets, huts, 



Corps Administration. 323 

or camps is carried out by " Q " as well as the provision ot 
huts, tents, floor boards, palliasses, beds, blankets, stoves, etc. 
The huts or stoves are actually produced and erected by the 
Engineers ; the tents, palliasses, blankets, etc., by the Ordnance ; 
but the issue of all instructions which lead to their provision 
and the co-ordination of all services to ensure the maximum 
of comfort to the troops with the least possible annoyance is the 
function of " Q " Branch. 

10. Road Control. — The control of traffic during and 
immediately prior to operations is a task quite as difficult as 
the control of traffic in a large city, apart from the 
hostile fire which is liable to upset all traffic at any minute. 
" Q" is responsible for the maintenance and construction of 
roads, for the allotment of roads to different natures of traffic, 
and for the control of the speed and direction of traffic as laid 
down. The construction and maintenance of roads is carried 
out through the D.A.D. Roads, whose functions and duties 
are described more fully elsewhere. The control of traffic 
is carried out by special " Traffic Control " personnel (under 
the A.P.M.), which provides traffic control posts at all important 
points and by mounted patrols on all important roads. During 
operations the traffic on some roads forms one continuous 
stream, sometimes for hours, and the slightest delay might 
have most serious results. To prevent this requires constant 
supervision by special personnel prepared to take immediate 
action to remedy any mishap. 

1 1 . Water Supply. — The supply of water for drinking and 
cooking and for watering horses is a big question in case of 
a large concentration of troops in an area not well supplied 
with water. It has generally been necessary to sink wells 
(bore-holes), and often to pipe water for considerable distances. 

The engineers arrange and carry out all services regarding 
the supply and distribution of water. 

The Corps Water Patrol Officer, under " Q " Branch, 
patrols all water systems and supervises the watering arrange- 
ments and chlorination. 

12. Salvage. — The economies which can be effected in the 
salvage of abandoned material or material which is no longer 
required cannot be over-estimated. 

The amount of stores, equipment, engineer material, wire, 
ammunition, brass cartridge cases, etc., which becomes scattered 

(642) Y2 



324 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

about the country is enormous, and a special salvage organisa- 
tion exists for the collection and shipment, or reissue of all 
such material. 

The Corps Salvage Officer, under " Q" Branch, is in charge 
of all salvage personnel and operations. 

The collection of dripping from unused fats, of solder from 
empty tins, of oils and greases from apparently empty con- 
tainers, of waste paper, etc., has yielded immense returns, 
besides providing most necessary raw material for further 
manufacture. 

The approximate cash value of the salvage effected by this 
Corps during 1918 was $8,737,775. 

13. Gifts and Comforts. — The distribution of gifts and com- 
forts sent from home to the troops is under the supervision of 
" O " Branch. The Canadian War Contingent Association has 
been most helpful in sending out seasonable gifts and the 
comforts and extra luxuries most appreciated by the troops. 

14. Hire of Lands and Buildings. — There is a special branch 
of the British Army which deals with this question, but all 
correspondence passes through " Q" Branch, which also makes 
the necessary arrangements for the hirings when the case is 
too complicated for the Units themselves. All hirings of 
buildings are approved by " " on behalf of the Corps Com- 
mander before being achieved. 

15. Accounts and Allowances. — All questions of allowances 
are submitted to " Q " Branch, and all claims for allowances, 
or accounts for approval are submitted through ii Q " Branch, 
before they can be paid by the Field Cashier. Pay (as distinct 
from allowances), is dealt with by " A " Branch. 

16. Claims. — Claims from inhabitants are received for 
many reasons and causes of damage. Some of these are : — 

(a) Damage to crops, fields, or pasture land. 

(b) Damage to buildings, etc. 

(c) Personal injuries. 

(d) Occupation of buildings. 

(e) Damage to civilian vehicles. 

In each Division there is a Claims Officer, whose duty it is 
to investigate all the above-mentioned claims on behalf of 
" Q " Branch. If a claim is legitimate and does not exceed a 
certain sum of money, and, of course, providing no individual 
is to blame, the Claims Officer is empowered to adjust the 



Corps Administration. 325 

claim on the spot. If, however, there is any doubt as to the 
responsibility, or if the amount exceeds the sum referred to, 
all available evidence for and against must be submitted to 
the " Claims Commission " for instructions or advice. Wilful 
damage, if the guilty individual or Unit can be located, must be 
paid for by the party causing the damage. 

The total number and value of claims submitted by civilians 
to Canadian Corps in 1917 was : 

2,698 claims, amounting to 167,931.91 francs. 

17. Cookery. — The rations have been consistently good 
and ample, but a good cook is essential. He will ensure variety 
in the methods of preparing the food, as a consequence of which, 
the men relish their meals, which they would not do were 
they to receive the same food prepared continually in the same 
way. 

Schools of Cookery have, therefore, been established, where 
men are given instruction in cooking, the erection of improvised 
ovens, sanitation, and economy. 

Dripping is collected by the cooks, without depleting the 
men's rations ; and after all required dripping is used, it is 
shipped to the Base. For dripping, Units were paid 0.35 francs 
per pound, and for the first eight months of 1918 the Canadian 
Corps turned in 421,043 lbs., amounting to 147,366.05 francs. 

18. Captured Stores and Equipment. — Captures may be 
either claimed as trophies of war, or, if not claimed, are used to 
the best advantage for the needs of the Army. During the 
advance in the autumn of 1918 great quantities of coal, wood, 
stone, straw, engineer material, etc., were captured. A guard 
was immediately placed on this, and it was then taken on charge 
and issued in lieu of British material by the branch most 
concerned. 

Any trophy which a Unit desires to claim is marked in 
chalk at the time of the capture with the name of the Unit 
and marks of identification. All claims are generally approved, 
unless the trophies are required for instructional or other 
purposes. 

The principal trophies captured by the Canadian Corps 
between August 1 and November 11, 1918, were : 

Machine Guns 2,842 

Trench Mortars 336 

Light Guns 432 

Heavy Guns . . . . . . . . 154 



326 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

19. Courts 01 Enquiry. — " O " Branch handles a great 
number of Courts of Enquiry, held to establish the facts of the 
case and to place the responsibility for loss. The principal 
subjects of Courts of Enquiry are — 

Fires. 

Damage to Vehicles. 

Accidents to Inhabitants. 

Loss of Stores. 

Loss of Vehicles. 

Loss of Horses. 

The Court must decide the responsibility and recommend 
as to whether the loss is to be borne by the public or by the 
individual or Unit concerned. 

20. Baths and Laundries. — As soon as the Corps moves into 
a new area central baths and central laundries are established, 
this being necessary owing to the scarcity of water in many 
localities and the congestion of men. Normally, all laundry 
work is performed at Area Laundries, on the Lines of Com- 
munication. 

Soiled garments, after being disinfected, are sent direct by 
Divisions or Corps Troops Laundry Officer to the Area Laundry. 

All repair to damaged clothing, and the condemning of 
such articles as are beyond repair, is done at the Area Laundry. 
Every article has to be accounted for, and the accounting at 
bath-houses, storehouses, and Area Laundries is quite an item 
in the supply of clean clothing to the troops. 

There are baths in every locality where troops are billeted. 
Troops are marched by Units to the bath-houses, but any man 
going on leave, etc., can present himself at any of the baths and 
secure a bath and clean change of underwear. 

Baths are under the immediate control of " Q " Branch of 
the Division in whose area they are or the Area Commandant in 
an area not controlled by a Division, the whole being co-ordi- 
nated by Corps " Q " Branch. 

Frequently, owing to congestion of traffic during operations, 
and also while advancing through territory recently occupied 
by the enemy, it was found advisable to use any available 
civilian laundries.; and also allow the civilians to wash and 
repair the garments at a normal price. Soap was supplied by 
Ordnance, as there was a great scarcity of this commodity 
among the civilians. 



Corps Administration, 327 

Divisional bath-houses, which were erected by the Engineers, 
were capable of handling from 50 to 150 men per hour. 
Generally speaking, an Infantry Battalion of full strength 
could be bathed and issued with clean clothing in a day. 

Before the advance, and when troops were in the back 
areas, civilian mine baths were used extensively. They were, 
generally, very large, and capable of taking 250 men per hour. 
Amicable arrangements could always be made with the mine 
owners. 

21. Canteens. — The system of supplying extras to the troops 
is done through the medium of the Y.M.C.A., the Chaplain 
Services, and the Expeditionary Force Canteens. 

The Y.M.C.A. and Chaplain Services work entirely within 
themselves ; that is to say, they establish their own canteens 
at convenient places, both in and out of the Line. Both of 
these organisations always have canteens well forward, supply- 
ing hot coffee, etc., free to the troops. They obtain, particularly 
the Y.M.C.A., Canadian made goods, which appeal especially 
to the men. A percentage of the profits is given to the Units, 
which is used to buy vegetables, etc., supplementary to the 
regular ration. 

Each Division and Corps Troops have a Canteen Officer, 
and each have a large wholesale canteen. In the centre of the 
Army Area the E.F.C. establish a distributing house. Divisions 
and Corps Troops, on a proportionate basis according to their 
ration strength, draw once a week. It is then arranged for 
lower formations to draw from the Divisional or Corps Troops 
Canteen, also according to strength. In this way everyone 
is fairly served. 

The provision of canteen supplies is very good, and, unless 
prevented by traffic conditions, a good variety arrives regularly 
from the Base. 

22. Year 1918.— The history of the work of " Q " Branch 
of the Corps cannot be separated from that of the other branches ; 
that is, of the Corps as a whole. " Q" Branch moved with 
Corps Headquarters, and was simply engaged upon the large 
and varied administrative arrangements necessitated by the 
operations in hand at the time. The history of the Corps for 
1918 covers the accomplishments of " Q " Branch under the 
various headings and functions already enumerated and 
described. 



328 

The fa s 3 s the supply of ammv. :he 

amounts expended, and the daily : tes Lie incor- 

:ed in the monthly war diary, which h ot to the 

md no further records or duplic; 1st in 

J "" Branch at present. 

The only change in the staff of Branch during I 

is in the appointment of P.A.O.M.G. Major R 
Thackery. M.C. » s Led on September 21, 191$. by 

r B. W. Browne, M.C. 

The work of " " Branch seeni^ 
on the circur :he moment tc attempt .1 history 

here. 



Corps Administration 329 

APPENDIX A. 

HEADQUARTERS, CANADIAN CORPS 

Nov. 11, 1918. 

Canadian Corps, 

March 4, 1919. 

Commander : — Lt.-Gen. Sir A. W. Currie, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 
A.D.C. to Commander : — Major H Willis O'Connor, 

2nd Canadian Battalion. 
A.D.C. to Commander : — Capt. Hon. W. J. Shaughnessy, 

Quebec Regiment. 
A.D.C. to Commander : — Lt. A. W. Gordon, M.C., 1st 

Auckland Battalion. 

G.S. Branch. 

B.G.G.S.:— Bt. Lt.-Col. (Temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. J. F., Hayter, 

C.M.G., D.S.O., Cheshire Regiment. 
G.S.O. 1 :— Major (T/Lt.-Col.) M. C. Festing, D.S.O., 

R.M.L.I. 
G.S.O. 2 :— Lt.-Col. J. M. Prower, D.S.O., Manitoba 

Regiment. 
G.S.O. 2 :— Major H.R.H. Prince A. F. P. A. of Connaught, 

K.G., K.T., G.C.V.O., C.B., 2nd Dragoons. 
G.S.O. 2 : — Lt.-Col. A. A. Magee, 1st Quebec Regiment 

(Acting). 
G.S.O. 3 :— Temp. Lt. (T/Capt.) F. M. Bressey, M.C., 

16th Canadian Battalion. 

A. and Q. Branch. 

D.A. and Q.M.G. :— Bt.-Col. (Temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. J. 

Farmar, C.B., C.M.G., Worcester Regiment, p.s.c. 
A.Q.M.G. :— Bt. Lt.-Col. W. B. Anderson, D.S.O., R.C.E., 

p.s.c. 
D.A.A.G. : — Major W. Bovey, 42nd Canadian Battalion. 
D.A.Q.M.G. :— Major B. W. Browne, M.C., 16th Canadian 

Battalion. 

Administration Services and Departments. 

Chief Signal Officer : — Lt.-Col. E. Forde, D.S.O., 

Canadian Engineers. 
D.A.D. Roads :— Temp. 2nd Lt. (Temp. Major) L. D 

Lewis, Royal Engineers. 



330 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Labour Commandant : — Major (T/Col.) A. W. R. Wilby, 

7th Canadian Battalion. 
Assistant to Labour Commandant : — Capt. F. Y. 

Harcourt, 1st Canadian Infantry Workers' Battalion. 
D.D.M.S. :— Col. A. E. Snell, C.M.G., D.S.O., Canadian 

Army Medical Corps. 
D.A.D.M.S. : — Major R. M. Gorssline, Canadian Army 

Medical Corps. 
A.D.O.S. :— Lt.-Col. H. R. V. Count de Bury and de 

Bocarme, Canadian Corps Ordnance. 
D.A.D.O.S. :— Capt. W. G. Hale. 
A.D.V.S. :— Lt.-Col. A. B. Cutcliffe, D.S.O., Canadian 

Army Veterinary Corps. 
D.A.D.R.P.S. : — Capt. F. A. Warner, Canadian Postal Corps. 
Field Cashier : — Lt.-Col. S. R. Heakes, O.B.E., Canadian 

Army Pay Corps. 

Special Appointments. 

A.P.M. :— Major F. Gilman, D.S.O., Royal Canadian 

Dragoons. 
Camp Commandant : — Lt.-Col. A. McMillan, D.S.O., Royal 

Canadian Dragoons. 
Assistant Camp Commandant : — Capt. A. L. Brick, 

10th Canadian Battalion. 
Staff Captain : — Temp. Capt. S. A. Vernon, M.C., 47th 

Canadian Battalion. 

Headquarters, Artillery of the Corps. 

Commander :— Maj.-Gen. E. W. B. Morrison, C.B., C.M.G. 

D.S.O., Canadian Artillery. 
G.S.O. 2 :— Major D. A. White, D.S.O., Royal Field 

Artillery. 
Staff Captain : — Capt. H. D. Fripp, Canadian Field 

Artillery. 
S.O. for Reconnaissance : — Lt. W. M. Taylor, Canadian 

Field Artillery. 
Lt.-Col. R.A. attached for Counter Battery Work : — 

Major H. D. G. Crerar. 

Headquarters, Corps Heavy Artillery. 

Commander : — Lt.-Col. (Temp. Brig. -Gen.) A. G. L. 

McNaughton, D.S.O., Canadian Artillery. 
Brigade Major :— Major N. W. Aitken, D.S.O., M.C., 

Canadian Artillery. 
Staff Captain : — Capt. L. P. Napier. 



Corps Administration, 331 

Attached. 

C.E. :— Brig.-Gen. W. B. Lindsay, C.M.G., D.S.O., Canadian 

Engineers. 
S.O. to C.E. :— Major F. O. Hodgins, D.S.O., Canadian 

Engineers. 
Staff Captain : — Lt. (Temp. Capt.) A. T. McLean, 

Canadian Engineers. 
Staff Captain : — Lt. (Temp. Capt.) E. C. G. Chambers, 

M.C., Canadian Engineers. 
C.R.E. Corps Troops : — Lt.-Col. J. Houliston, C.M.G., 

Canadian Engineers. 
Adjutant to C.R.E. Corps Troops : — Capt. D. C. U. 

Simpson. 



Canadian Corps. 
Q.9/37. 

Feb. 26, 1919. 

APPENDIX B. 
ORDER OF BATTLE. 

Nov. 11, 1918. 

Headquarters, Canadian Corps. 

1st Canadian Division. 

2nd Canadian Division. 

3rd Canadian Division. 

4th Canadian Division. 

5th Canadian Divisional Artillery. 

8th Army Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery. 

Various Attached Units. 

Canadian Light Horse. 

Royal North West Mounted Police. 

Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery. 

Canadian Cyclist Battalion. 

1st and 2nd Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigades. 

Canadian Corps Signal Company. 

Canadian Works Group. 

Canadian Corps M.T. Column. 

Canadian Corps Siege Park. 

Nos. 81, 82 and 83 (Canadian) Ordnance Mobile 

Workshops. 
5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th Canadian Area Employment 

Companies. 



332 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



Canadian Corps. 

Q.9/37. 
March 1, 1919. 



APPENDIX C. 



DISTRIBUTION OF DUTIES-CANADIAN CORPS "Q." 



A.Q.M.G. 

Ammunition. 

Arrival of Units. 

Billeting. 

Fuel. 

Grenades, Bombs, etc. 

Hutting. 

Movements. 

Movements by Rail. 

Notification of Moves. 

Organisation. 

Publication of Orders. 

Railheads. 

Railways and Tramways. 

Registry. 

Requisitioning. 

Road Control. 

Supplies. 

Water Supply. 



D.A.Q.M.G. 

Accidents (to vehicles or in- 
habitants). 

Accounts. 

Allowances. 

Baths and Laundries. 

Canteens. 

Captured Stores and Equip- 
ment. 

Claims — Inhabitants . 

Claims — Loss of Kit, etc. 

Cookery. 

Courts of Enquiry. 

Fires. 

Gifts and Comforts. 

Hire of Land and Buildings. 

Postal Services. 

Remounts. 

Returns. 

Salvage. 

Stores, Clothing, Equipment. 

Stationery. 

Transport. 

Veterinary Services. 

War Diary. 

Water Patrols, etc. 






333 



Proposed Re-Organisation of the 
Canadian Corps. 

Owing to the shortage of available reinforcements at the 
beginning of 1918, the War Office was confronted with the alterna- 
tive of either reducing the number of Imperial Divisions in the 
field or of cutting down the number of men in each Division. 
They decided on the latter course and accomplished it by reducing 
their Infantry Brigades from four to three Battalions. With 
the personnel of the Battalion thus set free, they brought up the 
remaining three Battalions in each Brigade to full strength. 

A suggestion for a similar re-organisation of the Canadian 
Divisions was communicated to the Minister by a letter dated 
Janaury 11, 1918, from the War Office to Canadian Headquarters, 
intimating that the Army Council (Imperial) would be glad to 
know whether the Canadian Military Authorities were prepared 
to expand the Canadian Corps in accordance with the Imperial 
scheme, and indicating that they would welcome the adoption 
of such an arrangement. 

The Canadian Corps consisted of four Divisions, each con- 
taining three Brigades of four Battalions. The adoption of the 
I Imperial system would have involved the creation of two Corps 

out of the existing Corps. This would have been accomplished 
!by cutting down the strength of each of the four Divisions to 
; nine Battalions instead of twelve, thus releasing twelve Battalions, 
! which, with the addition of six new Battalions from the 5th 

Division, at that time in England, would have given the material 

for six Divisions on the Imperial scale of nine Battalions each. 

Furthermore, it would have involved the creation of six new 
i Brigade Staffs, two new Divisional Staffs, one additional Corps 
i Staff, and possibly something in the nature of an Army Staff to 

direct the two Corps, all of which would have entailed increased 
i expense, and a heavy strain on the available supply of trained 

Staff Officers. 

The proposals of the Army Council received the most careful 
.consideration, but after a consultation with the Corps Com- 
mander and with the Chief of the General Staff, the Minister 
came to the conclusion that nothing would be gained by 
adopting the proposed re-organisation. It was felt that the 
conditions necessitating the change in Imperial formations 



334 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

did not exist with regard to the Canadian Forces. In their 
case the supply of reinforcements was assured, and the effect 
of the proposed change would not have been, as in the case 
of the Imperial Forces, merely to maintain the status quo, but 
to increase the number of Canadian formations in the field, 
and the number of troops required to maintain them at full 
strength. 

The Canadian Corps in the existing formation had proved 
itself a smooth-running machine of tremendous striking power, 
and any radical alteration in its constitution might have resulted 
in a reduction of such power without any compensating 
advantages. 

At a time of national crisis, such as that in the spring of 
1918, it would not have been permissible to allow sentiment 
to stand in the way of any change likely to further the common 
cause. Every soldier would have been prepared to sacrifice the 
pride which he had in his particular Brigade and in the Corps 
as a whole. At the same time it should be a matter of deep 
gratification to all Canadians that, for practical reasons, it was 
possible to avert what, from a sentimental point of view, 
would have almost amounted to a national calamity, namely, 
the breaking up of a Corps, which as such, had gained a unique 
position among the armies on the Western Front. 



335 



Canadian Cavalry Brigade. 

RECORD OF THE MOUNTED CORPS WHICH FOUGHT 
WITH DISTINCTION AND SUCCESS. 

The history of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, as such, dates 
from December, 1914. At the time of its formation it was 
placed under the command of Major-General, then Brigadier- 
General, J. E. B. Seely, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.P. (formerly 
Secretary of State for War in Mr. Asquith's Government) 
and now Under-Secretary of State for Air in the Imperial 
administration. General Seely remained in command until 
May 20, 1918, when he was succeeded by the present 
Commander, Brigadier-General R. W. Paterson, D.S.O., of the 
Fort Garry Horse. 

The Brigade originally consisted of the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons, Lord Strathcona's Horse, King Edward's Horse (an 
Imperial unit), and the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. In 
January, 1916, the King Edward's Horse left the Canadian 
Brigade to return to the Imperial Cavalry, and its place was 
taken by the Fort Garry Horse, which, since December, 1914, 
had been known as the Canadian Reserve Cavalry Regiment. 

The units of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade are now the 
Royal Canadian Dragoons, Lord Strathcona's Horse, Fort Garry 
Horse, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, Machine Gun Squadron, 
Canadian Cavalry Field Ambulance and the Mobile Veterinary 
Section. All units of the Brigade formed part of the 1st Canadian 
Contingent, which arrived in England in October, 1914. The 
Fort Garry Horse was then a dismounted unit known as the 
6th Battalion, Fort Garrys, and was for a short time a Battalion 
in the 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade on Salisbury Plain. 
The other Cavalry Regiments of the Cavalry Brigade were 
attached as independent units to the First Canadian Division. 

The Brigade left for France as a Dismounted Force at the 
latter end of April, 1915, a few days after the commencement of 
the Second Battle of Ypres, in which the First Canadian Division 
played such a distinguished part. The Brigade arrived in 
France on May 4, and almost immediately afterwards played 
a prominent part in the fighting at Festubert, later serving in 
the trenches as Infantry in the Givenchy Sector. 



336 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In July, 1915, the Brigade left the Givenchy and Festubert 
sectors and went into the line at Messines, where it continued to 
serve as a dismounted force until the end of January, 1916. 
On the 16th of the following month the Brigade was reconstituted 
as a Cavalry Force and attached to the First Indian Cavalry 
Division, later to the Second Indian Cavalry Division, then to 
the 3rd British Division, and afterwards to the Fifth Cavalry 
Division (formerly Second Indian), replacing the famous Meerut 
Brigade which was sent East. These transfers took place 
between February and June, 1916, and in those months a 
thorough course of training was undergone to prepare the 
newly reconstructed Brigade for the expected operations on 
the Somme. 

On the Somme. — The first movement of the Brigade as a 
mounted force in the Battle Zone was in the latter part of June, 

1916, when it was detailed as the advance guard of the Fifth 
Cavalry Division in the operations south of Albert, on the 
Somme, which began in real earnest, so far as all arms of the 
service were concerned, on July 1. Since that first appearance 
as mounted troops the Canadian Cavalry Brigade has earned 
for itself an honourable record as a righting force in the various 
actions in which it has taken part in different parts of France 
and Flanders. It played a conspicuous part in the German 
retirement in the Somme area, which took place in the early 
part of 1917, and in the fighting at Saulcourt-Guyancourt. 
It was here that Lieutenant F. M. W. Harvey, of Lord Strath- 
cona's Horse, won the Victoria Cross for rushing a machine gun 
post and capturing it, with the result that many of the lives 
under his command were saved. 

In the attack of the Third British Army on Cambrai, the 
Brigade at the opening stages of the attack on November 20, 

1917, and later, on the morning of November 30, when the 
German counter-attack was delivered with tremendous force, 
rendered gallant aid to the infantry. The dashing and intrepid 
feat of Major H. Strachan, of the Fort Garry Horse, in the 
neighbourhood of Masnieres (Cambrai), earned for him the 
Victoria Cross. 

In March, 1918, when the Germans launched an Offensive 
which necessitated the withdrawal of the Allied line towards 
Amiens, the work done by the Brigade stands out as one of the 
most brilliant episodes of the war. General Rawlinson, com- 
manding the Fourth British Army, told the Brigade that it had 
contributed very largely in preventing what, at times, had the 











&, 



Cavalry Brigade. 337 

aspect of developing into a very serious disaster, and that their 
work at Moreuil and Rifle Woods had undoubtedly saved 
Amiens. 

At Amiens. — At the battle of Amiens on August 8 the 
Brigade went into action and cleared the way to a large extent 
for the Canadian Infantry to advance. Their entry into the 
attack on a front of over three miles, formed up in waves that 
measured about a thousand yards in depth, afforded one of 
the most picturesque and thrilling sights of the war. The dash 
and courage displayed by the three regiments and the Royal 
Canadian Horse Artillery is acknowledged by the chief military 
authorities who directed the battle to have been a big factor 
in the unqualified success of that famous battle. 

On July 14, 1916, the Brigade was detailed to act as an 
advance guard and went into action in the neighbourhood of 
Bazentin-le-Grand, one squadron of the Fort Garry Horse 
reaching Caterpillar Valley, and another squadron of the same 
regiment, with the Secunderabad Brigade, went through the 
Infantry line and reached High Wood, an advanced position 
that was held by them until the next morning, when the Infantry 
came up and consolidated the occupation. 

During the latter part of July, the whole of August, and the 
first two weeks in September of 1916 the Brigade was once more 
employed as Infantry in the line and in the construction of 
roads, railway lines, trenches, etc., in order to lend every possible 
support to the operations being carried out by the Infantry. 

It was about September 15 this year that an entirely new 
weapon in modern warfare appeared on the battlefield — the 
Tank. The Tanks made their debut in the vicinity of Delleville 
Wood, and the Brigade was ordered to send patrols forward to 
reconnoitre and obtain information of the ground and situation 
ahead that would be useful to the Tanks. The main body of the 
Brigade was not called on to take part in the fighting, but, after 
the first advance by the Infantry, turned to and built a tramway 
track through a trench system to enable supplies to be taken 
forward. 

During the autumn and winter of 1916 the horses of the 
Brigade were left in the back areas with a few men to look 
after them, and the remainder of the personnel of the Brigade 
went into the line again in the Somme sector and did duty 
in the trenches with various units and formations. 

Word was received on March 10, 1917, that the Germans 
were in full retreat in the neighbourhood of Peronne. The 
(642) z 



338 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Canadian Cavahy Brigade moved after them on March 23. 
Peronne was reached on the following day in bitterly cold 
weather and the whole Brigade went into action on a 12-mile 
front. 

There were important engagements at Ytres, Bois de 
Vallulart, Etricourt Station, Equancourt, Longavesnes, Liera- 
mont, Guyancourt, and Saulcourt, during March 24, 25, 26, 27, 
and 28, in which all regiments and the R.C.H.A. Brigade took 
part with such dash and determination that the enemy was 
driven back to the Hindenburg line. 

This achievement was accomplished in the face of many 
difficulties, such as atrocious weather and the lack of water for 
men and horses ; for the enemy in his retreat had fouled prac- 
tically all wells and ponds in the neighbourhood. The 
casualties in the Brigade during the fighting were not excessive, 
while heavy losses were inflicted on the enemy. 

An interesting fact in connection with this fighting is that 
it was the first to take place in open country for over two years, 
and the taking of the village of Ytres by the Fort Garry Horse 
marked the capture of the first village by the Cavalry on the 
Western Front since the early days of the war. 

Triumph for the Sabre. — It was during this action that it 
was discovered that the German infantry with machine guns, 
which invariably held out to the last against an Infantry attack, 
readily surrendered to the cavalry. The prisoners captured 
confessed that they were seized with a great fear when they 
saw mounted troops charging down on them with the sword. It 
established a triumph for the sabre. 

Following this the Germans succeeded in making an organised 
stand on a line running north and south-east of St. Quentin. 
Later the Brigade was sent into the trenches near St, Quentin 
as a dismounted force. 

On May 26, 1917, the Fort Garry Horse and Lord Strathcona's 
Horse carried out simultaneously two very successful raids on 
the St. Quentin front, which resulted in the capture of 40 Germans, 
two of whom were officers, and the killing of a large number of 
the garrison. 

Lord Strathcona's Horse and the Fort Garry Horse carried 
out another important raid on the night of July 9 near 
Ascension Wood. In this raid a section of the enemy's front 
line, 1,000 yards in length, was attacked and penetrated to a 
depth of 600 yards. 



Cavalry Brigade. 339 

This raid was notable for the fact that it was necessary 
for the Cavalry to cross a 2,000 yards stretch of " No Man's 
Land " before the enemy's wire was reached. Notwithstanding 
this, the operation was a great success. One officer and 35 
other ranks were taken prisoners, one machine gun was captured, 
and three were put out of action. It was later learned from 
enemy sources that an entire company had been destroyed in 
this raid, while the raiding party had one officer and one man 
killed. 

Early in November the Brigade was selected to act as an 
advance guard in the proposed attack on Cambrai. At 
midnight on November 19 the Brigade was on the move, and 
the following morning went into action. On reaching Masnieres, 
the Fort Garry Horse found that the bridge over the canal there 
had been blown up, and that the enemy was holding that part 
of the village which was on the east side of the canal. With 
the assistance of French civilians, the Commanding Officer of 
the 1st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade and two officers 
of the Fort Gany Horse, inprovised a temporary bridge from 
whatever material they found on hand. This enabled a 
squadron of the Fort Garrys to cross the canal and to proceed 
on the special mission to which it had been assigned, namely, 
to get through as rapidly as possible to the German Head- 
quarters east of Cambrai, and cut all communications on the way. 
An order was later sent forward that the Fort Garry Horse 
was not to attempt to make a crossing, but by the time this 
message got as far as the canal the Fort Garrys were some 
distance on the way to carry out the dangerous task allotted to 
them. The order reached the head of the Cavalry forces detailed 
to support the Fort Garry Horse's movement before they crossed 
the canal, and consequently they turned back. 

A Gallant Exploit. — Meantime the officer in command of the 
Fort Garry Horse Squadron, thinking that support was close 
behind him, carried on without encountering much opposition. 
Here and there an enemy battery was met and disposed of with 
the sword. By night, however, the Germans realised that they 
had only one squadron of Cavalry to deal with, and so closed in 
on it from either flank in an attempt to cut off its retreat. There- 
upon, what horses remained to the troop were stampeded and 
the officers and men fought their way back on foot bringing 
with them several prisoners. 

Ten days later the Germans delivered a counter-attack 
against the newly-captured front, and the Canadian Brigade 

(642) z 2 



340 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

was rushed into action at Vaucelette Farm, where it was known 
that there was a gap in our line. It was then largely due to 
the fine work performed by Lord Strathcona's Horse that the 
enemy was driven back as far as Villiers Guislan and touch 
established with the British Guards' Division at Gauche Wood. 
The work of the Brigade in this action won great praise from 
the higher authorities. 

Two days before Christmas, 1917, the Brigade was again 
in the trenches near St. Ouentin as Infantry, the horses being 
kept in the forward area so as to be ready for any emergency 
that might call for cavalry work. 

On the night of February 12-13, 1918, another raid was 
made by the Canadian Cavalry at Ascension Wood, in exactly 
the same place and with almost the same results as the one 
on July 9, 1917. On this occasion it was carried out by the 
Royal Canadian Dragoons, and an entire company of the Fourth 
German Foot Guards was killed and captured, the compcry 
commander being among the prisoners. In the seven months 
that had elapsed since the previous raid, the position hadj 
been re-fortified and rendered much stronger than before. 
New dug-outs had been built, and some elaborate strong points 
installed. The casualties to the raiding force were, however, 
very slight, only one man being killed. 

The Brigade was moved some distance back from the front 
line on March 5, and the Fifth Imperial Cavalry Division being 
ordered to another part of the front, the Canadian cavalrymen 
were transferred to the Third Imperial Cavalry Division. 

On March 21 the long expected German Offensive was 
launched against the British line east of Amiens. The Canadian 
Cavalry Brigade (less R.C.H.A. Brigade which was in the line 
in support of the 24th Division in front of Vermand) was at 
Athies, and by 8 a.m. of that day the Brigade was on the move 
to Beaumont. There, on arrival, orders were received to send 
as many men as possible forward, dismounted, to reinforce the 
Infantry, and a force of 800 went forward under the command of 
the Commanding Officer of Lord Strathcona's Horse. They 
rode as far as Ugny, whence they proceeded to the front line on 
foot. 

The remainder of the Brigade, known as Harman's Detach- 
ment, were there attached to the 3rd Cavalry Division, which 
was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel R. W. Paterson, now 
Brigadier-General . 



Cavalry Brigade. 341 

On the morning of March 24 the enemy was forcing the 
British line back on a section of the front. General Paterson 
pushed his force ahead to the neighbourhood of Villeselve and 
succeeded in establishing a line, but later had to withdraw as 
the Infantry on the flanks had been compelled to fall back. 

Paterson's Force. — The Canadian Mounted Detachment 
was then sent out to re-establish the line from the southern edge 
of Villeselve, and by sheer courage accomplished this most 
difficult task. Strong parties of the enem}/ tried to enter Ville- 
selve, but the volume of fire delivered by the Canadians caused 
them to retire in disorder. The cavalrymen continued to hold 
that line until the evening when they were ordered by the 
French, under whose orders they had been placed during the 
day, to take up a new line in the neighbourhood of Guiscard, 
in order to cover the withdrawal of the falling back of the Infantry 
to a new line. 

At midnight the French were holding a line near Murancomt 
and 800 officers and men from Paterson's Force were dismounted 
and ordered to support the French. A position was taken up 
between Chevilly and the near-by wood and was held until the 
French had established a fresh line close to Catigny. From 
then until March 27 Peterson's Force continued to do invaluable 
and heroic work with the French. On the 27th, the Canadian 
Cavalry Brigade detachment which had been with the Infantry 
joined the balance of the Brigade at Venette near Compiegne. 

The dismounted party had helped to check the enemy 
onrush at Mennesis, Frieres-Faillouel, Bois de Genlis, and other 
points of the British line on March 22 and 23. On the 24th 
it was at Dampcourt in reserve to the Sixth French Corps, and 
the next day occupied a line running from Mondescourt-le- 
Bretelle-Appilly, and was assigned the task of covering an 
important bridge-head in the event of a further retirement. 

The Brigade again came into action on March 28 in support 
of the French near Montdidier and at Mesnil St. Georges and 
Fontaine. The latter place was taken by Lieutenant Harvey, 
V.C., of Lord Strathcona's Horse, and he was awarded the 
French Croix de Guerre by the French general commanding the 
operations. 

It then made a forced march to Guyancourt and went into 
action at Moreuil Wood on the morning of March 30. All 
regiments were engaged in this action, which succeeded in 



342 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

driving the enemy from Moreuil Wood and stopping his advance 
in that sector, thus denying to him a vital position which would 
have given direct observation on Amiens. 

An outstanding feature of this operation was the mounted 
attack around the flank of the wood carried out by Lieutenant 
Flowerdew, of Lord Strathcona's Horse, which won him the 
V.C. Unfortunately, this brave officer died from wounds 
received in the engagement. 

Two days later, on April 1, the scene of operations for the 
Brigade was at Rifle Wood at Hourges. It had been decided to 
attack and capture the wood, a point of considerable strategical 
importance, and the 4th and 5th Imperial Cavalry Brigades and 
the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, all dismounted, were allotted the 
task. The plan called for the 4th Brigade to advance and swing 
to the left and form a flank, the 5th to seize the front edge of the 
wood, and the Canadian Brigade to go through the 5th and take 
the wood. 

There was strong opposition as the Cavalry approached the 
wood, which was defended by machine guns. The wood, 
however, was penetrated, the Fort Garry Horse taking the left 
half, Strathcona's Horse the right half, the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons being in close support. 

Hand-to-Hand Fight. — In the centre of the wood a fierce 
hand-to-hand fight ensued, in which the enemy was overcome 
and the Canadians succeeded in reaching their objective beyond 
the wood on scheduled time. They captured 121 prisoners and 
13 machine guns. 

During this time the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Brigade, 
reinforced by the two R.H.A. Batteries, fought in support of the 
24th Division through the whole retreat, and the Division 
afterwards stated that their successful fighting was largely due 
to the action of the Horse Artillery. Owing to its mobility the 
Horse Artillery were able to remain to the last moment, firing 
over open sights as the Infantry withdrew to successive positions. 

This is the bare outline of a brilliant minor operation, but 
the importance attached to it was made clear by General 
Rawlinson, commanding the Fourth British Army, when two 
days later he visited the Brigade and thanked the officers and 
men for what they had done. The General said that he had 
asked the Infantry to take Rifle Wood, but was told that it 
could not be done without fresh troops. " Although I knew 
that you were very tired and had already done more than your 



Cavalry Briga'de. 343 

share in the recent fighting," added the General, " I called upon 
you for the task, as I felt that there was no one else available 
who could do it successfully. 

" I have asked that a cable be sent to Canada informing the 
people of your splendid deeds." 

The Brigade " stood to " at Bois de Sencat until April 5, 
when it moved to near Amiens and remained there five days, 
when it was sent to Pernes in reserve to the Third Cavalry 
Division in action near Merville. 

Early in May it was moved toward Albert to be on hand if an 
attack in that district developed. From then until July 4 it 
was doing duty in the trenches, but on that date acted as special 
reserve in the attack by the Australians on Hamel and Bois de 
Vaire. 

It will be remembered that the French delivered a surprise 
attack in the Soissons sector with such force that the Germans 
(who had no doubt begun to conclude that the tide of war was 
flowing entirely in their favour and were busy carrying out 
pre-arranged plans elsewhere) were unprepared to resist. 

It was while the French were exploiting their success that the 
British forces launched a big offensive in front of Amiens on a 
20-mile front and for the first time in its career in France the 
Canadian Cavalry Brigade was detailed to assist the Canadian 
Corps. 

This attack was made on August 8, and is known as the 
Battle of Amiens. A French Corps was on the right, the 
Canadian Corps on the left of the French, the iVustralian Corps 
and a British Corps extending northwards. 

Co-operating with Tanks. — The Canadian Cavalry Brigade 
went into action at 9.15 on the morning of the attack on the 
Canadian Corps front in the neighbourhood of Ignacourt, 
captured Beaucourt, and took up a position east of that 
village astride the Amiens- Roye road. The village of Fresnoy 
was soon encircled and 125 prisoners captured. 

During the day the Brigade did valuable work in co-operation 
with the Tanks in clearing the way for the Canadian Infantry to 
advance and established occupation in Beaucourt Wood and the 
village of Beaucourt. 

On the 9th the Brigade remained in bivouac, but the following 
day was employed to seize the high ground north and west of 



344 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Rc>3'e in order to relieve the difficulties the infantry were meeting 
at Parvillers, and captured the village of Andechy for the 
French. 

The Brigade did not go into action again until October 9. 
Then it was ordered to advance from the vicinity of Maretz and 
seize the high ground north-west of Le Cateau. When darkness 
came this ground had been taken, and patrols pushed into Le 
Cateau, Montay, Neuvilly-Inchy. 

The Brigade's operations on that day extended on a front 
three miles wide and eight miles deep, yielded over 400 prisoners, 
several Artillery pieces and 100 machine guns, drove the enemy 
from six villages inhabited by French civilians and cleared the 
way for the Infantry to advance and consolidate the new 
territory. This was the Brigade's last action before the 
Armistice came into effect on November 11, although they 
were in pursuit of the enemy east of Ath on that date. 

The personnel of the Brigade has had 82 mentions in despatches 
and been awarded 394 honours and decorations, including 
three Victoria Crosses. Two of the recipients of this decoration 
are living, namely, Major H. Strachan, of the Fort Garry Horse, 
and Lieutenant F. M. W. Harvey, Lord Strathcona's Horse. The 
other recipient was Lieutenant Gordon M. Flowerdew, of the 
Strathconas, who was killed in action. The Brigade also has. 
the distinction of having been mentioned by name in despatches 
for five different engagements. 

This narrative gives but a brief outline of the outstanding 
achievements of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade in the war, but 
it is sufficient to show that the Canadian Cavalry has fought 
with much distinction and success. 

The total strength of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade in France 
on November 11, 1918, was — 

Officers 141 

Other Ranks 2,719 



Total 2,860 

The total strength of the Canadian Cavalry Forces in 
England on November 11, 1918, was — 

Officers . . . . . . . . . . 37 

Other Ranks 1,120 

Total 1 157 



345 



Canadians in the Royal Air Force. 

As the Canadian Corps has made history on land, so have 
Canadians gained renown in the air. While, until recently, 
there has been no distinct Canadian Air Force, yet from the 
very commencement of the war Canada has contributed in 
large measure to the personnel of the British Flying Forces. 
More particularly has this applied to the supply of officers, both 
pilots and observers, and it will, no doubt, be a matter of surprise 
to many to hear that over 8,000 Canadians have held commissions 
in the Air Forces. When it is remembered that the Air Forces 
are peculiar, in that the burden of the fighting and the danger 
falls almost entirely on the officers, it will be realised that this 
is a record of which Canada can well be proud. By nature 
Canadians seemed to be especially endowed with the faculties 
and temperament necessary to success in the air, because in 
it they undoubtedly found themselves in a congenial element, 
and went forward from success to success, till the names of our 
foremost fighters have become household words. This success 
has been attributed to the conditions under which the average 
Canadian has been brought up. His life, or at least a part of 
it, has been spent in the open, on the lakes and rivers of the east, 
in the mountains of British Columbia, or on the prairies of the 
west. He has lived under conditions which trained mind # and 
muscle to act quickly and decisively, and this training stood 
him in good stead in the air. Perhaps it was that, during his 
earlier boyhood, he had been accustomed to wide spaces and 
biad thus unconsciously been prepared for the vastness of the 
sky. Whatever the cause, the Flying Service appealed strongly 
to the individualistic character of the Canadian, and in that 
Service he was an outstanding success. 

It is difficult to ascertain the number of Canadians who have 
been in the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Naval Air Service, 
and later the Royal Air Force, at any given date, for the reason 
that they have entered these Services through so many different 
channels. 

They have, however, entered through three main channels. 
First, officers were seconded to the Air Forces from the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada. These officers still remained Canadian 
officers, although so seconded, and were liable to recall, if necessary. 
Second, non-commissioned officers and men were discharged 



346 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

from the Overseas Military Forces of Canada for the purpose 
of entering the Royal Air Force. This they did in large numbers, 
receiving commissioned rank in it as soon as they qualified. 
Third, a very large number of cadets were enlisted by the 
Imperial Authorities in Canada. At no period were these latter 
under the direction of the Overseas administration, but were 
in the same position as if they had enlisted in England. 

The following statement shows the numbers of Canadians 
who have entered the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Naval 
Air Service, or the Royal Air Force in the manner indicated : — 

1. Officers seconded or attached to the 
R.F.C., R.N.A.S., and R.A.F. up to 
December 31, 1918 1,239 

2. Other ranks of the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada transferred to the above 

from June 1, 1916 to December, 31, 1918 2,721 

3. Cadets enlisted in Canada by the 
Imperial Authorities and despatched 

to the above Services . . . . . . 4,280 



Total 8 240 



In addition to the above a number of other ranks, who subse- 
quently received commissioned rank, were transferred to the 
Royal Air Force prior to June 1, 1916, but the exact figures are 
not known. Also a certain number of Canadians came over at 
their own expense to England and joined the Flying Services, 
while a certain number who came over to join British Regiments 
have also subsequently transferred to the Royal Air Force. 

At the date of the Armistice there was a large number of 
cadets in course of training in Canada who, as a consequence 
of the Armistice, did not come Overseas. There were also a 
very considerable number of other ranks employed in Canada 
by the Royal Air Force, and although it is impossible to give 
exact figures, there have been in the Air Force probably well 
over 13,000 Canadians of all ranks. 

Those mentioned in the first category of the above statement 
have been issued with pay from Canadian funds ; those mentioned 
in categories two and three are paid by the Imperial Authorities. 
There have also been a number of Canadians who have served in 
the ranks in the Air Forces in England and France, amounting to 
approximately 350. 




c 

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Hi 



Canadians in the Royal Air Force. 347 

Although the Royal Air Force was entirely under the direction 
of the Imperial Authorities, yet, in view of the large percentage 
of Canadians included in its personnel, it was felt by the Minister 
that it was proper that some action should be taken to recognise 
their Canadian identity, and to ensure that a record of Canadians 
in the Royal Air Force and of their exploits should be kept. 

Accordingly negotiations were entered into with the Secretary 
of State for the Air as a result of which the following arrangement 
was come to : — 

1. The Royal Air Force agreed to furnish the Minister 
with a Nominal Roll of Canadians in the Royal Air Force, 
and to advise him from time to time of all accretions 
to and deductions from it. 

2. All Canadians in the Royal Air Force were to be per- 
mitted to wear a Canadian badge either on their shoulder 
straps or on their sleeve. 

3. It was agreed to give Canadians representation on the 
Royal Air Force Headquarters and Staff. 

4. A monthly statement of the exploits of Canadian 
Airmen was to be furnished to the Minister, with a 
view to its dissemination to the Canadian public. 

5. It was agreed in principle that Canada should have a 
Flying Corps of her own, which, while distinct in its 
organisation and administration, would form part of 
the Royal Air Force for the purpose of operations in 
the Field. 

As a result of the above the position of Canadians in the Royal 
Air Force was put on a basis more satisfactory to the Canadian 
public, as well as to the officers themselves. It will be observed 
that the question of forming a separate Canadian Air Force 
was taken up at this time, and certain proposals agreed to. 
The Section succeeding this deals with that subject. 



349 



Canadian Air Force. 

In 1918 the question of forming a Canadian Air Force, 
distinct from the Royal Air Force, occupied the attention and 
received the careful consideration of the Minister. Previous 
to this year, for various reasons, it had not been considered in 
.the best interests of Canada or the Empire as a whole to enter 
on a separate programme in this connection. As the war 
proceeded, and as it became apparent that a Flying Corps would 
be an essential and important part of any Canadian post-bellum 
military organisation, as well as likely to have a considerable 
influence on the development of commercial aeronautics in 
Canada after the war, it was resolved to take such steps as were 
necessary to provide Canada with, at least, a nucleus of such an 
organisation. It was fully realised that any such Force must 
of necessity be confined within small dimensions, because any 
attempt to withdraw Canadian personnel from the Royal Air 
Force in large numbers would have had a most prejudicial effect 
on the efficiency of that Force. Further, the expenditure 
involved in the maintenance of a large Air Force would have 
been very great. 

As mentioned in the last Section, this matter had been the 
subject of discussion between the Minister and the Secretary of 
State for the Royal Air Force in the early part of 1918, and it 
had been agreed in principle between them that Canada should 
have a Flying Corps of her own. This was immediately followed 
up by further negotiations, and a memorandum setting out 
tentative arrangements for the organisation of a Canadian Air 
Force was drawn up between the Minister and the Secretary 
of State for the Royal Air Force, and definitely settled July 8, 
1918. This memorandum was later embodied as part of the 
Order in Council which, subsequently, confirmed the agreement. 

The provisions of the Order in Council were substantially 
as follows : — 

(a) That authority be granted for the formation of a 
Canadian Air Force and of Service Units of such Air 
Force in accordance with the terms of the memorandum 
marked "A," which memorandum had been approved 
by the Secretary of State of the Royal Air Force. 



350 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(b) That further Service Units of said Canadian Air Force 
be formed from time to time as and when the same 
might be approved by the Minister of Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada and the Secretary of State for the 
Royal i\ir Force. 

(c) That the Canadian Air Force form a part of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada and be subject to the pro- 
visions of the Militia Act of Canada. 

(d) That the Canadian Air Force be under the same 
establishment as may from time to time obtain in the 
Royal Air Force. 

(c) That the Minister of Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
be empowered from time to time to take any and all 
action that he might deem necessary for the formation, 
extension, organisation, and administration of the 
Canadian Air Force. 

Provisions of Memorandum. — The memorandum referred to 
provided inter alia — 

1. That the formation of two Canadian Air Squadrons 
should be proceeded with forthwith. 

2. That these Squadrons should be organised in England 
by the Overseas Military Forces of Canada in conjunction with 
the Royal Air Force. 

3. That the type of Unit and equipment should be decided 
by the Air Council. 

4. That the personnel of the Squadrons should be drawn 
as follows : — 

{a) Officers. From officers of the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada who are seconded to the Royal Air Force 
and who were recommended by the Air Council ; and 
from officers of the Royal Air Force who were Canadian 
citizens and who are available and recommended for 
release by the Air Council, such released officers to be 
replaced at once by Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

{b) Other Ranks. By the transfer of other ranks of the 
Royal Air Force who were Canadian citizens and who 
can be released by the Air Council ; and by enlistment, 
or transfer from other Canadian Services of men with 
suitable qualifications. 



Canadian Air Force. 351 

5. That the Canadian Government should assume responsi- 
bility for assisting in the formation of the Squadrons by the 
provision of necessary personnel and for the pay and allowances 
of such personnel, as well as for the supply and reinforcements 
for Service Squadrons. 

6. That the Air Council (Imperial) should assume the 
responsibility for the command and administration of the 
Canadian personnel when in a theatre of war or under training 
in Great Britain, and for the provision, maintenance, and replacing 
in all cases of machines, tools, technical equipment and supplies 
necessary to maintain the said Forces ; further, it was to be 
responsible for the necessary training facilities. 

Organisation. — In accordance with the above a Canadian 
Air Force Section of the Canadian General Staff was created 
for the purpose of carrying out the organisation of the Squadrons. 
Steps were taken to procure the necessary personnel in accordance 
with the provisions of the memorandum, and a selection of 
officers was made, representative of the best traditions of 
Canadian aerial righting. The other ranks were selected from 
Units of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, special attention 
in the selection being paid to their civil occupation, so that the 
men most suited to mechanical work might be obtained. The 
types of Squadrons decided upon were a single-seater Scout 
Squadron and a day Bombing Squadron. These were organised 
in England, and when organised went into quarters at Upper 
Heyford, near Oxford. It was, of course, intended that these 
Squadrons should be trained and sent to France to take their 
place in the field as fighting Units. 

Training. — Their training proceeded along the lines necessary 
to prepare them for that purpose, but as a result of the signing 
of the Armistice they were not required in France and their 
training was then specially directed to fit them for post-war 
flying, and to giving them instruction, in other branches of 
aeronautics likely to prove beneficial to Canada in the future. 
Special attention was paid to wireless training, photographic 
training, aerial geographical training and cross-country flying. 
In addition, steps were taken to complete the organisation of 
the Canadian Air Force so that, though small, it might provide 
a fully-developed organisation on which might be based any 
future organisation in Canada. 



352 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

To effect this the following establishment has been authorised : 

i. A Director of Air Service, who will be the Officer Com- 
manding the Canadian Air Force and will advise the 
General Staff on matters relating to it. He will have 
to assist him in his duties a Staff Captain, and a Staff 
Lieutenant along with four other ranks. 

ii. A Wing Headquarters consisting of a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, who will have command of the two Squadrons, 
and who will have to assist him in his duties a Captain 
for administration, a Captain for technical duties, and 
a Lieutenant for armament along with five other ranks. 

iii. No. 1 Squadron (a Scout Squadron) consisting of IB 
aeroplanes commanded by a Major with three Captains, 
Flight Commanders, and 18 Flying Officers of the rank 
of Lieutenant. In addition, one administrative and 
one technical Lieutenant are provided for. The other 
ranks for this Squadron total 159. 

iv. No. 2 Squadron (a Day Bombing Squadron) consisting 
of 18 aeroplanes with one Major Commanding, three 
Captains, Flight Commanders, 18 Flying Officers with 
three additional officers and 160 other ranks. 

v. A Technical and Supply Branch consisting of a Head- 
quarters, Technical Branch and a Supply Depot. The 
work of this Branch is described in part in the Section 
which follows — the Bureau of Aeronautical Information 
established in the summer of 1918 having been absorbed 
into this Branch. 

Present Equipment. — The following equipment has been 
secured without charge for the Canadian Air Force in the manner 
indicated. 

Aeroplanes. — 

Presented by the Imperial Air Fleet Com- 
mittee . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Presented by the Overseas Club and Patriotic 

League . . . . . . . . . . 16 

German aeroplanes in serviceable condition 

allotted by the Air Ministry . . . . 40 

In addition 50 Curtis machines have been presented to the 
Canadian Government by the Imperial Munitions Board, giving 
altogether a total of 109 machines available for the Canadian 
Air Force when it returns to Canada. 



Canadian Air' Force. 353 

Bureau of Aeronautical Information (now absorbed in Technical 

and Supply Branch of Canadian Air Force). 

In the summer of 1918 a small section was formed known as 
the Canadian Bureau of Aeronautical Information. It is now 
absorbed m the Technical and Supply Branch of the Canadian 
Air Force. Its object was and is to collect all available technical 
information regarding the development of aeronautics during 
the war, both from Allied sources, and where possible from enemy 
sources. 

It was seen that there was a large amount of valuable informa- 
tion on this subject, which could be collected during the progress 
of the war, but which would not be so easily obtained once peace 
had been signed and the aerial forces of the allies completely 
demobilised. The work done consists of the collection and filing 
for future reference of drawings, plans, specifications, and all 
other technical information and data regarding aeroplanes, 
engines, accessories, and aircraft equipment in general. This 
information should be invaluable to Canada after the war, not 
merely from a military point of view, but for the purpose of the 
aeronautical development generally, which will, without doubt, 
become a matter of great importance in the future. 

To achieve the objects of the Bureau, it entered into arrange- 
ments with the Air Ministry whereby its representatives are 
allowed free access to the Technical Departments concerned, in 
order to make known its requirements, and to obtain any docu- 
ments, publications, drawings, etc., which may be considered of 
value. In addition, a few officers have been sent on missions 
to France and Italy, to gather as complete information as possible 
regarding aeronautics in these countries. Plans are on foot for 
the purpose of coming to an arrangement with the Air Ministry 
under which future aeronautical students from Canada may 
receive their final training as aeronautical engineers at the leading 
aeronautical establishments in the United Kingdom. 



(642) A A 



354 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 




355 



Canadian Railway Troops. 

The story of the Canadian Railway Troops is one of the 
romances of the war recording how one Battalion of Canadian 
Railwaymen grew into a Corps of nearly 16,000 strong, which 
from the Spring of 1917, took a major part in the construction 
and maintenance of railways of all gauges to within easy reach 
of the Front Line. After the Battle of the Somme, it was clearly 
proven that road and animal transport could not alone bring 
forward in the fighting zone over shell-torn terrain, the weight 
of war material (as much as 2,000 tons per mile of active front 
per day) required to stage a modern battle. 

In the early stages of the War, the French General Staff 
assumed the entire responsibility for the maintenance and 
construction of railways, in the zone of the British Armies on 
the Western Front. Though six Imperial Royal Engineer 
Railway Construction Companies were sent to France in 1914, 
they were not permitted by the French to do any, or scarcely 
any, work until it was recognized that the duration of the War 
would be indefinitely prolonged, and the French Government 
would be unable to furnish either sufficient Railway Construc- 
tion personnel or material. 

In 1914, some well known Canadian railway contractors 
requested the Department of Militia and Defence to be allowed 
to raise a Railway Construction Unit, but for reasons outlined 
in the preceding paragraph, this proposal was not approved. 

However, in the Spring of 1915, the War Office requested 
the Canadian Government to send over two Railway Construc- 
tion Companies. These, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
undertook to organize at the request of the Department of 
Militia and Defence with the result that the Canadian Overseas 
Railway Construction Corps proceeded to France in August, 
1915. 

This Unit was made up of 500 picked men from the construc- 
tion forces of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Each man before 
enlisting was required to pass a test as to his technical ability 
before he joined the unit which was the pioneer Canadian 
Railway Construction Unit in France. 

(642) AA2 



356 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

After personal representations had been made to several 
Departments of the War Office, it was finally decided in May, 
1916, to ask the Dominion to furnish another Unit of approxi- 
mately 1,000 strong for railway construction work on the 
Western Front. 

Reorganized Transport Service. — The organization of this 
Battalion fell to Major-General J. W. Stewart, C.B., C.M.G. 
(then Lieutenant-Colonel), who gathered recruits from among 
the experienced railway workers of every Province in the 
Dominion. It was known as the 239th Overseas Railway 
Construction Corps, but before it could sail, General Stewart 
was called to England, at the request of the War Office, to assist 
in the general organization of better transport facilities on the 
Western Front. 

As outlined above, after the commencement of the Battle 
of the Somme, it was decided by the Imperial General Staff 
to make greater use of railways, and more especially of light 
railways in forward areas as used by both the French and 
Germans. To accomplish this, Sir Eric Geddes was appointed 
Director-General of Transportation, with practically pleni- 
potentiary powers to re-organize all the transportation services 
on the British Western Front. 

As during recent years more new railways have been built 
in Canada than in any part of the British Empire, Sir Eric 
Geddes naturally looked to Canada for a man to supervise and 
direct the construction of railways. 

It was agreed that Canada should furnish five Battalions of 
construction men to be known as the Canadian Railway Troops, 
and that Major-General (then Lieutenant-Colonel) Stewart 
should proceed to France immediately to act as Deputy Director 
of Light Railways as well as being in immediate command of 
the Canadian Railway Construction Battalions on their arrival 
in France. Colonel, then Lieutenant-Colonel, Angus McDonnell/ 
C.M.G. , was delegated to remain in England to organize the 
units and to follow Major-General Stewart as Second in 
Command on the completion of the organization. 

On Jan. 1, 1917, Major-General Stewart (then Brigadier- 
General) was appointed Deputy Director General Transporta- 
tion (Construction) and made directly responsible to the 
Director General of Transportation for all railway construction, 
the maintenance and provision of necessary material, thus 
having supervision of the work done by the Royal Engineers' 



, Canadian Railway Troops. 357 

Railway Construction Companies (at this time numbering 5,312 
all ranks), in addition to that done by the Canadian Railway 
Troops, as well as direct administrative command of the latter. 
An administrative office to deal with the organization was 
set up in London, and a depot established at Purfleet, Essex. 

The original five Battalions were made up as follows : — 

The 1st Canadian Construction Battalion which had pro- 
ceeded to France on Oct., 1916, and at that time (Nov. 11, 1916), 
was working on standard gauge railways, was re-organized and 
re-equipped as the 1st Battalion Canadian Railway Troops in 
France. 

The 127th Infantry Battalion, then at Bramshott, was 
re-organized as the 2nd Battalion Canadian Railway Troops, 
proceeding to France Jan. 11, 1917. 

The 239th was re-named the 3rd Battalion Canadian Railway 
Troops, and went to France on March 22, 1917. 

The 4th and 5th Battalions were organized at Purfleet, and 
proceeded to France in Feb., 1917. 

However, before the 3rd Battalion left for France on March 
22, it had been decided to increase the number of Battalions to 
10, and as more units arrived from Canada, they were sent to 
Purfleet. So swiftly was the new organization carried out, that 
by April 1, 1917, there were six* Canadian Railway Troops 
Battalions fully equipped and serving in the Field. All 10 
Battalions were at work on the British Western Front by the 
end of June of the same year. 

The greater number of the Units were employed on light 
railway construction and maintenance, and with the help of 
attached labour since 1917, all the light railway construction 
and maintenance, on the British Western Front until the 
Armistice was signed, was carried out by Canadian Railway 
Troops. 

The whole Canadian Railway Troops organization was 
separate from the Canadian Corps. The administrative Head- 
quarters of the Canadian Railway Troops were established at 
General Headquarters of the British Armies in France in March, 
1917, to enable Major-General Stewart to fill the dual capacity 
of General Officer Commanding the Canadian Railway Troops, 
and Deputy Director of General Transportation (Construction). 

• Just in Time. — The Railway Troops, indeed, arrived in 
France just in time to prove their worth. During the German 
retreat on the Somme, in February and March, the first of the 



358 Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 

Battalions to arrive were able to push forward standard gauge 
and light railway lines with surprising rapidity in spite of the 
obstacles and difficulties imposed by atrocious weather and the 
thoroughness of the destruction left by the enemy in the wake 
of his retreat. 

On the 9th of April, 1917, began the Battle of Arras, when the 
Canadians attacked and captured Vimy Ridge, then the strongest 
German fortress on the Western Front. For several weeks 
prior to the opening of the attack the weather had been extremely 
bad and the ground in the battle area was like a quagmire. 
Notwithstanding this, the Canadian Railway Troops had laid 
steel to within a short distance of the front line. 

Then, as soon as the Infantry advanced on that memorable 
Easter Monday, the Railway Battalions constructed new lines 
on the heels of the righting men. Supplies and ammunition were 
carried forward on standard and light gauge lines, and the 
wounded were evacuated over them to the very doors of the 
Field Ambulance Dressing Stations and the Casualty Clearing 
Hospitals. It was the first time that such work had been 
accomplished during the War. 

Within a week of the opening of that Arras offensive, trains 
were running to the brow of Vimy Ridge, and by the end of 
April, by which time the British lines had been pushed for some 
distance across the level plain stretching beyond the Ridge, 
light railways were running forward as far as the Battalions' 
ration dumps. 

The next big Offensive in 1917 was at Messines, and there the 
Railwaymen from Canada contributed their quota to success, 
in spite of interruptions caused by enemy shell fire, the 
almost impassable sea of mud which they were compelled to 
cross, and the many other obstacles that beset the path of 
railway construction on the battlefield — obstacles that are 
unknown to the civilian railroad worker. Nor were the 
Railway Troops less determined and successful during the final 
attack at Passchendaele, in which the Canadian Corps again won 
undying fame under conditions among the most trying and 
exasperating encountered during the War. 

Task at Ypres. — The difficulty of the task set the Canadian 
Railway Troops in the Ypres salient may be gauged from the 
fact that during more than two months of the Summer of 1917, 
the average daily number of breaks in the light railway lines 
due to enemy shell fire, was about 100 in the areas of the 2nd 
and 5th British Armies alone. 



Canadian Railway Troops. 359 

It was in March, 1918, when the German Offensive began in 
the Somme sector, that it unfortunately became necessary to 
leave many miles of standard and light gauge railways in the 
hands of the enemy. Seven Battalions of the Corps of Canadian 
Railway Troops had to be withdrawn from railway work and 
were employed for a time on the construction of a rear defence 
trench system. In this work, which was carried out under the 
direction of Major-General Stewart, they were assisted by 
20,000 troops from Labour, Engineer, Road and other technical 
Units. When the task was completed, they had built a defensive 
trench system on a front over 30 miles, with a total trench 
mileage of approximately 120 miles. In addition many strong 
points and machine gun emplacements were built and the whole 
front protected with thick belts of wire. 

In addition to this work the railway system was being altered 
and lines added so that, if the position became still more serious, 
supplies and material could be handled with greater despatch 
and convenience. Nor was this all. On the southern part 
of the Front, a point where the German thrust had been most 
successful, the Railway Troops were kept busy on the re- 
organization of the Lines of Communication. 

As Fighting Men. — The months of March and April, 1918, 
were indeed eventful for the Corps of Canadian Railway Troops, 
for not only did the situation strain their wonderful adaptability 
to the utmost, but it threw out a direct challenge. There 
arrived a moment when it became necessary for the Canadian 
Railway Troops suddenly to transfer themselves into lighting 
men. 

They met the challenge with a skill and a success which 
proved the wisdom of the policy insisted on by the Canadian 
Military Authorities — that every Canadian at the Front engaged 
on work of a technical nature, should first be trained as a soldier. 

It was during the last four days of March, when the enemy 
was advancing on Amiens, that one Battalion of the Corps of 
Canadian Railway Troops was called on to take part in the 
defence of the city. The Railwaymen promptly organised 16 
Lewis Gun teams and held tenaciously to the position allotted 
them until relieved by troops from the New Zealand Division. 
Again, in the First British Army area, three of their Battalions 
were organised into what was called the Canadian Railway 
Brigade. No sooner, however, had they been so formed, than 
the importance of engineering again became such a paramount 
consideration that the Canadian Railway Brigade, which had 



360 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

been organised with every intention of making use of it as a 
lighting force, had to be disbanded. Two Companies, however, 
from still another Railway Battalion, were put into the Line and 
did very good work until relieved by Imperial troops. 

In the meantime, the number of battalions had been increased 
to 13 by the conversion and re-organization of the 2nd and 3rd 
Canadian Labour Battalions with the 11th and 12th Battalions 
Canadian Railway Troops respectively, and the formation of the 
13th Battalion from personnel at the depot at Purfleet, England. 

Later in the Spring of 1918, the Germans launched an 
Offensive in two sectors in the north, with the intention of 
reaching the Channel Ports. This, too, placed a considerable 
strain on the Corps of Canadian Railway Troops as they were at 
once put to work on the construction of broad gauge lines and 
the elaboration of the light railway system which acted as a 
feeder to the front line trenches. 

In the early Summer of 1918, the Canadian Overseas Railway 
Construction Corps, the 58th Broad Gauge Operating Company, 
the 13th Light Railway Operating Company, the 69th Wagon 
Erecting Company, and the 85th Engine Crew Company were 
brought under the Headquarters, Canadian Railway Troops, 
and the whole formed into the Corps of Canadian Railway Troops. 

About the same time Major-General Stewart was appointed 
Director of Construction, and as such his duties embraced all 
construction of a civil engineering character in the zone of the 
British Armies. 

This work continued until the end of July, and at the 
beginning of August, preparations were being made by the 
Railwaymen for the work which would be required of them in 
the attack by the Allies on a 20-mile front beyond Amiens. 

Amiens. — The achievements accomplished by the Corps of 
Canadian Railway Troops in that battle formed a brilliant 
chapter in their career, and from then on the Railwaymen 
continued to lend invaluable aid in the successive offensives 
which, launched on different parts of the front, finally led to the 
victory. 

In this record, mention should not be omitted of the fact 
that during the offensive in Palestine in the Summer of 1918, 
when General Allenby called for a party of expert bridge builders, 
the War Office requisitioned the services of Canadian Railway 
Troops. Six officers and 250 other ranks were thereupon 
selected from among the volunteers who came forward in France, 
and left for Palestine on Sept. 20, 1918. 






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361 



It should be added that many officers were seconded from the 
Canadian Construction Railway Troops to fill executive positions 
in different departments under the Director General Transporta- 
tion which should be considered as a high tribute to the technical 
efficiency of the officers concerned and the Corps of Canadian 
Railway Troops as a whole. 

Below is given a table showing the comparative strength of 
the Imperial and Canadian Railway Construction Forces on the 
Western Front as at the dates given : — 







Nominal Strength. 


Nominal Strength. 




Date. 


Imperial Railway 


Canadian Railway 






Construction Troops. 


Construction Troops. 


Dec. 31, 


1914 


1,476 


— 


Dec. 31, 


1915 


2,440 


512 


Dec. 31, 


1916 


4,900 


1,617 


Jan. 30, 


1917 


7,340 


11,562 


Dec. 31, 


1917 


7,340 


13,772 


Nov. 11 


1918 .. 


7,340 


14,877 



In addition there were four Canadian Railway Troops 
Operating Companies with a strength of 1,087, all ranks on 
November 11, 1918. 

The total strength of Canadian Railway Troops in England 
on November 11, 1918, was 3,364. 

During their career at the front, the personnel of the Corps 
of Canadian Railway Troops were awarded 489 honours and 
decorations. 

The Construction Units of the Corps of Canadian Railway 
Troops were more mobile than any other construction Units on 
the British Front, as their establishment provided for 280 mules, 
10 lorries and 8 box cars per unit. They also were able to carry 
out new construction with great rapidity by using scrapers and 
mules, thereby saving man power, one of the most important 
questions in the concluding phases of the compaign. 

In this necessarily condensed report, it is impossible to give 
more than the briefest outline of the organization, functions and 
operations of the Canadian Railway Troops. The importance 
of the work assigned to them can easily be understood by anyone 
with only a rudimentary knowledge of warfare, as since 
prehistoric times, mobility has been recognized as an essential 
factor to victory. The career of the Canadian Railway Troops 
on the Western Front furnishes one of the most engaging 
chapters in the record of Canada's contribution in the War, and 
was a factor in helping to spell victory with a capital V. 



362 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 







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363 



Canadian Forestry Corps. 

MEN WHO SAVED THE TIMBER SITUATION FOR THE 

ALLIES. 

Formation of the Corps. — When in February, 1916, the 
problem of the shortage of ships, increased by the ever-growing 
demands of the Allies, engaged the still more urgent attention 
of the British Government, the British Authorities deemed it 
necessary to issue a Proclamation restricting imports. Timber, 
of which over six million tons was imported by Great Britain in 
1916, was one of the commodities especially designated for 
substantial reduction. 

Mr. Bonar Law T , then Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
therefore cabled to the Governor-General of Canada, to the 
effect that His Majesty's Government would be grateful if the 
Canadian Government would assist in the production of timber 
for war purposes, and asked if a Battalion of lumbermen could 
be recruited quickly and sent Overseas to exploit the forests 
of Britain. 

The 224th Canadian Forestry Battalion was thereupon 
organised without delay, and in April the first draft of the 
Battalion landed in England. Early in the following month 
it was producing sawn lumber at Virginia Water Camp, Surrey. 
That is to say, in less than three months from the date the 
British Government sent its first request to Ottawa, the 224th 
Battalion was recruited, despatched to England with its 
machinery, had built its first mill, and delivered lumber to 
the Imperial Authorities. Other detachments were operating 
in various places in England and Scotland, and the eventual 
strength of the battalion was 1,609 all ranks. 

The 224th Battalion was the nucleus of the substantial 

force of Canadian lumbermen which followed, and later formed 

I the Canadian Forestry Corps, a Corps that by its zeal and 

! ingenuity extended the exploitation of the timber resources 

I of Great Britain and France, furnishing timber for four Armies 

— those of Britain, France, Belgium, and the United States, 

thus materially contributing to the attainment of Victory. 

Soon after the arrival of the 224th Battalion the Dominion 
! Government received another cable from the Secretary of State for 
1 the Colonies, stating that His Majesty's Government desired to 
express keen appreciation of the action of the Canadian Govern- 
ment in raising the 224th Battalion, but that the shortage in 
the supply of timber was still causing serious concern, and that 



364 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

the acute shortage of transportation necessitated a more 
rapid exploitation of the timber reserves of the Allied Countries. 
The French Government had placed certain forests in France 
at the disposal of the British Authorities, and the cablegram 
concluded : " His Majesty's Government again turns to Canada 
for assistance." The formation of the 238th Canadian Forestry 
Battalion, which arrived in England in September, 1916, was 
the immediate answer to the appeal. 

In the meantime the forests in France offered for exploitation, 
had been inspected and reported on favourably, and it was 
decided to extend the Canadian Forestry operations to the 
Western Front. 

Authority was granted in October, 1916, for the formation 
of the Canadian Forestry Corps, and Major-General Alexander 
McDougal, C.B. (then Lieut. -Colonel Commanding the 224th 
Battalion), was appointed in Command of the Corps and 
Canadian Director of the Timber Operations for France and 
Great Britain. The two Forest ry Battalions in England at 
the time then became a part of the Corps, and it was arranged 
that all Forestry Units and details on arriving in England from 
Canada, should be absorbed by the Canadian Forestry Corps. 

Following the organisation of the Corps, arrangements 
were made at once for the purchase of sufficient machinery 
and equipment in Canada for saw mills, etc., to employ at 
least 10,000 men. This policy was later proved to be an 
exceptionally wise one, for the shipping problem becoming 
more and more perplexing, the British Prime Minister announced 
that still further reductions in imports were absolutely impera- 
tive. He declared that timber imports would have to bear 
60 per cent, of the total reduction decided upon, as three and 
a half million tons of shipping could thereby be saved. 

In the interval of the few weeks that elapsed between the 
British Prime Minister's announcement and the putting into 
effect of the new regulations, some of the Canadian machinery 
had been delivered in England and the remainder was on the 
water en route. Had it not been for the expeditious action of 
the Canadian Authorities it is estimated that there would have, 
unquestionably, been a serious dela}^ in the delivery of the 
machinery. 

Operations in France. — By December, 1916, there was a 
small force of the Canadian Forestry Corps operating in France 
at Bois Normand. This was the advance guard of the big 
force soon to follow. ' 



Canadian Forestry Corps. 365 

The first headquarters were at Conches (Erne). Here 
Group Headquarters, divided into two districts, were subse- 
quently established. By June, 1918, there were three other 
| groups operating, one known as the Jura Group, one as the 
Bordeaux Group, and the other as the Marne Group, each 
with two District Headquarters. The work of the Corps 
extended over a wide area of France, reaching out almost to 
the frontiers of three countries — Spain, Switzerland, and 
Germany. The Corps Headquarters for France were established 
at Paris-Plage, not far from Boulogne. There was an office 
in Paris, which served as a connecting link between the various 
District and Group Headquarters. The Corps Supply Depot 
for Technical Equipment was at Havre. 

When hostilities ended there were 56 Companies working in 
the war zone on the Western Front, of which 13 were German 
Prisoner of War Companies, with a combined strength of 
19,162. Five of the Canadian Companies were then engaged 
exclusively on technical work for the Independent Air Force, 
and two for the Royal Air Force. This work consisted of 
clearing sites and effecting the necessary grading, levelling, and 
draining, in short, preparing the aerodromes completely with 
the exception of the erection of the hangars. 

That the work of the Canadian Forestry Corps was appre- 
ciated by the Independent Air Force is attested by the following 
letter sent to the General Officer Commanding the Canadian 
Forestry Corps, from the Secretary of the War Office, dated 
October 21, 1918:— 

" I am commanded to inform you that it is with great 
pleasure that the Army Council learns from the 
Secretary of the Air Ministry that a letter conveying 
high appreciation of the work done for Independent 
Air Force by your Corps has been sent to you on the 
12th inst." 

A similar appreciation was received from the Royal Air 
Force. 

In all the operations in France, Canadian methods were, 
as far as possible, applied in the exploitation of the forests, 
but the best means of transporting logs from the woods to the 
mills, and the finished product to the distributing centres, 
constituted difficult problems to solve. Waterways, rivers, and 
lakes are not so numerous in France as in Canada, nor so con- 
veniently linked together, consequently the Canadian Forestry 



366 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Corps had to build elaborate systems of broad and narrow 
gauge railways in almost every zone of its activities. 

Winter Methods. — In the mountainous districts of the Jura 
and Vosges, however, the temperature and snowfall in the winter 
months were about the same as in Northern Ontario, so that 
Canadian methods were adopted to carry on the work in these 
forests during the winter weather. 

But the operations of the Canadian Forestry Corps in France 
were by no means confined to stationary camps a long way 
in the rear of the front line. Frequently companies had to 
establish mills in woods, or small limits, within a very short 
distance of the forward positions in order to meet an urgent 
demand for material at some particular point. Often, too, the 
work was carried out at considerable risk to personnel and 
equipment, and the quick transfer of portable mills had at 
times to be made. The record transfer was in the case of a 
mill where the last log was sawn at 9 o'clock on the day the 
move was to take place. By 7 o'clock the next day the mill 
had been transplanted to a wood over three miles away, and 
was busily operating. The following day the product exceeded 
18,000 ft. (board measure), and the day after the total output 
was 23,000 ft., much more than the guaranteed capacity of 
the mill. 

The largest output by any one company in a permanent 
camp was registered in the Jura Group, when a total of 156,000 ft. 
(board measure) was cut in 10 hours in a mill which was only 
registered to turn out 30,000 ft. in that time. 

That Sir Douglas Haig soon appreciated the work of the j 
Canadian Forestry Corps is shown by the following extract from 
his despatch on 25th December, 1917 : — 

" By September, 1917, the Army had become practically 
self-supporting as regards timber, and during the 
active period of working, from May to October, over 
three-quarters of a million tons of timber were supplied 
for the use of the British Army. Included in this 
timber was material sufficient to construct over 350 
miles of plank road and to provide sleepers for 1,500 
miles of railway, beside great quantities of sawn 
timber for hutting and defences, and many thousand 
tons of round timber, fascines and fuel. The bulk of 
the fuel wood is being obtained from woods already 
devastated by artillery fire." 



Canadian Forestry Corps. 367 

This tribute from the Commander-in-Chief applied most 
emphatically to the Canadian Forestry Corps Forces in France, 
as they were producing the larger percentage of the total timber 
output in the country. 

Tribute from Americans. — After the Armistice, Colonel 
Woodruff, who was one of the Chief Forestry Officers of the 
United States Army in France, wrote as follows : — 

" We wish to express our appreciation to the Canadian 
Forestry Corps for the excellent co-operation and 
assistance they have given the Americans in the 
Vosges, at Besancon, in the Landes, and, in fact, all 
over France. 

" They have secured for us five complete saw-mills. 

" In addition to the above, the Canadian Forestry 
Corps have repeatedly loaned equipment to the 
American Forestry Troops, and have extended invita- 
tions to them to join in all of their sports and enter- 
tainments, and have co-operated in the matter of 
policing near-by towns, and in every manner assisted 
to the fullest extent. 

" The American Forestry Troops are also indebted to 
the Canadian Forestry Corps for the use of their 
machine shops to make repairs to broken parts of the 
American mills, and for promptly furnishing lumber 
for building barracks on the arrival of the Americans 
at a time when it was most important that shelter 
be provided for the Troops. 

" We wish to bring this matter publicly before the 
meeting, and I am pleased to thank General McDougall 
on behalf of the American Expeditionary Forces." 

The appreciation of the French Authorities for the work of 
the , Canadian Forestry Corps is exemplified by the following 
extract from a letter written by the French Conservation of 
Waters and Forests :— 

" I wish particularly to thank the Canadians for all 
they have done in order to assist us. Most of the 
Canadian Companies have given us half of their 
output, and this has been of great importance ii} 
the war. They have executed very difficult work for 
aviation timber in the Jura where the Labergement 
Mill has been a very remarkable installation." 



368 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Administration in France.. — Owing to the scattered nature 
of the Forestry Corps and the various Commands in which its 
companies were operating, it was often difficult to adopt strict 
Army procedure in regard to administration. As a result a 
number of administrative problems had to be solved as best 
they could be in relation to such varied questions as the handling 
of a special hospital service for the Corps, the proper adminis- 
tration of discipline for men who were not trained soldiers, 
and the adjustment of rations to the needs of men who were 
doing ten hours' hard manual labour a day. 

The spirit of the entire Corps, however, was but encouraged 
by difficulties. The morale of the men was always very high. 
A great many companies were frequently under fire, and those 
further back constantly made requests to be sent up to the 
Army area. 

The officers and men were drawn from all parts of Canada, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In so far as possible, men 
were allotted to forests most nearly resembling those in which 
they have gained their experience in Canada. Men from 
Eastern Canada operated in medium-sized timbers, and men 
from the West worked in the Jura and Vosges Mountains where 
logging engines, steel cables, and modern railways are required 
to get the timber out. Officers and men in the Corps, too, 
were employed as far as possible in the work for which they 
were best adapted. A great many of them were specialists in 
some particular branch of forestry work, and each specialist 
was employed on his own speciality, a method which not only 
insured greater efficiency, but promoted the best form of 
competition. 

In March, 1918, at the time of the German advance, the 
Canadian Forestry Corps was called upon to train men as 
reinforcements for the Canadian Corps up to about 800 men, 
instructions being issued that each district must furnish a 
certain quota. As a result, when the Canadian Corps called 
for reinforcements in October, that number of Canadian Foresters 
was ready trained as Infantrymen. 

Operations — Great Britain. In Great Britain the opera- 
tions of the Corps extended over six districts at the time of the 
Armistice, four in England — at Carlisle, Egham, Southampton, 
and East Sheen ; and two in Scotland — at Stirling and Inverness. 
There were 43 companies operating in the six districts and the 
strength of the Corps in Great Britain totalled 12,533, which 



Canadian Forestry Corps. 369 

included attached labour and prisoners of war to the number 
of 3,046. 

As in France the Forestry Corps did valuable work for the 
Royal Air Force in this case for the Defence Wing. Indeed, 
the whole of the timber required in the construction of 
aerodromes in the British Isles was provided by the Canadian 
Forestry Corps, and it was officially stated by the Home 
Defence Authorities that the services rendered by them were 
such as to increase the efficiency of the Air Force in Great 
Britain, and were a direct means of assistance in defeating 
hostile raiding. 

The appreciation of the Imperial War Office was conveyed 
in a letter to the Minister written by Lord Derby, then Secretary 
of State for War, in which he referred to the alacrity with which 
the men of the Canadian Forestry Corps had responded to 
exigent demands and the devotion shown by the fact that they 
worked sometimes 90 hours a week to save the timber position. 
Lord Derby concluded by saying that he hoped the men of the 
Forestry Corps would realise the gratitude which was felt for 
their work and for the spirit which had spared no exertions to 
assist the fighting men. 

The Base Depot of the Corps was at Smith's Lawn, Windsor 
Great Park, the site of which covered over 125 acres of land lent 
by His Majesty the King, who, with the Queen, always 
manifested great interest in the Canadian Forestry men. All 
the work of receiving drafts from Canada, selecting reinforce- 
ments for France and the companies in England and Scotland, 
was done at this Depot. An average of 1,500 of all ranks 
passed through it monthly. 

The vegetable farm cultivated at the Depot for the, benefit 
of the men was one ol the largest in Great Britain, and the 
Depot piggeries were entirely successful. 

On November 11, 1918, the total strength of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps, including attached officers and men from 
Imperial Units, Portuguese, Finns, and prisoners of war, was 
31,447, divided as follows : — 

France. 

Officers, C.F.C 425 

,, Attached 

Other Ranks, C.F.C 

Attached 

Prisoners of War (13 Companies) 

Total 

(642) B B 





53 




. 11,702 




1,039 




5,021 




. 18,240 



370 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 
Great Britain. 



Officers, C.F.C. . . 






. 


343 


Attached 






, , 


49 


Other Ranks, C.F.C. 






. 


9,624 


Attached 






. 


744 


Finns, Attached. . 






, . 


658 


Portuguese, Attached 








524 


Prisoners of War 






• 


1,265 




Total . . 


13,207 



Grand Total, C.F.C. — Officers and men in France and 
Great Britain, exclusive of attached labour at 
November 11, 1918 23,979 

Grand Total, including attached labour at November 

11,1918 31,447 

At the time the Armistice was signed over 70 per cent, of 
the total timber used by the Allied Armies on the Western 
Front was supplied by the Canadian Forestry Corps. 

France. 

1917. — Period January I. to December 31. 

Sawn Material 131,691,903 f.b.m. 

Round „ 53,567 tons 

Slabs „ .. .... 149,483 tons 

1918. — Period January 1 to December 31. 

Sawn Material 424,251,009 f.b.m. 

Round „ . . . . . . 170,715 tons 

Slabs „ 454,101 tons 

Grand Totals.— Period 1917-1918. 

Sawn Material 555,942,912 f.b.m. 

Round „ 224,282 tons 

Slabs „ 603,584 tons 

Great Britain. 

1916. — Period May 13 to December 31. 

Sawn Material 18,534,156 f.b.m. 

Round „ 4,403 tons 

Slabs „ 13,515 tons 

1917. — Period January 1 to December 31. 

Sawn Material 77,120,160 f.b.m. 

Round „ 31,686 tons 

Slabs „ 56,224 tons 



Canadian Forestry Corps. 371 

1918. — Period January 1 to December 31. 

Sawn Material 161,944,332 f.b.m. 

Round „ 48,258 tons 

Slabs „ 133,179 tons 



Grand Totals. - 


-1916-17-18. 


Sawn Material 


. . 257,598,648 f.b.m 


Round ,, 


84,347 tons 


Slabs ,, 


202,918 tons 



Grand Totals. 

(Production for France and Great Britain from commencement 

of the Canadian Forestry Corps.) 

Operations to December 31, 1918. 

Sawn Material 813,541,560 f.b.m. 

Round „ 308,629 tons 

Slabs „ . . . . . . 806,502 tons 

In addition the work of the Canadian Forestry Corps achieved 
the much desired and total result of releasing an immense 
amount of shipping tonnage for the transfer of food stuffs for 
the Allies. 

The lumber imported by Great Britain 

in 1913 amounted to . . . . 11,600,000 tons 

In 1916 it had been reduced to. . . . 6,000,000 tons 

In 1917 „ „ „ . . . . 2,775,000 tons 

In 1918 „ „ „ . . . . 2,000,000 tons 

As a consequence the tonnage saved was 

sufficient to carry food supplies for 15,000,000 people. 

To be really appreciated, therefore, the work of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps should be measured in terms of service rendered 
to the Allies in respect to : 

(a) The economic situation. 

(6) The fighting forces in the Field. 

The foregoing figures for production are brief but eloquent 
testimony of the success of Canadian industry in exploiting 
the forests of France and Britain, in helping to defeat the 
enemy submarine menace, and in a variety of ways assisting 
in the ultimate attainment of victory. 



(642) b B 2 



373 



Canadian Troops Outside the Corps. 

In considering the achievements of the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada in the field, special reference must be made 
to the various Formations outside the Corps, each of which 
rendered much valuable service in its own sphere. 

In addition to the Canadian Corps, which at the time the 
Armistice was signed had a total strength of 110,600, there 
were nearly 40,000 Canadian troops, separate and distinct 
from the Corps serving in different capacities in the war zone 
throughout France and Belgium. No other British Dominion 
had her sons so widely distributed on the Western Front or 
engaged in so many diversified capacities as Canada. 

This force of approximately 40,000 men was made up of rail- 
way construction experts, of lumbermen, of cavalrymen, of 
doctors and dentists, of engineers, butchers, bakers, and so on. 
Some were stationed near the North Sea, some near the Spanish 
border, some in Central France, and others in almost every 
place where there were Allied Forces. There was a large 
Canadian Base Camp at Etaples, for the temporary accommoda- 
tion of reinforcements passing through . There were also Canadian 
Corps reinforcement camps in the vicinity of Aubin St. Vaast, 
near Montreuil, where the training was continued until the 
personnel were required by their respective units. The per- 
sonnel at these camps were on the strength of their respective 
Units at the front and on the lines of communication. The 
functions of most of the formations that made up the 40,000 
troops outside the Corps are given in various sections of 
this Report, but it is only just that special attention should 
be drawn to the work of these troops as a whole. 

With the exception of the thousands of pilots and observers 
who were in the Royal Air Force and Independent Air Force 
when the fighting ended on November 11, 1918, the Canadian 
troops operating in France and Belgium were, for the most part, 
administered by Canadian authorities, though, like the Canadian 
Corps, they came under Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig for 
direction in all matters connected with military operations 
in the field. 

The largest body of Canadians on the Western Front, 
separate from the Canadian Corps, was the Corps of Canadian 
Railway Troops, a force of experts on railway construction. 



374 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

For nearly two years prior to the signing of the Armistice, the 
Corps of Canadian Railway Troops had been responsible for 
the building of all the light railways in the areas occupied by the 
five British Armies, on a line running from the North Sea 
southward to the junction with the French Army. They had 
also been responsible for the construction of most of the 
new standard gauge lines radiating from the Channel Ports 
on the French Coast to the actual battle zones. 

The Canadian Forestry Corps was the most widely-scattered 
body of Canadians in the Western theatre of war. There were 
Companies exploiting French forests near the borders of Spain, 
Switzerland, and Germany. Others were in Central France, 
at different points near the Front Line, on the Lines of Com- 
munication, and at many places in companies or smaller 
formations. 

With the aid of attached Labour and 13 Prisoners of War 
Companies, the Canadian Forestry Corps supplied the greater 
percentage of all lumber used by the Allied Armies in France 
and Belgium. 

Only once during its career in France did the Canadian 
Cavalry Brigade take part as a mounted force in an engagement 
with the Canadian Corps. This was at Amiens on August 8. 
The rest of the time it fought exclusively with Imperial Forces, 
being attached to an Imperial Cavalry Division. It was attached 
to the 3rd Cavalry Division for the major portion of the time. 

The Canadian Army Medical Corps had its havens of mercy 
widely distributed. At Boulogne there were No. 2 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital and No. 3 Canadian General Hospital. 
Nos. 1 and 7 Canadian General Hospitals were at Etaples, as was 
also No. 9 Canadian Stationary Hospital. No. 2 Canadian 
General Hospital was at Le Treport, not farfromDieppe, and Nos. 
3 and 7 Canadian Stationary Hospitals were at Rouen. No. 10 
Canadian Stationary Hospital was at Calais, No. 8 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital at Charmes, and Nos. 6 and 8 Canadian 
General Hospitals were in Paris. The four Canadian Casualty 
Clearing Stations or Hospitals, numbering 1 to 4, were moved 
from place to place as the military situation demanded. They 
were always situated within a few miles of the front line. No. 2 
Canadian Casualty Clearing Station was for over two years in 
the British Second Army Area, being for most of that time 
located at Remy Siding, near Poperinghe, and almost opposite 
what were known as Connaught Lines, famous to Canadians 
in the early days of the War. It was there that several Canadian 



Troops Outside the Corps. 



375 



Battalions had their transport lines from time to time. The 
only units of the Canadian Army Medical Corps that were a 
part of the Canadian Corps were the Field Ambulances. 

The Canadian Army Service Corps had supply units at 
several centres outside the Canadian Corps Area. There were 
four units of field bakeries and two units of field butcheries 
at Boulogne, while there were supply units at Etaples, Rouen, 
Calais, Havre, and Dieppe. 

The Minister is represented at General Headquarters of the 
British Armies in France by what is known as the Canadian 
Section, and the most important functions of this Section 
are dealt with under a separate head. 

The following list gives the chief Canadian formations that 
were operating outside the Canadian Corps Area in France and 
Belgium, with the relative strength of each, at the time the 
Armistice was signed : — 



Corps of Canadian Railway Troops 
Canadian Forestry Corps 
Canadian Cavalry Brigade 
Canadian Army Medical Corps . 
Canadian Army Service Corps . 
Canadian Engineers Reinforce- 
ment Pool 
Canadian Labour Pool 
Canadian Base Signal Pool 
Canadian Army Veterinary Corps 
Canadian Army Dental Corps 
Miscellaneous Details 

Totals . . 



Officers. 


Other Ranks. 


3S 491 


. . 14,390 


. 376 


.. 11,375 


141 


2,719 


. 360 


2,467 


57 


1,675 


49 


.. ' 1,214 


— 


1,881 


8 


432 


s 9 


438 


52 


104 


65 


479 


1,608 


37,174 



377 



Canadian Tank Battalion. 

Of all the new arms called into being by the War the Tank 
probably most appealed to the public imagination, and had 
hostilities been prolonged, Canada would have seen her own 
Tank Corps in the field. 

It was in March, 1918, that the War Office asked the 
Canadian Government, through the Minister, to provide the 
personnel for one Tank Battalion. Three months later the 
first Canadian Tank Battalion arrived in England, with a 
strength of 92 officers and 716 other ranks. 

The high standard of the personnel may be gathered from 
the fact that it was recruited entirely from among the 
Universities of Canada ; McGill University and Toronto 
University each furnished one Company of the Battalion, 
while the third Company was recruited from among the other 
Universities. A considerable percentage of both officers and 
men had mechanical qualifications. 

After the usual period had been spent in the Segregation 
Camp at Frensham Pond, in Surrey, the Battalion proceeded 
to the Imperial Tank Training Camp near Wareham in Dorset- 
shire to begin its technical training. By August, 1918, when 
the Battalion was still in training, the Allies had taken the 
Offensive, and the Tank had again proved itself an invaluable 
weapon in attack. In each successive engagement which 
followed the Battle of Amiens of August 8 — the action that 
marked the definite turning point in the War — every available 
Tank Unit had been employed, and the War Office made a 
further request to the Canadian Government through the 
Minister for the provision of a second Canadian Tank 
Battalion. 

The request was immediately complied with, and on 
October 18, 1918, the second Canadian Tank Battalion arrived 
in England with a strength of 44 officers and 960 other ranks. 

The first Canadian Tank Battalion had completed its 
training, and was on the point of going to France when 
Armistice was declared, and it thus became necessary to 
abandon the project of raising the third Tank Battalion which 
was then under consideration, as was the whole question of 
the formation of a Canadian Tank Corps. 



379 
CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 



The Machine of Healing — 

Development and Duties of the Canadian 

Army Medical Corps . . . . . . 381 

Enemy Outrages on the C.A.M.C. — 

Bombing of Hospitals at Etaples and 

Doullens .. 387 

Torpedoing ofH.MH.S." Llandovery Castle ' ' 390 

' Casualties " — 

Stages of the Wounded from the Battlefield 

to " Blighty " 391 

Establishments of the various Orders of 
Units in the C.A.M.C. — 

(a) Units in England 393 

(b) Units in France . . . . . . . . 394 

War Activities of the C.A.M.C. — 

(a) Personnel . . . . . . . . 394 

(b) Units in France and elsewhere . . 395 

(c) Units in England . . . . . . 395 

(d) Combined Return of Units C.A.M C . . 395 

Canadian Accommodation for Sick and 
Wounded — 

(a) Bed capacity, Canadian General and 
Stationary Hospitals Overseas from 
England • .. .. 396 

(b) Casualty Clearing Stations . . . . 397 

(c) Canadian Hospitals in England — 

1. General Hospitals . . . . . . 398 

2. Special Hospitals 399 

3. Convalescent Hospitals . . . . 400 

4. Summary of growth of bed capacity 

in England . . . . . . . . 401 

5. Bed capacity in Canadian Hospitals 
in England and Overseas from 
England . . . . . . . . 401 

(d) Hospital Ships 401 

Helpers of the C.A.M.C... .. .. .. 401 



381 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 

When the great call came in 1914, the personnel and 
equipment of the Canadian Army Medical Corps was at the time 
but the very small nucleus of the enormous organisation 
into which it had grown at the date of the Armistice. 

By that time the operations of the Canadian Army Medical 
Corps more than equalled those of the entire British Royal 
Army Medical Corps during the South African War. The bed 
capacity of the Canadian Hospitals Overseas rose from 3,000 
in June, 1915, to upwards of 40,000 in November, 1918. That, 
in a nutshell, tells the story of the growth of the Canadian 
Army Medical Corps ; but this amazing expansion would not 
have been possible but for wise provision made in previous 
years. 

The step which made the present efficient organisation of the 
Canadian Army Medical Corps possible dates only from 1904, 
when the first skeleton was formed to meet the contingency 
of war. The first establishment and equipment of the Medical 
Branch was authorised in 1911. This establishment embraced 
a complete scheme for mobilisation in the event of hostilities, 
and the efficiency and training it afforded before the declaration 
of war in 1914 were made apparent at the second Battle of 
Ypres, when the conduct and direction of the Canadian Medical 
Service received the highest commendation of the British 
Authorities ; and that efficiency has been developed to the 
highest pitch under the present Director of Medical Services, 
Major-General G. L. Foster, C.B. 

The expansion of the permanent organisation, however, 
would have been quite impossible but for the heavy sacrifices 
of the doctors in Canada who, at the call to arms, threw up 
their practices to undertake the arduous and oftentimes 
dangerous duties of the charge of Canadian sick and wounded 
Overseas. 

Here, however, it may be pointed out that the work of 
an Army Medical Service is divided into two sections — the 
professional side, which comprises scientific medical work, and 
the military side, which provided the means whereby the 
professional side is able to carry out its duties to the best 
advantage. 



382 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The two sections work hand in hand, but professional 
work is, of course, the raison d'etre of the Service, and how many 
and terrible are its problems can only properly be understood 
when it is realised that it had of itself a two-fold battle (to 
fight. There was the long and bitter defensive and remedial 
action against horrors such as poison gas and the rest of the 
devilish devices of destruction— the inventions of that Kultur 
which was the offspring of a scientific spirit unmitigated by 
humanity. Again, there was the long and endless offensive 
against dirt which is the beginning of all that disease which 
ends in the destruction of armies. It was a combined offensive 
and defensive action which called forth not only devotion to 
duty but the highest qualities of mind and the utmost deter- 
mination of spirit of which the physicians and surgeons were 
capable. 

It was well for the Canadian Army Medical Services they 
had such splendid material to draw upon. The services of the 
most expert surgeons and physicians were, naturally, most 
urgently needed. The creation of a Consultant Staff, with 
officers of ripe professional experience to supervise the work at 
hospitals, sanitary formations, laboratories and so on, was one 
of the Canadian Army Medical Services' most pressing cares. 
It was organised on an effective and systematic basis, and its 
success has been largely due to the invaluable services which 
have been rendered by some of Canada's most brilliant medical 
men, in conjunction with those of England and of France. 
The advances in war medicine and surgery were kept pace 
with at every stride. 

The Canadian consultants and specialists attended the 
different important Allied Medical Conferences and made tours 
of observation and instruction in the hospitals of various 
countries, and it was by these and other means that Canadian 
soldiers in hospital benefited by the latest medical and surgical 
discoveries in every land which was at war with the country 
responsible for the horrors which had to be faced. The 
knowledge so acquired was passed on to the eager and 
enthusiastic staffs of every Canadian Hospital. The different 
wonders accomplished by medicine and surgery during the 
war have long since been common knowledge. 

It is sufficient to say that miracles were indeed performed — 
the lame walked, the deaf heard, the dumb spake. Canada 
has more than reason to be grateful to her medical men. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 383 

As already indicated the resources of the medical profession 
were not called on merely to perform miracles of healing. The 
simple word sanitation covers a multitude of hygienic accom- 
plishments. 

First then, came sanitation and the prevention of sickness. 
Such a thing as a foetid odour is practically unknown in a 
military area. To drink from an unauthorised source is a 
crime. Wells were examined even while they were yet under 
fire, food is scrutinised before every meal, the men are bathed 
as methodically as they are fed, and a battalion of a thousand 
men can be inoculated against disease in 35 minutes. As a 
result of these and other precautions, the dreaded enteric has 
practically ceased to exist and epidemics are mostly confined 
to such childish maladies as measles, which still defy the 
ingenuity of medical science. The results in regard to enteric 
were the most remarkable of all. Of 100,000 Canadian patients 
only one man was found to have typhoid, and that was in the 
case of a man who for some reason had not been inoculated. 

The professional side of the Canadian Army Medical Corps 
has, indeed, accomplished marvels, but due credit must be 
given to the military side of the same organisation, for its 
duties are many and complex, and organisation and adminis- 
tration have played a great part in the Service's fight for the 
lives of Canadian soldiers. The military side has to provide 
places of treatment, strategically located for the convenient 
and economical reception and evacuation of patients. It has 
to furnish the means of conveying the patients promptly and 
comfortably to places where their needs can be efficiently 
attended to without delay, and it has to devise and control 
the movements of railway trains, ships, and other transport 
for that purpose. It has to arrange for facilities in the matters 
of space, supplies, housing, feeding, clothing, proper records, 
and many other intricate details. 

It will thus be seen that it is impossible to divorce the 
Medical Service from the rest of the military machine which it 
serves. It must be part and parcel of it and amenable to the 
same regulations and discipline, or its efforts to re-establish 
the sick and reconstitute the wounded will be for the most part 
vain. 

The ordered system of the Director-General of Medical 
Services in London must be as complete, as comprehensive 
and as unfailing as the administration of the General Staff, 



384 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

the Adjutant-General's Branch, or the Branch of the ! 
Quartermaster-General. There must be machinery behind | 
the men. 

And this urgent requirement of a perfect organisation applies j 
with equal force to the Front. Medical arrangements must be 
devised ahead of each action. They vary with the plan of I 
battle, and must be modified as the battle proceeds. 

Consider the difference, for instance, between the medical 
organisations with a division, or on the lines of communication, 
or again at the Base. It is impossible to enter into the intricacies 
of all these varying organisations, but the figures concerning 
the Medical Service attached to a division will alone serve to 
indicate what organisation and administration is entailed. 
In a division there are about 20 Regimental Medical Officers 
and three Field Ambulances, with nine Medical Officers each. 
The personnel is divided into bearer, tent and transport sections, 
about 750 men to the three ambulances. For transport, each 
ambulance has 50 horses and seven motor and three horsed 
ambulances, with General Service wagons and carts in addition. 
A compact little army in itself. 

It is impossible to recapitulate the various achievements of 
the Canadian Army Medical Service, but here are a few of its 
activities in tabloid form which will serve to indicate the scope 
of its duties in scientific and organised healing. 

A School of Massage and Swedish remedial drill was 
organised for training Nursing Sisters and soldiers for 
this service in hospitals. 

The Medical Service for troops and civilians returning to 
Canada by transport was thoroughly re-organised and 
placed on an efficient basis. 

A complete scheme was instituted for the hospitalisation 
of Canadian Officers and Nursing Sisters, and this 
pronouncedly reduced the period of non-effectiveness of 
casualties in these ranks. 

Comprehensive machinery was organised for dealing with 
the selection, documentation, medical documentation 
and embarkation, and transport of patients invalided 
to Canada for further treatment. Upwards of 9,000 
patients were returned to Canada in the year 1917, and 
13,481 patients in the year 1918. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 385 

A system for the thorough and efficient training of Canadian 
Army Medical Corps officers and men was organised at 
the Canadian Army Medical Corps Depot, and a finishing 
course in the hospital. Refresher courses were provided 
for reinforcements drafted for Overseas Service. 

The Canadian Army Medical Corps Laboratory Service 
has been definitely organised on an economical and 
efficient basis. Four grades of laboratories have been 
adopted with standard equipment and established per- 
sonnel for each ; and each of the two laboratory Units 
and 22 Hospital Laboratories have been organised. The 
X-Ray Laboratory Service had been similarly organised 
and systematised. 

A Central Medical Stores was organised through which all 
Medical Supplies and Technical Equipment were 
received and distributed, and the Medical Stores and 
Technical Equipment of all L T nits and Medical Inspection 
Rooms were standardised and redistributed on an 
economic basis. Further, there was established a com- 
plete and effective system of supply and accounting 
for stores and equipment which made at once for 
efficiency and economy. 

The Sanitary Service was also completely re-organised, 
and measures for the prevention and control of infectious 
diseases placed on an effective basis, and one that 
embraced all the recent advances made in this particular 
branch of Medical Science. 

Machinery was organised for the immediate segregation 
and control of infectious cases and contacts arriving 
from Canada, similar machinery being established 
to deal with cases or contacts developing in any part 
of the Forces while in England. The movement of 
infectious cases and contacts between Formations was 
also strictly guarded against. The despatch of cases 
of carriers to France was similarly dealt with. 

Definite arrangements were drawn up for all Medical 
Units and Division Units organised or re-organised in 
accordance with the authorised scheme. In this way 
the combined experience of military experts produced 
the organisation of similar L T nits on uniform lines, 
which increased the uniformity of the Service as a 
whole and resulted in great economy of personnel. 

(642) C C 



386 Overseas Military Foraes of Canada. 

Among the Units so organised were : — 
10 General Hospitals. 
8 Special Hospitals. 

6 Convalescent Hospitals. 
*3 Ship Hospitals. 

2 Laboratory Units. 
4 Sanitary Sections. 

1 Central Medical Stores. 

2 Advance Depot Medical Stores. 

1 Regimental Depot and Training School. 

7 Administrative Units— 1 D.G.M.S. ; 6 A.D.M S. for 

Training Areas. 

In addition an establishment was provided for the Nursing 
Section of the Canadian Army Medical Service, placing 
this most valuable part of the Service on a definite 
basis for the first time. 

The re-organisation of the Medical Board Services and the 
classification of troops according to medical fitness was 
alone a great undertaking. During the later stages of 
the war there was an average of over 6,000 Medical 
Boards per month, while upwards of 14,000 troops were 
reviewed per month for classification. 

The Canadian Army Medical Service did not exempt itself 
from this review. On the contrary, its personnel was 
thoroughly sifted for the release of Category A men fit 
for General Service. As a result, 1,883 men nearly the 
strength of two Battalions were released to the com- 
batant forces. 

Boarding and classification was decentralised into Areas 
to do away with congestion and delay, and at the same 
time a Central Control was organised with a systematic 
inspection and supervision, which ensured proper and 
uniform standard throughout the Service. In addition, 
the Board Service was co-ordinated with the work of the 
Pensions Authorities and with the Hospital Service, the 
Adjutant-General's Branch, and to the general internal 
economy of the various Formations of the Forces. The 
Board Establishment also took over the examination of 
reinforcements drafted from Overseas, and thiswork was co- 
ordinated with the inspection work at the Base in France. 

Truly this is an administrative record of which the Canadian 
Army Medical Corps may well be proud. But it must be 

* This i ncludes the " Llandovery Ostle," sunk by enemy submarine. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 387 

remembered that just as there is " the man behind the gun/' 
so there is the doctor and the man behind the lancet, and the 
nursing sister and the true Canadian woman behind the grim 
paraphernalia of her office. And great have been the souls 
and stout the hearts and deft the hands, not merely of the 
doctors and the nursing sisters, but all those " other ranks " 
who give the great machine of healing its life and its humanity. 
Unflinching in danger, resolute in duty, unremitting even 
in the drudgery of their voluntary crusade against disease 
and death — to these devoted men and women go out the 
thanks of scores of thousands of Canadian soldiers, and the 
heartfelt gratitude of hundreds of thousands who loved 
the men maimed in the defence of Canada upon the Fields 
of Flanders and of France. 



ENEMY OUTRAGES ON CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL 

CORPS. 

Air Raid on Hospitals at Etaples. — It was not to be expected 
that the Canadian Army Medical Service would escape its 
share of outrage from the enemy, and three events will forever 
be remembered for the murder most foul of Canadian sick 
and wounded — the bombing of the Canadian Hospitals at 
Etaples and Doullens, both in May, 1918, and the sinking 
of the Canadian Hospital Ship " Llandovery Castle " in June 
of the same year. 

It is beyond all question that the Germans made any 
mistake in regard to the bombing of the Hospitals at Etaples. 
Since the autumn of 1914 Etaples was perfectly well-known 
to the Germans as a great Hospital Area, Canadian General 
Hospitals No. 1, No. 7 and No. 9 being merely three Units 
in the colony of British Hospitals which housed thousands 
upon thousands of beds. Like enough it was the assemblage 
of so many stricken soldiers which presented the enemy with a 
temptation which he could not resist. 

No. 1 Canadian General Hospital had been established 
there since the spring of 1915 ; No. 7 (Queen's University) 
had taken over another site at Etaples when it had returned 
from the East ; and No. 9 had been transferred from St. Omer 
because of the danger from shell fire at what had formerly 
been British Headquarters. The whole Area indeed must 
have been well marked on the enemy's map. 

(642) CC2 



388 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

It was perhaps, too, typical of his mentality that he should 
choose the night of Whitsunday (May 19) for his first raid on 
the helpless in this district. On that night there were upwards 
of 1,000 patients in No. 1 Canadian General Hospital, 300 of 
whom were femur cases. The nature of the treatment for these 
cases demands that the patients shall have the leg fixed by 
bandages in an extended position to a firm, immovable frame- 
work. It is easy, therefore, to conceive the plight of these 
patients who could not be moved as the bombs began to fall ; 
and with obviously deliberate purpose the first bombs which 
the enemy dropped were incendiary bombs, so that the flames 
from the burning buildings gave him plenty of light for his 
work. 

The raid lasted two hours, more than one aeroplane coming 
down so low as to be able to employ machine guns upon those 
engaged in the work of rescuing the wounded from the burnini 
huts. Among those were a number of British Guardsmen 
camped outside the Hospital Area who came over immediately 
the place caught fire to lend every assistance they could. The 
casualties that night at No. 7 Canadian General Hospital 
amounted to upwards of 50 killed and 50 wounded among the 
staff — among the killed, was one nursing sister, and among 
the wounded seven nursing sisters, two of whom subsequently 
died, while six patients were killed and over 30 wounded. 
Canadian General Hospital No. 1 also suffered severely, three 
of the staff were killed and 21 wounded, of whom three after- 
wards died. Nine patients were killed and 37 wounded. 

It was a night of horror relieved by examples of wonderful 
heroism. While the raid was still in progress stretcher parties 
hastened to remove the wounded to places where they could 
receive first aid, and while the enemy aircraft still circled 
overhead the nursing sisters went about their work with 
perfect coolness. 

On May 21 a second raid was attempted, but fortunately 
no damage was done. The third raid came on the night of 
the 30th, and lasted from 10.30 p.m. to past midnight. On 
this occasion the bombs fell into the town, not in the Hospital 
Area. The fourth raid was on the night of the 31st, and it 
was again reported that it was impossible to speak too highly 
of the conduct of the members of the staff. 

That night casualties were again heavy, and No. 9 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital, which had been established in huts, but 
had not yet begun to receive patients, did not escape without 



Canadian Army Medical Corf>s. 389 



victims. In this Unit alone one officer subsequently died 
from his wounds, while two nursing sisters and 14 other ranks 
were wounded. 

In regard to the raid of May 19, it should be pointed out 
that it was not the Canadian Hospitals alone which suffered 
through this raid. Altogether some 100 bombs were dropped 
in this area, killing in all 124 other ranks. True, Canadian 
General Hospital No. 1 was the heaviest individual sufferer 
among the killed at the time, but 89 of the wounded among the 
British died of their wounds later. 

The Bombing of Doullens. — No more doubt exists as to 
the enemy's deliberate purpose in bombing No. 3 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital at Doullens on the night of May 29, 1918, 
than the case of the obvious open massacre among the Hospital 
Units at Etaples. ■ 

The fort in which the hospital was situated was a landmark, 
and a landmark well known to the enemy as the home of a 
Hospital Unit. It \&y well apart outside the town, with fields 
on three sides of it and a French Hospital on the fourth. It 
had been used solely for hospital purposes since the very begin- 
ning of the war ; there were no ammunition dumps, stores, 
camps, artillery, or any other military material in its neigh- 
bourhood. Giant Red Crosses were painted on its roofs ; the 
most wilfully short-sighted of enemy airmen could not have 
mistaken it. 

It is just possible that the deliberate raid upon it was 
prompted by the miserable motive of revenge, for No. 3 
Canadian General Hospital had done good work. It had won, 
4oo, a great name. During the German offensive in March, when 
the British Casualty Clearing Stations were compelled to fall 
back rapidly, and 50 miles of front thick with casualties were 
left without a single Casualty Clearing Station or an advance 
operating centre, Doullens became the natural Clearing Station 
for all this extensive area. 

It rose to the occasion. In the month before the offensive 
admissions had averaged 50 a day. On March 22 the admissions 
jumped to 500, on March 23 to over 1,000, on March 26 to over 
1,600, and on March 28 and 29 to well over 2,000 a day. Thirty- 
six thousand casualties passed through it in the ten weeks 
between March 21 and May 30, and 57,000 odd from May 1 to 
July 10. At the height of this crisis half-a-dozen surgical 
teams — Canadian, British, and Amercian — were working by 



390 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

day and another half-a-dozen teams by night. At times its 
accommodation was so taxed that some of the milder cases 
had to be placed two in a bed with one on a palliasse under the 
bed. 

Were these the reasons for which the enemy singled out 
this hospital for a manifestation of his super-contempt of the 
Hague Convention and of humanity ? 

It was just after midnight, May 29-30, that an enemy 
aeroplane dropped a flare, and then an incendiary bomb which 
struck the hospital full and fair. Instantly a fire broke out, 
and the whole upper group of buildings was threatened. An 
operation was in progress at the time of the raid and the whole 
of the surgical team, the nursing sisters, the patient and the 
stretcher-bearers were instantly killed. 

The flames spread rapidly, and the nursing sisters and 
orderlies had the utmost difficulty in removing their patients 
to safety. All behaved with magnificent courage. It is 
impossible to bestow all the honour which is due to individuals. 
The case of the nursing sister who slid down the debris, leading 
her patients, the stairway having gone, is but a typical incident. 

Of the staff, two officers, three nursing sisters, six N.C.O.s 
and 10 other ranks were killed, and one nursing sister and 15 
other ranks were wounded. Among the patients six officers 
were killed, two were subsequently found to be missing and 
reported dead, and three other ranks among the patients also 
lost their lives. 

"Llandovery Castle." — The story of the sinking of H.M. 
Hospital Ship " Llandovery Castle " is well known, but reference 
must be made to it in this report, not only because what it 
affords is probably the most deliberate sinking of a hospital j 
ship on record, but because the tragedy is in some degree 
softened by the remarkable heroism and devotion to duty of 
the staff of the Canadian Army Medical Service on board. 

Out of the entire ship's company there were only 24 survivors, 
and of these only six, one officer and five other ranks, escaped 
out of a hospital personnel of 97. 

The fiendish sinking of the " Llandovery Castle " was 
perpetrated by an enemy submarine on June 27, 1918, and the 
evidence of the six survivors of the hospital personnel leaves 
no doubt that the German submarine commander was resolved 
to sink the ship " without trace." This is obvious from the 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 391 

systematic attempts made by the submarine after the vessel 
had been torpedoed, to ram, shell, and sink the lifeboats and 
wreckage floating helplessly with their 258 helpless victims, 
116 miles from land. 

In spite of their appalling circumstances the conduct of all 
on board was in fitting keeping with the proudest traditions 
of the British Army and the Mercantile Marine. And through- 
out nothing is more marked than the coolness and courage of 
the 14 Canadian Nursing Sisters, every one of whom was lost. 

No excuse could be advanced by the enemy for this pitiless 
murder of almost the entire ship's company in cold blood. 
The night was clear, all lights in the vessel were burning, the 
customary Red Cross signal being prominently displayed 
amidships. It is also, perhaps, unnecessary to reaffirm that 
the accusation of the German submarine commander that the 
" Llandovery Castle " was carrying American Flying Officers or 
munitions of war, was without the faintest justification. It 
was an accusation on a par with the spirit which promoted the 
destruction of a vessel which was immune from attack by every 
law of war or peace. 

CASUALTIES. 

Stages of the Wounded from the Battlefield to " Blighty." 

It was the policy of the Canadian Authorities to provide beds 
in sufficient numbers in Canadian Hospitals in the British Isles 
to meet the requirements of the casualties among the Canadian 
Troops in France. 

So far as was practicable and possible, too, the Canadians 
evacuated from France were distributed to Canadian Hospitals. 
In times of stress, however, mainly to meet the exigencies of 
Ambulance Railway Transport in England they had, of necessity, 
to be distributed to both British and Canadian Hospitals. 
That, after severe fighting was inevitable ; but every effort 
was bent towards placing Canadians in Canadian Hospitals, 
and how successful was this endeavour is evident in the expan- 
sion of Canadian bed capacity alone. Where it was necessary, 
owing to the demands of the moment to place Canadians in 
British Hospitals, the British Authorities were prevailed on 
to place Canadians in Hospitals in areas most easily accessible 
to the Canadian Authorities and to the Canadian patients' 
relatives and friends. 



392 . seas Military Forces of Canada, 

It is interesting to glance for a moment at the progress of 
a casualty from the time he was hit in the Field np to the time 
he reached his Canadian haven of refuge in the land of respite 
from war, which, to the Imperial and Canadian troops alike, 
was known affectionately and popularly as " Blighty." 

When the Canadian soldier — officer or man — was wounded 
in the Field he was first tended by the stretcher-bearers of his 
Unit who bore him back to the Regimental Aid Post, unless, 
of course, the casualty were what is known as a "walking 
wounded." 

At the Regimental Aid Post the Medical Officer supplemented 
whatever additional treatment he could to that which had 
already been administered by the bearers. 

As quickly after that as might be, the casualty was moved 
on to the Advance Dressing Station for Field Ambulances, 
which perhaps might be one or tw r o miles in the rear. Some- 
times, of course, it was possible for the wounded man to proceed 
on foot, but the more serious cases were conveyed by stretcher 
and at times by horse ambulance. The latter was the method 
most used during the Battles of Amiens, Arras and Cambrai. 

At the Advance Dressing Station the patient again received 
every care which could be given there, and thence he was 
hurried on by Motor Ambulance or light railway to the main 
dressing station of the Field Ambulance and thence the Casualty 
Clearing Station. During the last 12 months of the war 
standard gauge trains linked the main Dressing Stations to 
the Casualty Clearing Stations, and the comfort of the wounded 
was thereby greatly increased. 

At every stopping place indeed, everything that it was 
humanly possible to do was done for the wounded men. From 
the time of their arrival at the Regimental Aid Post and 
throughout their subsequent journey those cases which could 
take nourishment were amply provided with comforting drinks 
and food. 

It was not, however, until the Casualty Clearing Station 
was reached, that whatever operation was necessary was 
performed, other of course, than the control of haemorrhage, 
removal of utterly destroyed limbs, treatment of shock and 
the initial treatment of gassed cases. Here at the Casualty 
Clearing Station, teams of skilled surgeons, including specialists, 
worked with ordered and skilful haste. Here, too, the casualty 



Canadian A nay Medical Corps. 393 

was bathed and clothed and put into a clean bed until such 
time as it was considered safe to move him to the Stationary 
or General Hospital located on the Lines of Communication, 
or on the coast at Etaples, Boulogne or Calais. 

From the Casualty Clearing Station to the Hospital all 
wounded were conveyed in a specially-equipped Hospital 
Train which carried Medical Officers and Nursing Sisters. 
At the hospital the wounded men remained until they were 
fit to be evacuated to a convalescent camp in France or carried 
to England in a floating hospital for further treatment there. 

Such is the bald outline of the journey towards rest of the 
happy warrior who had found peace with honour. 

It does not, however, convey all the wonderful surmounting 
of difficulties during that journey out of the hurly-burly, 
from the Regimental Aid Post, around which the shells always 
fell, to the final happy refuge in one of Canada's great palaces 
of healing in " Blighty." Nor could any words convey the 
kindness, the humanity and the skilled care which eased the 
bodies and cheered the spirits of the men who journeyed on 
that pilgrimage of pain. 

ESTABLISHMENTS OF THE VARIOUS ORDERS OF 

UNITS IN THE C.A.M.C. 

The names and other details concerning the various estab- 
lishments of the C.A.M.C. are given in the tables. Informa- 
tion regarding the relative strengths of these establishments 
are as follows :— 

(a) Units in England.— On November 30, 1918, the total 
personnel of the C.A.M.C. in England (officers, nursing sisters 
and other ranks) was 7,676 — namely, 770 medical officers, 
1,094 nursing sisters and 6,512 other ranks. 

Of these, 437 medical officers, 1,006 nursing sisters and 
3,656 other ranks were on the establishment of Hospital Units ; 
15 medical officers, 27 nursing sisters and 182 other ranks 
on that of the hospital ships H.M.A.T. " Araquaya " and 
H.M.A.T. " Essiquibo "; the remainder were attached to 
administrative staffs, Medical Boards, Regimental, and other 
establishments. 

Regarding Hospital Units, there are here included 10. 
General Hospitals, six Canadian Convalescent Hospitals 
(namely, Bearwood Park, Bromley, Matlock Bath, Epsom, 



394 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



Bexhill, and Monks Horton), and nine Canadian Special Hospitals 
(namely, Granville Canadian Special Hospital, Buxton ; Canadian 
Red Cross Special Hospital, Buxton; Etchinghill, Witley, 
Lenham, Westcliffe Eye and Ear Hospital, Petrograd, and the 
Canadian Forestry Corps Hospital, Beach Hill and Bushey Park). 

The divergence between the Bed Capacity list of Canadian 
Hospitals and that of the Canadian Hospital Units now referred 
to is brought about by the fact that on November 30, 1918, 
two Hospital Units, namely the 9th and 10th Canadian General 
Hospital Units, were operating British Hospitals, the Shorncliffe 
Military Hospital and the Kitchener Military Hospital, Brighton, 
respectively. 

(b) Units in France. — On the same date there were in France 
681 medical officers of the C.A.M.C, 792 nursing sisters, and 
5,731 other ranks. 

These were distributed between six General Hospitals, 
six Stationary Hospitals, four Casualty Clearing Stations, 
14 Field Ambulances, five Sanitary Sections, one Laboratory 
Unit, one Depot Medical Stores and Administrative Staffs, 
with, in addition, individual officers (not establishments) 
attached to Divisions, Forestry Corps Troops and Cavalry. 



WAR ACTIVITIES OF THE C.A.M.C. 

The tables which follow present in a condensed form the 
outstanding facts regarding the activities and the progressive 
expansion of the C.A.M.C. during the war. 

(A) PERSONNEL.— Strength of C.A.M.C. Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada on June 1 of successive years and on November 
30, 1918. 







As on 


June 1. 


Nov. 
30. 


1915* 


1916 


1917 


1918 1918 

l 


Officers 

Nursing Sisters 
Other ranks 


378 

535 

3620 


817 

915 

6913 


1319 

1486 

11327 


1386 1451 

1829 1886 

12304 j 12243 


Total personnel . . ! 4,533 


8,645 


14,132 


15,519 15,580 



: The only figures available are for August 10, 1915. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 



395 



(B) Units in France and elsewhere. — Summary of Units oi 
the C.A.M.C. in France on June 1 each year (excluding Corps and 
Divisional Staffs). There is no change between June 1 and 
November 30, 1918. 





1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


General Hospital 




2 


8 


6 


6 


Stationary Hospitals 






2 


4 


4 


6 


Casualty Clearing Stations . 






1 


3 


4 


4 


Field Ambulances 






3 


6 


13 


14 


Sanitary Sections 






1 


2 


3 


5 


Medical Depots 






1 


1 


1 


1 


Mobile Laboratories . . 






1 


1 


1 


1 


Totals 


11 


25 


32 


37 



(C) Units in England.— Summary of Units of the C.A.M.C. 
in England on June 1 each year (excluding Headquarters and 
Camp Staffs). 





1915. 


1916. 


1917. 1918. 


General Hospitals 


4 


3 


7 


10 


Stationary Hospitals 





3 








Special Hospitals 





4 


5 7 


Convalescent Hospitals 


3 


7 


8 8 


Laboratory Units 








2 1 


Sanitary Sections 


1 


2 


4 4 


Medical Depots 


2 


3 


3 ; 1 


Hospital Ships 








1 I 2 


Totals 


10 


22 


30 33 



(D) Combined Return of Units C.A.M.C. — The combined 
return of Units of the Canadian Army Medical Corps (excluding 
Staffs) Overseas in England and in France for the years 1915, 
1916, 1917, and 1918, are as follows :— 

Units. 

June 1, 1915 21 

June 1, 1916 48 

June 1, 1917 62 

November 30. 1918 67 






seas Military Forces of Canada, 



CANADIAN ACCOMMODATION FOR SICK AND 
WOUNDED. 

The following tables show Canadian Establishments and the 
lopment of Bed Capacity in Canadian Military Hospitals 
Ov< rseas, in England, and in France and elsewhere, for the 
years 1915. 1916, 1917, and 1918:— 

Bed Capacity (including crisis expansion), Canadian 
General and Stationary Hospitals Overseas from England in the 
years 1915, 1916, 1917 and 1918. 

Bed capacity on 



June 1 



Nov. 30. 



Ko. 1 Canadian General Hospital. 
( >pened Etaples, 31/5/15 

No. 2 Canadian General Hospital. 
i »pened Le Treport, 8/4/15 

No. 3 McGill) Canadian General Hospital. 
Opened Camiers, 7/8/15 ; transferred 
Boulogne 

No. 4 University, Toronto) Canadian 
General Hospital. 

Opened Salonica, 11/11/15; transferred 
to England, August, 1917, and opened 
at Basingstoke 

No. 5 Canadian General Hospital. 

Opened Salonica, 19/12/15; left August, 
]yi7 ; opened Kirkdale later in year. . 

No. 6 Laval) Canadian General Hospital. 
Opened Troves, 23/1/17 ; transferred to 
Joinville, 1/6/18 

No. 1 (Queen's University) Canadian 
General Hospital. 

Originally No. 5 Stationary ; opened 
Cairo. 26/8/16, with 400 beds ; became 
No. 7 Canadian General, January, 
1916 ; transferred Le Treport, April, 
191(3 ; transferred Etaples, November 
1916 

No. 8 Canadian General Hospital. 

Originally No. 4 Stationary; opened St. 
Cloud, 21/3/16; became No. 8 General, 
8/7 16 

No. 1 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Opened Boulogne, March, 1915 ; opened 
Lemnos, 23/8/15; Salonica, 4/3/16; left 
Salonica, August, 1917; now No. 13 

Canadian General Hospital, Hastings 

Carried forward 



1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1 

100 


1 ,040 


1 ,400 


1,400 


1 ,040 


1,600 


1,810 


2,210 




1,500 


1,517 


2,000 




1,440 


2,000 


Eng. 




1,040 


2,000 


Eng. 






1,400 


800 




1,040 


2,290 


2,290 




400 


520 


570 


300 


400 


600 


Eng. 


1,440 


8,460 


13,537 


9,270 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 



39; 



Bed Capacity (including" crisis expansion) — continued. 



Brought forward 

No. 2 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Opened LeTouquet, 4/12/14; transferred 
Outreau, 21/10/15 ' 

No. 3 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Opened Lemnos, 23/8/15; transferred 
Boulogne, 28/5/16; transferred 

Doullens, 21/11/16. In the spring of 
1918 acted as CCS. with 1,000 beds. 
Transferred to Rouen, August, 1918. 

No. 7 (Dalhousie) Canadian Stationary 
Hospital. 

Opened Le Havre, 19/6/16 (800 beds) ; 
tent Section of 400 beds at Harrleur, 
27/12/16; transferred Argues, 1917; 
April, 1918; transferred to Rouen, 
May, 1918; Camiers, September, 1918 

No. 8 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Proceeded to France, 5 12 17 ; opened 
Charmes (Yosges), April, 1918, with 
400 beds; Dunkirk, November 24, 
1918 

No. 9 (St. Fr. Xav.) Canadian Stationary 
Hospital. 

Proceeded to France, 5/12 17 ; opened 
St. Omer, January, 1918 (400 beds) ; 
Etaples, April, 1918 

No. 10 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Proceeded to France, December, 1917 ; 
opened at Calais, January, 1918 . . 

Forestry Corps Hospitals 

At Champagnoles (50), La Joux, Jura 
(70), and Gerardmer, Vosges (50), 
opened early 1918 



Total beds, General, Stationary, and 
Forestry Corps Hospitals 



Bed capacity on 
June 1. Nov. 30 



1915 1916 



191 



1,440 | 8,460 13.537 



650 



2,090 



300 



539 



400 



400 



520 



9,560 



191S 



9 270 



650 



1,090 



900 



400 



40 



612 



15,346 i 13,5'. 



Casualty Clearing Stations. — There were tour Canadian 
Casualty Clearing Stations, one for each Division. These 
were opened with the arrival or establishment of each Division 
in France. They were developed into advanced surgical 
stations, with six operating tables, at four of which during 
rushes, teams from other hospitals further along the Line of 
Communication co-operated to deal with urgent head, chest 



398 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



and abdominal cases. In this way they became Units of 
foremost importance from a surgical point of view ; capacity 
2,000 or more daily during increased activity. 



Canadian Hospitals in England. — (I) Development and 
Capacity on June 1, 1915, 1916, 1917, and November 30 ? 1918. 



1915 



1916 



1917 



Nov. 30 
1918 



GENERAL HOSPITALS. 

Taplow. Duchess of Connaught Canadian 
Red Cross Hospital. 
Opened 15/3/15 ; on 10/9/17 became No. 
15 Canadian General (Duchess of Con- 
naught) Hospital 

Shorncliiie. Moore Barracks Canadian 
Hospital. 

Opened May, 1915, on 10/9/17; became 
No. 1 1 Canadian General Hospital 
(including affiliated Queen's Canadian 
Hospital, Beachborough Park) 

Orpington. Ontario Military Hospital. 

Opened 19/2/16; became No. 16 (Ontario 
Military Hospital) Canadian General 
Hospital 

Bramshott Military Hospital. 

Operated by No. 9 Stationary Hospital ; 
taken over from British, September, 
1916; became No. 12 Canadian General 
Hospital 

Hastings. Canadian Military Hospital. 

Taken over from British, and operated 
by No. 8 Stationary Hospital, 22/1/17; 
by No. 1 Stationary Hospital, 24/9/17 ; 
became No. 13 Canadian General 
Hospital 

Eastbourne. Canadian Military Hospital. 

Operated by No. 10 Stationary Hospital, 
became No. 14 Canadian General 
Hospital 

Liverpool. Canadian Military Hospital, 
Kirkdale. 

( Jpened 2/7/17; taken over by No. 5 
Canadian General Hospital. . . . 



Basingstoke. No 
Hospital. 

Transferred from Salonica 
31/8/17 



4 Canadian General 

opened 



104 



1,070 



1,291 



1,040 



520 



920 



1,377 



1,040 



1,544 



800 



1.100 



2,182 : 



1,515 



722 



554 



313 



660 



1,180 



,600 



Total beds, General Hospitals . . 624 3,367 



5,951 9,590 



* Including 100 beds at the Sidcup Hospital. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 



399 



Canadian Hospitals in England— continued. 



1915 



1916 



1917 



Nov. 30 
1918 



SPECIAL HOSPITALS. 

Granville. Canadian Special Hospital. 

Opened at Ramsgate, November, 1915; 
transferred to and opened at Buxton, 
8/9/17 

Westcliffe. Canadian Special (Eye and Ear) 
Hospital. 

Opened December, 1915 

Buxton. Canadian Red Cross Special 
Hospital. 
Opened 15/2/16 

London. I.O.D.E. Hospital for Officers, 
1, Hyde Park Place, W. 

Opened 8/5/16. Affiliated to Petrograd 
Hospital, November, 1918 

Etchinghill. Canadian Special Hospital. 

Opened June, 1916 

Witley. Canadian Special Hospital. 
Opened October, 1917 . . 

Lenham. Canadian Special Hospital. 

Opened November, 1917 

Petrograd. Canadian Red Cross Hospital 
for Officers, North Audley Street, 
London 

Opened November, 1918, with 175 beds 
total, with affiliates, 226 beds 



800 1,048 



339 



353 



25(i 275 



>4 24 



620 



1,440 



374 



310 



1,060 
600 
150 

226 



Total beds, Special Hospitals . . 



1,413 2,320 



4,184 



400 Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 

Canadian Hospitals in England— continued. 



1 9 1 5 


1916 


1917 


Nov. 30 
1918 


CONVALESCENT HOSPITALS. 








Monks Horton. 

Opened 1915; became Canadian Com- 
mand Depot, 24 5 15; reopened as 
Convalescent Hospital, 21 6 17; closed 
1/8 18 


150 




440 




Shorncliffe. Greenville Hotel, Red Cross 
Convalescent Homes and South End. 
Employed temporarily in 1915 . . 500 








Bromley. 

Opened 11 5 15, closed 31/8/18. . . . j 120 


200 


294 




Bushey Park. King's Canadian Convales- 
cent Hospital. 
Opened 27/12 15. Now Special heart 
and kidney cases (summer of 1917). . 


64 


400 


406 


Uxbridge. Hillingdon House. 

Opened 21/9/15; taken over by R.F.C. 
in 1917 




130 


515 




Wokingham. Bearwood 

Opened 28/9/15 




400 


400 


. 700 


Epsom. Woodcote Park. 

Opened for Canadian Convalescents; 
Section operated by C.A.M.C., 7/9-/15 




1,200 


2,500 


3,900 


Putney Heath. Perkins Bull Convalescent 
Home for Officers. 

Opened June, 1916, Affiliated with 
Petrograd Hospital in November, 1918 




17 


43 




Shorncliffe. Military Hospital Convalescent 
Section . . 




379 






Hastings. The Hermitage. 

Opened December, 1915; evacuated. 
'24 10/17 






120 




Bexhill. Princess Patricia's Canadian Con- 
valescent Hospital. 
Opened January, 1918 






2,250 


Matlock Bath. Convalescent Hospital for 
Officers. 

Opened 26 12 17 






200 


Total beds, Convalescent Hospitals 


770 


2,390 


5,012 


7,450 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 401- 

Summary of growth of Bed Capacity, Canadian, in England. 





As on June 1. 


Nov. 30. 




1915 


1916 1917 


1918 


Total beds. General Hospitals . . 
,, ,, Special Hospitals . . 
,, ,, Convalescent Hospitals . . 


624 

770 


3,367 
1,413 
2,390 


5,951 
2,320 
5,012 


9,447 
4,184 
7,456 


Total, England 
France and elsewhere 


1,394 

2,090 


7,160 13,283 
9,560 '■ 15,346 


21,087 
13,522 


Total England, France and elsewhere . . 


3,484 


16,720 


28,629 


34,609 



Hospital Ships.— In 1917 a Hospital Ship Unit was 
established. In March, 1917, the Dominion Authorities took 
over from the Admiral ty two Hospital Ships for the transport 
of Invalids to Canada, each being provided with an establish- 
ment. The torpedoing of H.M.H.S. " Llandovery Castle " 
on June 27, 1918, arrested the service for several weeks ; it 
has now been restored. 



THE HELPERS OF THE C.A.MC. 

It would show a lack of appreciation of what is due and 
fitting, to conclude this account of the official agencies through 
which the Canadian Expeditionary Force has guarded the 
health of the troops and cared for the sick and wounded, 
without mentioning the wonderful manner in which the efforts 
of the C.A.M.C. have from the first been aided and encouraged 
by organisations and private individuals from one end of the 
Dominion to the other. Nor must we forget those in the British 
Isles, not Canadians, who have rejoiced in being able, by caring 
for her soldiers in their sufferings, to show their appreciation 
of the part played by the Dominion. 

So generous and widespread has been this outpouring of 
help that it is impossible to record faithfully all the assistance 
which has been received, from great Dominion organisations 
and Provincial Governments at the one end of the scale, down 
to those whose loving care for the patient can only show itself 
outwardly in the work of their hands in the form of soldiers' 
" comfort bags," knitted scarfs and the like for those in 
hospital. Still more impossible is it to mention by name all 
(642) D D 



^02 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

those who have paid visits to Canadians in hospital week after 
week, and month following month, to cheer them there and 
report upon their condition to the Canadian Red Cross. It is 
indeed only possible to indicate the many forms all this aid 
has taken. 

First and foremost, as representing the Voluntary Aid 
afforded from every part of the Dominion, must be mentioned 
the Canadian Red Cross Society and its affiliated organisation, 
the St. John's Ambulance Association. The extraordinary 
extent and complexity of the work accomplished by these 
bodies are the subject of a separate chapter. Here, however, 
recognition must be given of the efficiency of their work overseas 
in Flanders and in France. There is not a Field Ambulance 
nor Casualty Clearing Station or Hospital at the Front but was 
heartfelt in its appreciation of the promptitude with which, 
once a need was expressed, that need was met. Whether it 
were dressings, articles of hospital clothing or invalid food, or 
delicacies to vary hospital fare, the want had only to be made 
known to be met with in little more than the time it took for 
the Red Cross Motor Transport to reach the Unit. Wherever 
possible, spacious recreation huts have been provided with 
stages for concerts, and games to occupy the patients' leisure. 
In England, the help of the Canadian Red Cross Society has 
shown itself on a vast scale in the provision of entire hospitals, 
together with their equipment and a considerable portion of 
their maintenance. 

The greater part of the Duchess of Connaught Hospital, 
at Taplow, was in this way contributed by the Red Cross. A 
complete hospital for officers in London, with its equipment 
and maintenance, was the latest offer. 

The Canadian Military Y.M.C.A. has more especially taken 
under its care the active soldier ; nevertheless, many of the 
larger Canadian hospitals possess Y.M.C.A. Huts, and to their 
representatives much is owing for supervising and providing 
recreation and concerts for those patients able to be up and 
about. The Canadian Field Comforts' Committee is another 
body whose gifts have cheered Canadian patients. 

Much good work has also been accomplished by the Imperial 
Order Daughters of the Empire. Their outstanding con- 
tribution to a single object alone is represented by the equip- 
ment of the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire Hospital 
for officers in London. 



Canadian Army Medical Corps. 403 

To the Canadians domiciled in England and their Canadian 
War Contingents Association, much too is owing. They have 
more particularly given their funds for the benefit of the 
sick and wounded, and in common with the Imperial Order 
Daughters of the Empire have contributed more especially to 
the upkeep and maintenance of one particular hospital, the 
Queen Alexandra Hospital, Beachborough, near Folkestone. 

Passing from these National Associations to Provincial 
bodies, here first and foremost must be mentioned the Govern- 
ment of the Province of Ontario. To it the Canadian Army 
Medical Corps owes its finest and largest hospital in England, 
the great Ontario Hospital at Orpington (No. 16 Canadian 
General Hospital), with its 2,500 beds ; a most notable gift. 

Of other public bodies in Canada, special reference must 
be made to the Universities. Not merely have they given 
freely of the best of their teaching staffs in Medicine to form 
University Units, thereby throwing a heavy burden on those 
remaining behind and rendering it difficult to " carry on," 
but in addition they have raised sustentation funds and 
furnished various hospital Units with additional apparatus, 
conveniences and comforts, all tending to ensure that the work 
performed was of the best order, and that the patients were 
provided with the best treatment. The Universities concerned 
have given their aid as follows : — 

McGill . . . . No. 3 Canadian General Hospital. 

Toronto . . . . No. 4 Canadian General Hospital. 

Laval . . . . No. 6 Canadian General Hospital. 

Queen's . . . . No. 7 Canadian General Hospital. 

Saskatchewan . . No. 8 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

Dalhousie . . . . No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 
St. Francis Xavier 

College . . . . No. 9 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

The Western . . No. 10 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

The number of local Societies, branches of the Canadian 
Club, Women's Institute, Ladies' Aid Societies, Church Societies, 
Business men's organisations, Friendly Society Lodges, which 
have contributed to the welfare of the sick and wounded, is so 
great that it would be invidious to mention single examples 

There are, however, singJe individuals whose names must 
be mentioned. Thus Canada owes to Mr. John Walter, the 
head of the family which foi so many generations has owned 
the " Times," the use of his great house and estate at Bearwood, 

(642) D D 2 



404 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

for the purposes of a Convalescent Hospital ; to Major Waldorf 
Astor, M.P., accommodation for the Duchess of Connaught 
Canadian Red Cross Hospital in his beautiful grounds at 
Cliveden, Taplow ; and to Mr. Harold Kennedy, of Quebec, 
the lease of Bromley Park for a Convalescent Hospital. 
Particular acknowledgment, too, should be made of the debt 
owing to the Directors and employees of the well-known Massey 
Harris Company for the beautiful hospital at " Kingswood," 
Dulwich, including the house, furnishings and equipment 
complete in every detail, even down to the maintenance of the 
patients admitted. Thanks are also due for Clarence House, 
Roehampton, furnished by the Citizens of Ottawa under the 
supervision of Miss Lewis. 

Sincere gratitude must also be offered to the owners of 
mansions throughout the length and breadth of the British 
Isles, who threw open their homes to convalescent officers 
and men of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. It has seemed 
as though the Old Country could not do enough to show its 
affection for Canadians and its appreciation of the part played 
by the men of the Dominion in the Great War. 



405 



Canadian Army Dental Corps. 

FUNCTION—FORMATION— RECORD. 

The Canadian Army Dental Corps was organised early in 
1915 to attend to all dental matters affecting the personnel of 
the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and the appended 
statement showing the number of operations performed at the 
different clinics in France and England indicates the immense 
scale on which the Dental Corps has carried on its duties. 

From July, 1915, when the Canadian Army Dental Corps 
began operations Overseas till December 31, 1918, the number 
of operations amounted to the substantial total of 2,255,442, 
including 96,713 operations performed on Imperial troops who, 
from casualty or from other causes, came within the sphere of 
the Canadian Dental Corps. This number, however, includes 
49,449 scientific treatments for trench mouth in the Oral Pathology 
Department, and this great volume of work was accomplished by 
a comparatively small number of qualified dental officers and 
their assistants. In England, the Administrative Headquarters 
are in London, where the Director of Dental Services, Col. J. A. 
Armstrong, C.M.G., has the assistance of a Deputy Director and 
a Deputy Assistant Director. 

In France, the personnel of the Canadian Army Dental 
Corps carried on their work principally at Field Ambulances, 
Casualty Clearing Stations, General and Stationary Hospitals, 
in the Canadian Forestry Units, in the various Units of Railway 
Troops, and at Base Camps. These widely dispersed duties 
were performed under the supervision of the Director of Medical 
Services at Canadian Corps Headquarters, who forwarded reports 
on all dental work to the Director of Dental Sei vices, London. 

In England, Clinics were established at the various Canadian 
Training Centres, Command and Discharge Depots, Special 
Hospitals and Segregation Camps ; and in London, for the 
personnel employed at the different Canadian administrative 
offices of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and for officers 
and men on leave from France requiring emergency treatment. 

Every Canadian soldier on arrival in England, while putting 
in the prescribed time at a Segregation Camp, received a dental 
inspection and, if time permitted, his requirements were attended 
to there. If the work could not then be completed, information 



406 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

as to any further treatment necessary followed the soldier to 
whatever location he might be sent, and there the work was 
continued. Finally, he was again dentally examined before 
being placed on draft for France and either pronounced dentally 
fit or made so before leaving. 

In addition to the General Clinics which handled the bulk of 
the work there were Special Clinics, akin to that at the Inter- 
national Co-operative Institution at Queen's Hospital, Frognal, 
where patients who had received such injuries as having the 
nose or chin shot away, received the very best treatment 
that medical and dental science could provide. By a combina- 
tion of facial surgery and mechanical appliances the injured 
parts were restored and the lost parts substituted in such a way 
that not only was the patient enabled to masticate his food but 
unattractive personal appearance was greatly mitigated. 

"Trench Mouth."— Infectious Stomatitis (Trench Mouth) 
was practically an unknown disease prior to the War, but the 
troops had not been long Overseas before this new trouble 
became manifest to a serious degree, and at one time the epidemic 
reached the alarming proportions of 10,000 cases. The C.A.D.C., 
therefore, inaugurated the Department of Oral Pathology, and 
as a result of microscopic diagnosis and patient perseverance 
in treatment of the disease it was practically controlled. 

The problem presented by numerous cases of fractures of the 
jaw also became a serious one, and it was necessary to institute 
a Special Clinic at the Ontario Military Hospital, Orpington, to 
deal with this type of casualty, and excellent work was done in 
restoring to patients the lost function of mastication. 

Again, previous to the War, many officers and men had been 
fitted by their private dentists with gold bridges and other 
dental appliances and in numerous cases these had to be replaced 
or repaired. To meet this situation, the necessary arrangements 
were made whereby, at no extra cost to the Canadian Govern- 
ment, this special work could be secured by the patient signing 
a form which authorised the Paymaster-General to deduct from 
his pay the bare cost of the material used. 

The personnel of the C.A.D.C. has increased in proportion to 
the growth of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and the 
Dental Corps has expanded its sphere of professional usefulness 
according to the variation of the demand upon its services. Its 
strength on first coming Overseas was 30 Officers, 34 N.C.O.'s, 



Canadian Army Dental Corps. 407 

and 40 Privates, arid at the date of the signing of the Armistice 
it had increased to 223 Officers, 221 N.C.O.'s, and 238 Privates. 
Of this number there were in France 76 Officers, 76 N.C.O.'s, 
and 64 Privates, and in England 147 Officers, 145 N.C.O.'s, and 
174 Privates. 

The cessation of hostilities immediately reversed the aims of 
the C.A.D.C. Instead of making men dentally fit for War it 
turned its activities to making men dentally fit for Peace, and 
every Canadian soldier returning to Canada is accompanied 
by a document giving his exact dental condition at the date of 
his last inspection before embarkation. 

The appended table gives statistics of the record of operations 
performed since July, 1915, and up to December 31, 1918. 



408 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 







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409 



Canadian Chaplain Services. 

The Canadian Chaplain Services entered first upon its 
duties at Valcartier Camp in Canada in August, 1914, and 
33 Chaplains accompanied the First Canadian Contingent to 
England in October of that year, although it was not until 
August, 1915, that authority was granted for the organization 
of the Chaplain Services on lines similar to those of other 
Branches of the Service. 

In March, 1917, an Establishment was authorized in which 
the various religious denominations were represented as 
follows : — 

Chaplains. 
102 



VHU1LU Ui JL_>lIglCl±HJL 

Roman Catholic 








. 53 


Presbyterian 
Methodist 








. 58 
. 33 


Baptist 

Congregational 
Salvation Army 
Russian 








14 
2 
4 
1 


Undetermined . . 




Total 




13 
. 280 



Since that date authority has been granted for 10 additional 
officers. 

SPHERE OF OPERATIONS. 

The Director of Chaplain Services, Hon. Colonel J. M. 
Almond, C.M.G., has been aided by four Assistant Directors 
and a Deputy-Assistant Director. Of the Assistant Directors 
one is in France, one in England and one on the Lines of 
Communication. In the Divisions at the Front and in the 
various areas in England, Senior Chaplains keep in close and 
intimate touch with the local activities, while a full staff of 
Chaplains was distributed to minister to patients in Canadian 
Hospitals and Canadian patients in Imperial Hospitals in large 
areas, such as London, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham 
and Edinburgh. No Canadian soldier has indeed been left 
without the ministrations of a Canadian Chaplain. It is also 



410 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

gratifying that the various Canadian Churches have throughout 
been represented by many of their ablest Clergymen who have 
given themselves with whole-hearted devotion and enthusiasm 
to their work. 

In the Field. — The Canadian Chaplains are classed as Non- 
Combatants, but the nature of their ministrations at the front 
may be gathered from the fact that of the 426 Chaplains who 
have served with the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, two 
have been killed in action, one has died of wounds, one was 
drowned while serving in a hospital ship, and two others died 
of sickness. In all 21 Chaplains have been wounded while 
discharging their duties in the front line. 

During the later advances about 20 Chaplains were usually 
selected to accompany the troops into action, and their unfailing 
steadiness under fire and the example which they have offered 
of patience and humour, and oft-times heroism, in conditions 
far more trying to a non-combatant than to a combatant, has 
frequently done much to sustain and inspire the troops. 

It must not, however, be supposed that the duties of the 
Chaplains on the battlefield were confined to affording an 
example of passive endurance ; or even to the ministration 
of spiritual comfort. The duties assigned to the Chaplains 
were, as a matter of fact, of a decidedly arduous nature. It 
was their task to organize stretcher-bearing parties and to assist 
the Medical Officers. A number of them were commonly 
detailed to the Dressing Stations where they frequently 
remained for long periods without rest and sleep under heavy 
fire. Here their duties were both physical and spiritual. Here 
they bound wounds and gave the men such nourishment as 
they could take. Here they ministered to the dying, receiving 
messages to be sent to parents or wives, and were oftentimes 
loaded down with little personal effects, last little gifts which 
the owner desired to be sent home should he " Go West." The 
task of transmitting to the friends at home the last message 
from their dead, accompanied by a brief account of their passing, 
was regarded by the Chaplains as one of their most sacred 
duties ; and the gratitude of the relatives and friends of the 
dead was oftentimes most touching. At such moments, 
too, the avenues leading to the soul stand wide open, and the 
spiritual adviser finds a welcome entrance. 

To receive the whispered confidences of the dying, to utter 
a heartening word, offer a whispered prayer and to perform 
the solemn rites of Communion, were all a part of the Chaplain's 



Chaplain Services. 411 

service in the battle-zone. To the Chaplain, too, fell the task 
of burying the dead and engaging in the exacting and frequently 
dangerous work of searching a battlefield for wounded men. 

When the troops were in the training areas, or at rest behind 
the lines, every attention was given to parade and Voluntary 
Services, but in the day of battle the Chaplain's duties and 
spiritual ministrations were of a very different kind. 

The Fruits of Labour. — In Hospitals and Casualty Clearing 
Stations the Chaplains had not only spiritual but social duties 
to perform. They provided games for the convalescent ; 
they organized whist-drives and checker tournaments, while 
Boxing Nights and Literary and Debating Evenings all figure 
prominently in the Chaplains' Reports. 

In addition they did much good work in London, where 
men are always pouring in on leave. Trains were met and 
accommodation and entertainment provided at Clubs and 
Hostels. During the month of July, 1918, over 10,000 men 
were met at various railway stations, and a great number of 
these taken on personally-conducted tours to the various places 
of interest in the great Metropolis. 

Similar work was also undertaken in the provinces, and 
in the month of January, 1919, as many as 173 outings were 
arranged in Liverpool, 6,227 convalescent patients participating 
in these trips. 

The fruits of their services may perhaps be best appreciated 
in the exceptional moral standard of the Canadian troops, 
and the Higher Commands have borne repeated testimony 
to the Chaplain's contributory share in this direction ; for 
while they have invariably taken a foremost place in every 
educational movement and in all social and athletic activities, 
their main care has been the souls of which they were in charge, 
a duty which lies at the foundation of all worthy conduct and 
character. 



Since the signing of the Armistice the Chaplains have 
realized, in common with other responsible Officers, the great 
importance of keeping the men interested, entertained and 
I encouraged during the period of Demobilization. They are 
continuously moving about among the men, answering in- 
numerable questions, and in many other ways assisting them in 
the solution of their problems. Commanding Officers have 
come to regard the Chaplain's services of the highest value, 



412 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and are not slow to give them credit for their helpful and 
steadying influence. The work which they have accomplished 
does not lend itself to tabulation, but it is safe to say that 
they have done for the Canadian Army a service of social, 
moral and spiritual value in every way equivalent to that 
which the Churches they represent contribute to the life of 
the Nation at home. 

Honours and Awards. — Some idea of the place the Chaplains 
have made for themselves in the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada may be gained from the honours and awards which 
have come to them. Five of them have been made Companions 
of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, one a Commander 
of the Order of the British Empire, nine Companions of the 
Distinguished Service Order ; three were created Officers of 
the Order of the British Empire, 34 received Military Crosses, 
and two were awarded bars ; one while serving in the 
ranks received the Distinguished Conduct Medal, and three 
the Military Medal. The Chaplains received 32 Mentions in 
Despatches, and the names of 13 others were brought to the 
notice of the Secretary of State for services in connection with 
the War — a total of 103 awards and mentions. 

At the conclusion of hostilities there were 118 Chaplains 
in England posted to the various Training Areas and serving 
in Hospitals, Forestry Districts and other Areas. There were 
175 Chaplains in France, 80 of whom were in the Corps and the 
remainder on the Lines of Communication. 



413 



Accountant-General's Branch. 

The Accountant-General's Branch was organized on 
December 19, 1916, consequent on the appointment of a 
Minister of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and Colonel 
W. R. Ward, Director of Pay and Record Services, was appointed 
Accountant-General from that date, with the following instruc- 
tions issued by the Minister and with the functions stated 
herein : — 

(a) Financial consideration of proposals affecting Establish- 
ments of Units and Departments of the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada and of all proposals affecting expendi- 
ture generally. 

b) Advice on financial matters to the other branches of 
the Overseas Department. 

c) Advice regarding the general financial administration 
of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, to ensure 
that all expenditure is properly authorised, and that 
proper steps are taken to safeguard public funds. 

d) Enquiry, consideration, and advice regarding Pay and 
Audit Offices as may be considered desirable by the 
Minister. 

e) Questions regarding pay and money allowances of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and decisions as 
to the proper rates under the Regulations. 

f) Any proposals for amendments to Pay and Allowances 
and decisions as to the proper rates under the Regula- 
tions. 

g) Compilation of Financial Regulations and amendments 
thereto. 

[h) Decisions in consultation with representative of the 
Auditor-General of Canada in regard to writing off 
any over-payments of losses. 

Communications regarding statements and other financial 
matters requiring the co-operation of the Department of 
Militia and Defence, Ottawa. 

(j) Distribution of Estates of deceased officers and men. 

The original instructions provided also for a financial 
review of contracts and agreements, etc., entered into by the 



414 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Department, but on the appointment of the Overseas Purchasing 
Committee in July, 1918, all questions referring to this subject 
were transferred to that Committee. 

The original strength of the Accountant-General's Branch 
as authorised on December 19, 1916, was — 

4 Officers, 

5 N.C.O's and Men, 

3 Civilian Stenographers. 

On re-organization of the departments of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada in 1918 the establishment was reduced, 
and two Officers and four N.C.O's and Men were released for 
other services. 

Revised Edition Financial Regulations. — As the Financial 
Regulations for the Force had become entirely out of date in 

1917, a complete revision was undertaken, and in the latter part 
of that year, a new book was compiled by the Accountant- 
General, which was sent to Canada in the latter part of May, 

1918, to obtain the concurrence of the Militia Department. 

Regulations for Civilians. — The general question of employ- 
ment of civilians is dealt with by the Accountant-General, of 
whom there are about 1,100 employed in the various Administra- 
tive Departments, exclusive of a large number in the hospitals. 

To meet the changes arising in the labour market, increased 
cost of living, etc., it became necessary to. reconsider the rates 
of pay, etc., and revised regulations for the employment and pay 
of civilians employed in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
were prepared and issued with effect from November 1, 1918. 

Financial Arrangements with War Office. — Financial arrange- 
ments with the War Office have been under consideration through- 
out the year, and practically all outstanding questions relative to 
the incidence of cost and various operations of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada with the Imperial Authorities have been 
settled, and are now in the course of adjustment. 

Establishments. — All questions of Establishments of Units 
and Formations in the Field and in the United Kingdom are 
submitted to this Department, and incidence of cost, pay and 
allowances of personnel and general financial effect thereon is 
reported to the Minister. 

Civil Servants. — In connection with the decision of the Govern- 
ment to discontinue payment of Civil Service salaries, subsequently 



Accountant-General' s Branch. 415 

amended by Order-in-Council, P.C. 1240 of May 21, 1918, 
which, after further consideration, has been held in abeyance 
till May 1, 1919, it became necessary to collect full particulars 
of all civil servants in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 
Captain H. M. Dunn came from Ottawa in August, 1918, with 
over 5,000 index cards of Civil Servants, and has worked under 
the Accountant-General in securing all particulars of payments 
made to these Civil Servants on account of military services. 
This has occupied a great deal of time and close attention, and all 
particulars have now been transmitted to Ottawa for the adjust- 
ment of their accounts, involving considerable recoveries of 
over-payments. 



417 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 

SEPARATE ACCOUNTS FOR EVERY OFFICER 
AND MAN OVERSEAS. 

Prior to the outbreak of war in 1914, the Canadian Army 
Pay Corps, while it was an integral part of Canada's small 
Permanent Force, was only concerned in a very limited way 
with the Militia. The staff of the Pay Corps was, therefore, 
very small, consisting of a few trained experts capable of 
interpreting and applying the somewhat complex regulations 
which governed its activities. Thus, when the Expeditionary 
Force was organised it was called on to undergo the same 
strain and expansion demanded of every branch of the Service. 
This made it necessarv to procure additional qualified financial 
or accounting staff to take care of the increased work, who not 
only had to familiarise themselves with existing regulations 
governing the disbursement of public funds, but at the same 
time had to cope with the new regulations which were constantly 
being promulgated. 

Broadly speaking, the Canadian Army Pay Corps performs 
three cardinal functions : — 

(1) The paying of all debts incurred by the Canadian 
Government with contractors, with Imperial and 
other Dominion Governments, etc. 

(2) The making of all payments to the troops of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada and their de- 
pendants. 

(3) The adjustment of reciprocal accounts between the 
Imperial and other Governments, and the maintaining 
of records and statistics in reference thereto. 

While the first of these functions entails much investigation 
and labour, the great bulk of the work and responsibility of 
the Pay Corps is involved in the issue of pay and allowances 
to officers, non-commissioned officers and men and their 
dependants. Every financial transaction between the Pay 
Corps and the troops is recorded in the central office in London, 

(642) E E 



418 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

the organisation and system of which, under the control of 
Brig.-General J. G. Ross, C.M.G., is set forth as follows : — 

PAYMASTER GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 

The duties and responsibilities of the Paymaster General's 
Department are as follows : — 

(a) Generally to administer and control the financial 
services of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(b) To be responsible for the proper accounting and 
disbursement of all Public Funds received for the 
pay, allowances and maintenance of the Forces. 

(c) To make arrangements for an adequate supply of 
funds to care for such disbursements. 

(d) To arrange and ensure that all reasonable safeguards 
are employed to protect the Public Funds from loss. 

(e) To make arrangements for and ensure the prompt 
consideration and settlement of all claims against 
Public Funds arising out of the activities of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(/) To prepare individual pay ledger accounts for all 
officers and soldiers of the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada, and to collect the necessary information 
from which these accounts are prepared. 

(g) To render such statements, statistics and returns 
as may be called for in regulations or by the Minister. 

(h) To perform such other functions and undertake such 
other responsibilities as may be from time to time 
specially assigned to the Paymaster General's Depart- 
ment by the Minister. 

The chart of the Paymaster General's Department herewith 
shows the organisation, in greater detail, of the major Accounting 
Divisions of that Department. 

The Paymaster General is assisted in the performance of 
his duties by 

The Deputy Paymaster General. 
Assistant Deputy Paymaster General (2), England. 
Assistant Deputy Paymaster General (3), England. 
Assistant Deputy Paymaster General (1), France. 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 419 

The functions of the Divisions and Sub-Divisions of the 
Department are as follows : — 

1. Deputy Paymaster General.— The Deputy Paymaster 
General acts as the assistant to the Paymaster General, and 
is responsible for the general administration of the Pay Depart- 
ment and the supervision of its various sub-branches. He 
more directly deals with questions of policy, regulations, orders, 
rulings, etc., and interpretations thereof ; also the maintenance 
of the Orderly Room, the military and civil personnel of the 
London Pay Office, and is responsible for the supervision of 
the chief Accounting Branch. 

Rulings Branch-- Duties and Functions. — To examine regula- 
tions and procedure authorised and adopted in the past for the 
purpose of co-ordinating and recording in permanent form the 
principles and practice by which the Pay Department is 
administered. 

To collect and examine data required in the consideration 
of definite proposals arising out of the development of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and to make submissions 
to the proper authority for decisions thereon. 

To interpret regulations in regard to specific cases or general 
conditions where any doubt exists as to their correct application 

Personal Services. — This Sub-Division is responsible for the 
control and administration of the personnel of the Pay Depart- 
ment ; for the maintenance of the records of service and for 
arrangements for transfers, promotions, appointments, etc. 

Accounting Branch. — The chief Accounting Branch is 
responsible for the following : — 

The maintenance of all Cash and Controlling Accounts, 
exercising an absolute control of all cash transactions from the 
time that funds are received by or on behalf of the Paymaster 
General from the Dominion Government, or any other source, 
including funds held " in trust," until they are finally distributed 
and accounted for. 

The consolidating of all cash transactions of all Sub- 
Accounting Branches and officers reporting directly or indirectly 
to the Paymaster General. 

The maintenance of adequate controlling accounts for the 
government of inter-departmental entries between all other 
Divisions or Sub-Divisions, which may or may not directly 
involve cash. 

(642) EE 2 



420 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The preparation of all general financial statements, returns, 
statistics, etc., called for by the Minister, Overseas Military- 
Forces of Canada, Auditor General for Canada, or in Regulations. 

The prompt settlement of all claims, other than Officers' 
and Nursing Sisters' travelling and subsistence allowance 
claims, incurred in the British Isles by the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada. 

The maintenance of adequate records of services reciprocally 
.performed by the Imperial and Canadian Forces, which are 
not periodically settled for in cash, so that when it is desired 
to effect a settlement adequate data will be available. 

2. Assistant Deputy Paymaster General (2). — This Officer 
is responsible to the Paymaster General for the inspection of 
Command and Regimental Paymasters' offices, to ensure that 
all work in these offices is being efficiently, economically and 
properly carried on in accordance with regulations laid down. 

3. Assistant Deputy Paymaster General (3). — This Officer 
is responsible for the compilation of the individual ledger 
accounts of the Officers, Warrant Officers, Non-Commissioned 
Officers and men of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada,, 
and all detailed accounting and correspondence related 
thereto. The Division is sub-divided into two branches 
as under : — 

(a) P.M. Branch — Officers and Nursing Sisters. 

(b) Pay II. Branch— Other Ranks. 

(a) Duties and Functions of P.M. Branch — Officers and 
Nursing Sisters' Pay Accounts. — To keep individual pay ledger 
accounts for all Officers and Nursing Sisters of the Canadian" 
Overseas Military Forces, recording therein all transactions 
and information affecting the position of their accounts, and 
showing clearly at all times the amount owing to or by the 
Officer or Nursing Sister. 

To obtain and receive the information in the form laid 
down by Regulations necessary for recording transactions- 
covered in para, (a) above. 

To remit monthly the amount of the balance of such transac 
tions to the Banker or Agent for the Officer or Nursing Sister 
for the credit of his or her account. 

To prepare such statements, returns of summaries and of 
transactions mentioned in para, (a) above as are called 
for by Regulations, or required, for higher authority, internal 
accounting, reconciliation or statistical purposes. 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 421 

To remit to the dependants of Officers or Nursing Sisters, 
or other payees at their request, either by way of Assigned 
Pay or special remittance, such sums from their accounts as 
may be authorised by them. 

To remit monthly to the Officers' or Nursing Sisters' de- 
pendants residing in countries other than in North America 
Separation Allowance, as authorised by Regulations and 
Assigned Pay. 

To see that the accounts of all Officers or Nursing Sisters 
killed, died of wounds, sickness or other causes, missing or 
discharged, are properly closed, and the balances accruing 
disbursed either to the Officer or Nursing Sister, if discharged 
in England ; transferred to Canada for settlement there, if 
discharged in Canada ; or advised to the Estates Branch to 
be finally disbursed in the case of Officers or Nursing Sisters 
killed, etc., in accordance with civil and military regulations. 

To consider promptly and settle by remittance to Officers' 
or Nursing Sisters' Banks or Agents all regular claims for 
travelling expenses, maintenance, etc., submitted to the Pay- 
master General's Department. 

Officers Accounts. — While a commissioned Officer has ample 
opportunity to scrutinise his account, his finances have always 
been dealt with by the Branch in charge of them as con- 
scientiously as in the case of Non-Commissioned Officers 
and men, and his assignments of pay, separation allowance, 
claims for expenses, clothing, etc., have been executed with 
scrupulous care. 

In October, 1914, there were approximately 600 Officers' 
accounts to be dealt with. The number of these accounts 
rose in the intervening years between that date and the date 
of this report to over 16,000 accounts, and about 13,000 at the 
time of the compilation of this report. The actual issue of their 
pay, the posting of ledgers, etc., has never entailed a large staff 
or excessive labour, but the amount of subsidiary work which 
Officers' finances involve has necessitated the organisation of 
several sub-divisions of this Branch, and the employment of a 
military and civil staff of about 130. One section, for example, 
is responsible for the promotions and reversions in the " London 
Gazette," and Routine Orders have to be carefully watched 
in order that every movement or change of rank affecting an 
Officer's pay and allowance may be promptly and accurately 



422 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

recorded. To facilitate this work, a card-index giving the 
history of an Officer's career, from the point of view of the Pay 
Department, has to be systematically maintained and kept up 
to date. 

Every Officer of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada is 
invited to visit the Pay Office to examine his account and make 
enquiries, and he is afforded every facility to make himself 
familiar with the workings of the department which is re- 
sponsible for his finances, as frequently, owing to active service 
conditions, he has not been able to keep in touch with the 
various changes and amendments to Regulations, and officers' 
rates of pay are extremely elaborate and vary considerably 
in the different appointments to which a Commissioned Officer 
may be delegated. It is obviously to the interest of officers 
that they should make themselves familiar with Pay Regulations 
and have some knowledge of the machinery of the Pay Depart- 
ment, but, as stated above, it is not always possible for them to 
keep fully up to date. 

(b) Duties and Functions of Pay II. Branch — Pay and 
Allowances of N on-Commissioned Officers and Men. — To keep 
individual pay ledger accounts for all Warrant Officers, Non- 
commissioned Officers and Men of the Canadian Forces serving 
Overseas, recording therein all transactions and information 
affecting the position of their accounts, and showing clearly 
at all times the amount owing to or by the soldier. 

To obtain and receive in the form authorised by Regulations 
the information necessary for recording the transactions 
mentioned in paragraph above. 

To prepare such statements, returns, summaries of trans- 
actions mentioned in paragraph above, as are called for 
by Regulations, or required for higher authority, internal 
accounting, reconciliation and statistical purposes. 

To remit to the soldier's dependants or other payees at his 
request, either by way of Assigned Pay or special remittance, 
such sums from his account as may be authorised by him. 

To remit monthly to soldiers' dependants, residing in 
countries other than North America, Separation Allowance 
and Assigned Pay. 

To issue advances of pay to soldiers applying at the Pay- 
master General's Office in London whilst on leave, either from 
Local Commands, or from Divisions, etc., in France. 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 423 

Properly to balance up and close the accounts of all soldiers 
killed, died of wounds or sickness, missing or discharged, and 
in the case of soldiers discharged in England to settle the balance 
accruing ; in the case of soldiers discharged in Canada to advise 
balances to Ottawa for settlement, and in the case of soldiers 
killed, etc., to advise balances to the Estates Branch in order 
that they may be eventually disbursed in accordance with 
civil and military regulations. 

In Pay II. Branch, as the department is called, a pay account 
is kept for every Warrant Officer, Non-Commissioned Officer 
and man, and the ledger-sheet reveals the whole financial 
history of each man — his daily earnings, cash payments made, 
the amount of pay which he has assigned and the amount of 
Separation Allowance payable to his wife or other dependant, 
the sums he may have invested in War Loan, and every other 
financial detail connected with his service. 

When a soldier is discharged, he is rendered a statement 
of his account showing his balance, either debit or credit, and 
he is required to satisfy himself of its accuracy before final 
settlement is made. During the past year, summary sheets 
have been drawn from the ledgers, and the balances due to 
N.C.Os. and men forwarded to their Paymaster, and the soldiers 
paraded, and every opportunity given them to satisfy them- 
selves that their accounts are right. Should there be any 
item of which a soldier is doubtful, he has only to ask in order 
to have it investigated and, if necessary, rectified. These 
methods have done much to inspire the troops with confidence 
in the Pay Office. 

There are about 300,000 active accounts in the charge of 
Pay II. Branch, and the most scrupulous care has been exercised 
to keep the work strictly up to date and to preserve accuracy 
in the intricate operations connected with the disbursement, 
accounting and recording of many millions of dollars. Matters 
are complicated by the rates of pay, which vary in accordance 
with the military duties which a soldier may be called upon to 
perform. He may be employed as a clerk in a military office, 
and thereby entitled to an increased rate of pay. He may be 
entitled to special W T orking Pay as a field butcher, or to special 
Technical Pay as a skilled mechanic ; and for all these increased 
rates of pay highly complex regulations have been drawn up 
involving their administration by experts. 

There is one phase of the work which deserves special 
mention. This is the payment of sums of money to the wives 



424 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and other dependnats of soldiers of foreign countries serving 
with the Canadian Forces, and especial care has been taken to 
prove to these men's dependants that every consideration is 
being given them by the land of the soldier's adoption. Exclud- 
ing those from the United Kingdom, the number of immigrants 
in Canada in 1914 was 242,256, of which 24,722 were Italians 
and 24,485 Russians, and when Canada entered the War it 
was only to be expected that many of her male Colonists from 
foreign countries would enlist in her Army. Naturally many 
of them were married and had wives and families living in 
almost every quarter of the globe, but the Canadian Government 
held it an obligation to provide for these dependants in the 
same manner as in the case of soldiers' relatives who were in 
Canada or in England, and upon the Pay Corps has devolved 
the intricate business of making such payments in the currency 
of some twenty different countries. 

The same principles which govern the administration of 
Officers' pay hold good in the case of Warrant Officers, N.C.Os. 
and men. The soldier, as a rule, is unable to look after his 
financial affairs as closely as he might wish, for the reason that 
his energies are entirely absorbed in training for the field or in 
actual fighting, and his finances are therefore administered 
for him with the most scrupulous care and every endeavour 
is made to satisfy him that his interests are being looked after, 
and that his dependants at home are being taken proper care of. 

4. Assistant Deputy Paymaster-General (1) — France. — 

This Officer represents the Paymaster General at the Canadian 
Section, General Headquarters, 1st Echelon, and also performs 
the duties of Command Paymaster, Canadian Troops in France, 
and is responsible to the Paymaster General for the immediate 
control and administration of the financial services of the 
Canadian Military Forces in France ; for the supply of funds 
to Field Cashiers ; for the circulation of rulings, orders and 
instructions received from the Paymaster General ; for the 
inspection of Field Cashiers and Regimental Paymasters' 
offices ; for the control and disposition of personnel, and for the 
maintenance of accounts with the Imperial financial authorities 
in France in connection with services, both financial and 
military, reciprocally performed by the Imperial and Canadian 
Forces. 

5. Field Cashiers. — The Field Cashiers, of whom there 
are five — one for each Division and one for the Canadian Corps 
Troops — are responsible to the Command Paymaster, Canadian 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 425 

Troops in France, for the immediate administration and control 
of the financial services of their Divisions ; for the supply of 
funds to, and the inspection of, the books and accounts of 
Regimental Paymasters ; for the circulation of rulings and 
regulations promulgated by the Paymaster General, and for 
the collection and transmission of accounts and vouchers 
either to the Command Paymaster, Canadian Troops in France, 
or to the Paymaster General's Office in London. 

6. Regimental Paymasters — France. — Regimental Pay- 
masters are allotted to Units in accordance with provisions 
of Establishment, and are responsible for — 

The issue of cash to troops and the submission of properly 
receipted vouchers in accounting therefor to the Paymaster 
General, London. 

To consider and deal with all questions of a financial nature 
raised by officers or soldiers of the Units to which they are 
attached, and to advise and rule thereon when possible or, if 
necessary, to refer to the Field Cashier or the Paymaster 
General, London, for rulings, interpretation of regulations, 
or for such other action as may be necessary. 

7. Command and Regimental Paymasters — England. — The 

functions and duties of Command Paymasters in England 
are in every way the same as those of the Field Cashiers in 
France, with the exception that Command Paymasters in 
England are supplied direct with funds by the Paymaster 
General, London. 

The duties and functions of Regimental Paymasters in 
England are similar in every way to those of the Regimental 
Paymasters in France. 

8. Staff. — In order to cope with the large mass of detail 
to be dealt with every day in the central office in London, a 
large staff of competent clerks is employed, the majority of 
them being soldiers who have seen service in the field and who 
before the War had some experience in office routine, book- 
keeping, accounting and so forth. In the Branch which deals 
with the pay of N.C.Os. and men, about 1,000 men are employed, 
over 490 of them being engaged on the ledgers. The staff 
commences work at 8.30 each morning, and ceases at 5 p.m., 
after which a staff of auditors enters the building and reviews 
during the night the work accomplished during the day. The 



426 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

following morning all observations made by the auditors are 
immediately dealt with and disposed of before any fresh work 
is commenced. 

It will thus be noted that the greatest precautions are 
taken to ensure an accurate and careful control of all public 
monies disbursed on behalf of the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada. 

9. Banking. — The funds of the Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada are concentrated in London, direct credits being issued 
by the Finance Department at Ottawa to the Deputy Minister 
and Paymaster General through the branch of the Bank of 
Montreal, Threadneedle Street, London, whose Manager (Mr. 
G. C. Cassels) has afforded valuable assistance at all times 
on all questions of general policy arising in connection with 
financial matters in England. 

Cordial relations also exist with British banks, more 
particularly Lloyds Bank, Ltd., and Cox & Co., who, through 
the large number of their agencies throughout the country, have 
enabled cheques issued in regard to Separation Allowance, 
Assigned Pay and Leave Cheques, as well as the payment of 
ordinary Government accounts, to be cashed readily, to the 
great satisfaction of the numerous dependants and assignees 
of officers and other ranks throughout Great Britain. 

The greater activities, however, in connection with the 
payment of the ordinary purchasing accounts and the handling of 
the individual accounts of officers and nursing sisters, have 
been performed through the Manager of the Bank in Waterloo 
Place (Mr. Dudley Oliver). Approximately over 85 per cent, 
of the accounts have been handled by this Branch of the Bank, 
and the relations between Pay Office and the Manager have 
been of the most cordial nature, great assistance and co- 
operation having been rendered by him at all times ; more 
especially in connection with the clearing of cheques with the 
various banking institutions in England. The co-operation 
and assistance afforded has tended in a large measure to assist 
in preventing the many complications which might naturally 
arise in dealing with the large number of accounts carried by 
the Bank for Canadian officers and nursing sisters, etc., 
especially in regard to the clearing of officers' chits cashed in 
France through the Waterloo Place branch of the Bank of 
Montreal, London. These were formerly cleared through 
Cox & Co. at Boulogne, and the new system has greatly in- 
creased the amount of work on this branch of the Bank^of 
Montreal. 



Canadian Army Pay Corps. 427 

This work, however, has been cheerfully undertaken by the 
Manager, to the great advantage of both the officers, Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada, and the Pay Office. 

Lloyds Bank, Ltd., Westminster House branch, through 
their Manager (Mr. W. Waldron) have been instrumental in 
handling many subsidiary accounts, such as payment of leave 
cheques issued in France, cashier's payments and Separation 
Allowance and Assigned Pay cheques, in this way rendering 
great satisfaction at all times to the members of the Canadian 
Overseas Forces 



428 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 



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429 



Department of the General 
Auditor. 

The Department of the General Auditor was organised 
and administered by Colonel L. A. Dowie, and subsequently 
the Establishment was approved by Order-in-Council 1614 
of 1917, and varied later by the Minister to meet changed 
circumstances. 

The duties devolving on the Department were those con- 
sequent on the auditing of receipts and disbursements of Public 
Funds, as recorded in the books and accounts maintained by 
the Paymaster General, and also the audit and inspection of 
the Regimental Accounts of Units stationed in England. 

The routine work of the Department has been delegated 
to Branches, the duties of which are as follows : — 

Finance 1. — To audit all disbursements of Public Funds 
made by the Paymaster General, and to ensure that such 
disbursements are correctly classified in accordance with War 
Appropriations, Ottawa. 

To audit deposits made to the account of the Receiver 
General in England. 

To audit the monthly and annual consolidated statements, 
rendered to the Accountant and Paymaster General, Ottawa, 
by the Paymaster General, London, and latterly to the Auditor 
General of Canada, Ottawa. 

To audit memorandum accounts of Imprests and Advances 
to be subsequently accounted for. 

To audit receipts and disbursements in respect of all Trust 
and Suspense Accounts maintained by the Paymaster General. 

To obtain refund of duty included in the purchase price 
of tea and sugar consumed by Canadian Troops in England. 

Finance 2. — To audit the personal accounts of all Other 
Ranks and to verify the controlling accounts which are main- 
tained to record transfers between Departments of the Pay 
Office, also the total payments by Accounting Officers of the 
Canadian Army Pay Corps with the aggregate postings to 
personal accounts. 



430 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Finance 3. — To audit the personal accounts of all Officers 
and Nursing Sisters, and to verify the total payments and 
deposits to accounts of Officers and Nursing Sisters with the 
aggregate charges to their personal accounts. 

Finance 4. — To conduct special investigations and audits 
which are required by the Minister to be undertaken from time 
to time. 

Regimental Funds Branch. — This Branch includes the 
personnel of the Regimental Funds Board which supervises the 
work of Regimental Audit Boards appointed under military 
regulations to audit Mess Accounts and Regimental Funds ; 
it also ensures the correct application of such Funds and Assets, 
and issues Clearance Certificates to Commanding Officers. 

In addition to these functions this Branch examines and 
records the proceedings of Boards held to determine re- 
sponsibility for deficiencies of Quartermaster's Stores before 
approval is given by the General Auditor for writing off such 
deficiencies. 

FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS. 

At the beginning of the War the Canadian Government 
expressed the desire of Canada to defray the cost of her 
Contingents Overseas, both in England and in France. 

The cost of the Contingents naturally fell into three main 
classes, viz.: — 

(a) Pay and Allowances, Pensions and War Gratuities. 

(b) The expenses of maintenance of personnel in England. 

(c) The expenses of maintenance of personnel in France. 

Canada has defrayed the Pay and Allowances of all her 
troops serving both in England and France, and has met the 
charges payable in England in connection with Pensions and 
War Service Gratuities through the Paymaster General. 

The troops in England have been maintained by — 

(a) The importation of stores, equipment, etc., from 
Canada. 

(b) The issue of stores, material, equipment, etc., obtained 
from the Imperial Government, for which detailed 
accounts have been rendered, also ancillary services 
which have either been paid by the Paymaster General 
or have been accepted as liabilities or contingent 
liabilities. 



Department of the General Auditor. 431 

(c) Direct purchases of stores, material, equipment, etc., 
made and issued by the Canadian Administration 
Overseas and paid for by the Paymaster General. 

With regard to the maintenance of the Canadian Troops 
in France, it was manifestly impossible to ascertain the precise 
costs, and it was therefore decided that a rate should be 
established at which the Canadian Government would pay 
the Imperial Government per man per day. This rate was 
intended to be the per capita cost to the Imperial Government 
of the whole of the Forces maintained by that Government in 
the Field in France, and was to be established by the War 
Office. It was to include the total cost of the troops, except 
Pay, Allowances and the Canadian liability for Pensions and 
W T ar Gratuities 

On account of the protraction of the War and the added 
cost, resulting from the increased consumption of ammunition 
and the costs of Heavy Artillery, the capitation rate has not 
been definitely established for the entire period. 

In the meantime payments on account have been made 
through the High Commissioner to the Imperial Government 
from time to time pending the settlement of this outstanding 
question. 

There are certain charges proposed to be made by the 
Imperial Government concerning which so far insufficient 
data has been supplied to admit of the acceptance of such 
charges by the Canadian Government, but these matters are 
now receiving the attention of expert accountants, and it is 
expected that they will be settled in the near future. 

There are a number of services rendered by the Imperial 
Government to the Canadian Government, and vice versa, for 
which no accounts have yet been rendered. These accounts 
are now in process of formulation. 

Canadian personnel have been employed in special technical 
services, and a large number of officers have been seconded 
for service with the Imperial Forces, such as the Royal Flying 
Corps. 

Remarks. — Since the arrival of the Canadian Contingents 
in England, the disbursements of Public Funds by the Pay- 
master General have been audited by this Department. 

As the Department was not created until 1915, some of 
the documents relating to 1914/1915 were returned to Canada 
without passing through the hands of the General Auditor. 



432 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The Financial Instructions and Orders-in-Council, created 
and passed in Canada, relating to payments and the authorities 
for payment, have been carefully applied. 

Certain difficulties, however, were experienced in inter- 
preting and applying these, owing to the impossibility of 
anticipating in the regulations conditions resultant on the 
large increase in troops, their employment and location, and 
the changed conditions from time to time existing Overseas. 

Other difficulties arose with regard to obtaining trained 
personnel. 

Some over-payments have been made to the officers and 
other ranks of the Force, but the bulk of these are subject to 
recovery under the terms of the War Service Gratuity Order- 
in-Council, or before the cessation of the soldier's service. A 
proportion of such over-payments have been advised to Ottawa, 
and the balance are in process of notification. By comparison 
with the large disbursements of Pay and Allowances through 
the Paymaster General, these over-payments will be ex- 
ceptionally small. 

In view of the difficult conditions under which the work 
has been carried on, the receipts and disbursements have on 
a whole been recorded in a very satisfactory manner and 
carefully controlled. The disbursements on account of purchases 
of materials, etc., have also been audited, and the necessary 
documentary evidence produced in accordance with the 
Consolidated Revenue and Audit Act. 

During the course of the various audits the matters requiring 
attention have been brought to the notice of the Departments 
interested, and have received the required consideration, or 
are in process of reply at present. 



433 



Canadian Record Office. 

Every detail and incident of Military importance connected 
with the life or death of a Warrant Officer, Non-Commissioned 
Officer and man of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 
from the time of his arrival in England until such time as 
he is discharged, returned to Canada or becomes otherwise 
non-effective, is tabulated by the Canadian Record Office, 
Green Arbour House, London. The Director of Records is 
Col. A. Lome Hamilton, C.M.G. 

Records of Officers in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
are kept by a special Department of the Assistant Military 
Secretary's Branch which, for the sake of convenience, is accom- 
modated at the Canadian Record Office. 

Summarised, the work of the Canadian Record Office is as 
follows : — 

Soldiers' Documents. — The collection, custody, verification 
and distribution of soldiers' documents involving : — 

(a) Collection and checking of documents of Drafts arriving 
from Canada. 

(b) Collection and forwarding to France of documents of 
Drafts proceeding to France, and receiving and dis- 
tributing documents of men evacuated from France. 

(c) Checking Casualty Forms of Drafts proceeding to 
France. 

(d) Custody of various documents during the whole period 
a soldier is on the strength of Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada, and custody of his documents while he is in 
France or in Hospital in England. 

Casualties. — The reporting of Casualties and tracing move- 
ments while in Hospital. Under this head are comprised : — 

(a) The compilation, after verification, of Daily Casualty 
Lists from reports received both from France and from 
the different centres in England. This includes the 
reporting of transfers of Casualties from one Hospital to 
another. 

(b) Notification of the next-of-kin when resident in 
England. 

(642) F F 



434 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(c) In case of death, in England or France, registering the 
location of the grave, and obtaining details of the 
circumstances of death. 

(d) Making enquiries for a period of six months in respect 
to men reported " Missing." 

(e) Compiling and distributing lists of men invalided to 
Canada, and returned to Canada. 

Card Index. — A Card Index reflecting the names of all personnel 
of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, effective and non- 
effective, is maintained. This Department is, therefore, enabled 
to answer multifarious official and unofficial enquiries with the 
least possible delay. 

Mail. — The re-direction of all mail, letter and parcel, for 
Casualties evacuated from France, and the re-direction of all 
mail, after tracing and identifying addresses, not previously 
delivered on account of being insufficiently or incorrectly 
addressed. 

Honours and Awards. — The maintenance of a complete 
record of all honours and awards gained by Members of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, and the custody and distri- 
bution of medals and war badges. The distribution of " King's 
Certificates/' given to every Officer and man honourably 
discharged on disability, is also entrusted to this Office. 

Miscellaneous Duties. — The carrying out of the following 
miscellaneous duties : — 

(a) The compilation of the Wastage Return for the entire 
Force. 

(b) Compilation of various Statistical Returns of Strength, 
Casualties, etc. 

(c) Custody of War Diaries and confidential documents of 
all units. 

(d) Supervision of the Office System and Records of all 
Regimental Depot Groups in England. 

(e) Provision of quarters and staff for the Director-General 
of Medical Services Staff at Record Office. 

( / ) Checking proceedings of Medical Boards and diagnoses 
by Hospitals. 

(g) Verification of Service chevrons to which a soldier may 
be entitled. 



Record Office. 



435 



Statistics of Duties. — The following figures for the 12 
ended December 31, 1918, give an idea of the volume 
undertaken by the Record Office : — 

New records created 

Total number of records maintained 

Letters and Packages received 

Letters and Packages despatched 

Letters re-directed 

Parcels re-directed 

New files created by Registry 

Entries in Casualty Lists sent out both in 
France and in England : 

(a) Officers 

(b) Other Ranks 

Burial Reports received and registered 

Map locations of graves prepared and passed 
to Graves Registration Branch 

Enquiries answered in respect to Personnel . . 

Medals received for disposal 

War Diaries received for custody 

Boxes and parcels ot confidential and historical 
documents received 



months 
of work 

80,875 
420,913 
709,507 
821,271 
,250,618 
120,091 

25,140 



17,687 

341,275 

19,435 

19,595 

754,571 

3,713 

2,932 

811 



642) 



FF 2 



437 



Estates and Legal Services Branch. 

DEPARTMENT WHICH SERVES AS A 

SOLDIER'S LEGAL ADVISER OVERSEAS. 

It is, perhaps, as well that the Estates Branch has not 
loomed too large in the eye of the Canadian public, for while 
it acts as official guide, philosopher, and friend in all legal 
matters to all Canadian soldiers Overseas, it also performed 
the sadder task of acting as executor to those who fell in battle. 
The latter is a contingency now mercifully past, but the Estates 
Branch, in charge of Lt.-Col. S. G. Robertson, Director of 
Military Estates, still acts as executor to those soldiers whom 
fate may overtake before they can embark for home. 

It is not too much to say of this Department that not only 
has it been of great service to the Canadian troops, but of 
considerable comfort to many Canadian families in time of 
trouble. 

When a soldier was killed, it might be in some forward 
outpost, in No Man's Land or in the darkness of the front 
trench line at night, an officer or non-commissioned officer 
first secured the identity disc which every soldier carries round 
his neck or wrist, and then carefully collected all the little 
personal articles which the fallen man had carried with him 
into the line — his watch, his ring, and, perhaps, a pocket-book 
with a few treasured photographs. 

These were then taken to Company Headquarters, whence 
they were forwarded to the Battalion Paymaster, by whom 
they were ultimately transmitted, together with the man's 
kit, to the Estates Branch in London. From London they 
were despatched to Ottawa, whence those precious relics, which 
mean so much to many a bereaved wife or parent, were forwarded 
to those entitled to them. 

It was not, of course, always possible to recover these 
personal belongings, especially when a soldier fell in a big 
offensive action. Every possible care, however, was taken to 
secure them, and if an enquiry was received by the Estates 
Branch in respect to some particular article every effort was 
at once made to trace it. In any case the fact that such an 
immense number of these articles was safely conveyed from 



438 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

those who had fallen to those whose property they had become 
in Canada is striking testimony to the systematic methods 
which were employed. 

In the course of its history, too, the Estates Branch has 
been made the depository of one quarter of a million Canadian 
soldiers' wills. 

Before an officer, N.C.O., or man proceeded to France 
the Paymasters of the different Units were required to forward 
to the Estates Branch a roll showing where each soldier had 
deposited his will. In the case of those soldiers who had 
made no wills the Paymasters had instructions to procure 
them for them, blank forms of will and copies being provided 
for this purpose. 

The originals of all wills were then placed on file at the 
Estates Branch, and in the event of a soldier being reported 
killed four copies of the document were at once prepared. 
Of these one was passed to the Canadian Record Office for 
filing, another to the Section which had charge of the 
deceased's estate on hand, while the original and two copies 
were kept at the Wills Branch. 

In the event of the beneficiaries residing in Canada the 
original will or a certified copy was forwarded, together with 
the kit and personal effects of the soldier concerned, either to 
the Militia Council at Ottawa or to the deceased's own executors 
for the purpose of probate. In the event of the beneficiaries 
residing in the British Isles the kit and personal effects were 
dealt with by the Estates Branch under the terms of the will. 

Lawyers of Standing. — In addition to these duties the Estates 
Branch has done, and is still doing, much valuable work for 
the Canadian soldier. It stored surplus baggage when he 
proceeded to France, and through its Legal Department it is 
ready at all times to give advice on points arising out of the 
laws of any Provinces of Canada or in respect to the laws of 
England. It will also, when so desired, draw up any legal 
documents in connection with his private affairs which a 
Canadian soldier may require while overseas. It will, therefore, 
be seen that its staff must include officers versed in the laws of the 
different Provinces, and that the importance attaching to their 
advice and decisions requires that they shall be lawyers of 
recognised ability and standing. 

Up to May, 1915, the duties of this Branch were carried 
out by the Canadian Pay Office, but the rapid increase in the 



Estates Branch. 439 

work and the absolute necessity for meticulous care in respect 
to technical details necessitated a considerable development. 

Early in 1916 it became necessary to establish an Estates 
Branch at Ottawa, and towards the end of the same year the 
Branch in England passed nominally to the Accountant- 
General. 

By November, 1917, it became absolutely essential to make 
the Estates Branch a separate Department, and finally authority 
was given for an Establishment permitting of 12 officers, 83 
other ranks, and 80 civilian employees. That, of course, was 
to provide for days of pressure, but the cessation of hostilities 
greatly lessened the work of the Branch and the strength 
of its staff has consequently been proportionately decreased. 

In November, 1918, the department was given the name of 
Estates and Legal Services Branch, Overseas Military Forces 
of Canada. 



441 



Overseas Purchasing Committee- 

CONTRACTS BRANCH, OVERSEAS 
MILITARY FORCES OF CANADA. 

Prior to 1918, the Chief Purchasing Officer of the Quartermaster- 
General's Branch was authorised to purchase all supplies for 
the use of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada in the British 
Isles, requisitions for the same having been first approved by 
the head of the branch of the service requiring them. 

While, owing to the efficient manner in which this system was 
administered, the public was being amply protected, yet it was 
felt that it would be better to place the authority for purchasing 
stores under a department distinct from the department responsible^ 
for the receipt, issue and custody of them. It was also observed 
that a certain duplication in the accounting system could be 
dispensed with by the formation of a separate department. 

Accordingly, the Minister, with the concurrence of the Overseas 
Military Council, authorised the formation of a branch to be 
known as the " Contracts Branch," such Branch to operate under 
a Committee to be known as the " Overseas Purchasing Com- 
mittee," upon which was imposed the duty of supervising, directing, 
inspecting and passing upon the proposed actions and operations 
of the Contracts Branch. The Committee is composed of such 
persons as the Overseas Minister may from time to time designate, 
and at the present time consists of three members. The Com- 
mittee keeps complete minutes of all contracts approved by it 
and as far as practicable such minutes are similar to those of the 
War Purchasing Commission of Canada. 

Subject to the approval of the Committee as above mentioned, 
all contracts in the Overseas Military Forces of Canada in 
reference to transportation clothing, equipment, arms, guns, 
ammunition, horses, munitions and materials of war, supplies of 
every kind and accommodation, made subsequent to August 1, 
1918, are entered into by the Director of Contracts, the head 
of the Contracts Branch. 



442 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In respect of all contracts made, the following regulations 
obtain as far as practicable : — 

Regulations. — 

(a) Tenders are called for and opened in the presence of the 
Director and some officer nominated by the Purchasing 
Committee. 

(b) Purchases are made and contracts given at the lowest 
price offered. 

These regulations are not departed from except in cases of 
emergency due to military considerations of the moment, or for 
any other given and sufficient reason, and in any such case the 
grounds for the departure must be clearly reported. 

No contracts are made except upon a requisition signed by the 
head of the Department of the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada concerned, who is responsible for shapes, sizes, quality 
and quantities. Such requisition states the articles and materials 
needed, the quantity and description thereof, and the time and 
place of delivery, or the nature of the service to be contracted for. 

The Director of Contracts has no authority to change or vary 
such a requisition, but he may in respect thereof make, through 
the Overseas Purchasing Committee, such representations as he 
sees fit. 

Procedure. — Generally, the procedure by which clothing, 
equipment, arms, guns, ammunition, horses, munitions and 
materials of war, and supplies of every kind, are obtained, and all 
contracts for transportation, made within the scope of the powers 
and authority of the Minister, is similar to that obtaining in 
Canada, whereby the various branches of the Militia Department 
requisition on the Director of Contracts as necessity arises. 

The procedure in operation, covering the purchases made other 
than by formal contract, is as follows : — A demand for supplies 
having been received from authorised sources approved by the 
head of the Branch of the Service making the demand, particulars 
of the commodities required are forwarded to the best known 
sources of supply, with instructions to return tenders within 
a specified time. Three or more tenders are usually called for. 
The tenders when returned are reviewed by the Director of 
Contracts, who places his recommendation as to which should be 
accepted, before the Overseas Purchasing Committee. On 
receiving the sanction of the Committee for the acceptance of a 



Overseas Purchasing Committee. 443 

tender, a purchase order is issued by the Director of Contracts to 
the Contractor and also to the Receiving Depot, as a notification 
to that Depot that their original requisition has been acted on, 
and as an intimation of the source from which the goods will be 
received. On receipt of the goods, or as the case may be, the 
Officer in Charge of the Receiving Depot completes the receiver's 
report giving a " good order receipt," if the goods are correct, or 
a deficiency report, if otherwise. In the latter case the Director 
of Contracts takes the necessary action to secure compensation for 
the deficiency claimed. 

The Director of Contracts then furnishes the Contractor with 
a blank invoice form. On this invoice being returned to the 
Director of Contracts, it is checked against the purchase order, 
and if correct, forwarded to the Officer in Charge of the Receiving 
Depot for a certificate of receipt. When the invoice is returned 
by him to the Director of Contracts, the certificate of price is 
attached and the invoice passed to the Officer in Charge of 
Accounts. 

A permanent docket is kept for each transaction, and when 
the transaction is complete, the docket is signed by the Director 
of Contracts and passed to the Officer in Charge of Accounts to 
be filed as a permanent record. 

Contracts for Supplies Delivered during Extended Periods. — 

The maintenance of Canadian troops in training areas and 
hospitals in England, equipped and maintained by the Canadian 
Government, renders it necessary to provide that certain supplies 
and services be delivered or performed by Local Contractors 
during an extended period. The delivery of these supplies 
and the performance of Local Services are operated under the 
direction of the Director of Supplies and Transport, and the 
Overseas Purchasing Committee has approved of the following 
procedure governing Local Contracts : — 

Tenders for such contracts are called for by the O.C., C.A.S.C, 
Local Area, and are received and opened upon a day appointed 
by the O.C., C.A.S.C, in the presence of the D.A.Q.M.G. of each 
Local Area. Both officers engaged on this day affix their signature 
to each Tender under the consecutive number entered thereon, 
and the O.C., C.A.S.C, prepares and schedules all contracts 
received, and makes a recommendation for the acceptance of the 
most advantageous Tender and forwards the documents to the 
Director of Supplies and Transport, who reviews the contracts 



444 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

and makes further recommendation to the Director of Contracts. | 
The Director of Contracts submits his recommendation to the | 
Overseas Purchasing Committee as to which, if any, of such j 
Tenders should be accepted, and the Overseas Purchasing Com- 
mittee gives a final decision. The Director of Contracts notifies | 
the accepted and rejected contractors of the result and also 
notifies the officers and Departments concerned. 

The contracts above referred to are principally for such supplies 
as Milk, Ice, Laundry, Lighting, Heating, Gas, Coal, Conservancy 
and occasionally local Fish and Vegetable Supplies, and such 
other services or commodities as may from time to time become 
necessary for the subsistence or maintenance of Canadian troops. 

Contractors' Invoices. — Contractors are instructed to 
submit Invoices periodically for the commodities supplied or 
services rendered by the authority of accepted contracts. These 
Invoices are checked against the original accepted Tender and, 
if correct, forwarded to the Department concerned for certificate 
of receipt. They are afterwards completed with certificate of 
price and passed to the Officer i/c. Accounts who verifies the 
mathematical calculations, and submits the same to the Over- 
seas Purchasing Committee in order that the accounts may be 
noted for payment and finally passed to the Paymaster-General 
for payment to the contractor. 

War Office Contracts. — An arrangement was entered into 
between the Imperial Authorities and representatives of the 
Canadian Government in 1914, whereby certain commodities 
from Imperial Store Depots would be supplied to the Canadian 
Forces on a basis as agreed upon. This arrangement has been 
continued until the present time. 

Departmental Records. — The Director of Contracts main- 
tains a Commodity Record Book for each Department of the 
Service. This record is built up from the details shown on the 
purchase orders or contracts, the purchases for each Department j 
being classified under certain specified sub-headings, and the j 
values of the purchases totalled monthly. These monthly totals 
form the basis of the Monthly Departmental Report made by the 
Director of Contracts to the Overseas Purchasing Committee. 

THE ACCOUNTS BRANCH. 

Organisation. — On the creation of the Overseas Purchasing 
Committee, mentioned in the last Section, the Accounts Depart- 
ment of the Quartermaster-General passed under its supervision. 



Overseas Purchasing Committee. 445 

This Department had at that time an authorised Establishment 
of 4 officers and 22 other ranks, but on its reorganisation it was 
possible to reduce the required Establishment to 2 officers and 
16 other ranks. A complete revision of the entire Accounting 
System as previously carried on was effected with a view to 
incorporating the necessary record keeping for the Medical and 
Dental Services, which had not been previously included in the 
activities of the Accounts Department when under the supervision 
of the Quartermaster-General. 

System. — Under the system at present in operation, a complete 
record is maintained of the purchase of all supplies and com- 
modities and the receipt and distribution of the same, thus 
making it possible for the Purchasing Committee to be assured 
at any time that the accounts which they have approved for 
payment, represent the cost of commodities which have been 
properly distributed and actually consumed by the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada in England. 

The Accounts Branch also maintains in itself complete records 
from which can be ascertained, under separate heads, the total 
amounts of the various commodities purchased. The ledgers 
kept contain full information in regard to Contractors' accounts, 
so as to prevent any possibility of duplication of payments, and 
the necessary information as to the quantity of dutiable com- 
modities purchased on which a rebate of duty is reclaimable. 

Figures can also be furnished showing at any time the total 
amounts passed for payment on behalf of the different Services. 

All invoices covering purchases are forwarded to the Accounts 
Branch, properly certified, by which they are recorded so as to 
show — 

(a) The total cost of the commodities purchased. 

(b) The total liability to the different Contractors, and in 
addition the total expenditure from time to time made 
on behalf of the different Branches of the Service. 

Such invoices are then checked and submitted to the Pur- 
chasing Committee for approval for payment, after which they 
are passed to the General Auditor for pre-audit and by him to the 
Paymaster-General for payment. 

Monthly Returns are forwarded to the Accounts Branch by 
Sub-Depots and Departments showing in total the receipts and 
issues of commodities received by them for distribution. These 



446 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Summaries are compared with the commodity accounts in the 
ledgers and with the actual invoices, thus affording a complete 
check on the purchases to ensure that everything bought has been 
properly accounted for. 

The method of accounting with reference to Mechanical 
Transport Stores and Stationery Stores is suitable to the trans- 
actions of these Services, as is also that in force in connection with 
the Medical and Dental Stores. 

This Department also keeps a check on claims for refund 
against the Imperial Authorities for Commodities returned to 
them and also, in connection with Engineer and Typewriter 
Services, for work chargeable against the Imperial Government. 



447 



The Canadian Military Funds Trust. 

1. By deed of trust executed on November 20, 1917, 
the Minister of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, the 
High Commissioner for Canada and the General Officer Com- 
manding the Canadian Forces in the British Isles, were appointed 
Trustees to receive all sums of money (other than regimental 
funds) which might from time to time become payable by the 
Navy and Army Canteen Committee, the British Expeditionary 
Force Canteens, or any other organisation, body, person, or 
persons, for the general benefit of the members of the Canadian 
Military Forces, the same to be redistributed and used in the 
discretion of the Trustees for any purposes or objects which 
they consider would benefit the Canadian Military Forces or 
their dependants. 

2. In January, 1917, an agreement was made with the 
Army Canteens Committee that they should take over and 
conduct all regimental institutes occupied by Canadian troops 
in England under the following terms : — 

(a) Pay rebate monthly at the rate of 10 per cent, on 
the total takings in the Canteen. 

Four-fifths of this rebate is paid direct to the Command- 
ing Officer of the Unit for the benefit of the men, and 
the remaining one-fifth is paid to the Canadian 
Military Funds Trustees. 

(b) Pay to the Canadian Military Funds Trustees from 
any trading profits, which may from time to time be 
determined by the Army Council as available for 
distribution, a pro rata sum which shall be arrived 
at by the relative proportion which the Canadian 
troops in the United Kingdom have contributed to 
the turnover. 

3. The Military Funds Trustees Board was established for 
the purpose of receiving the amounts payable under 2 {a) 
and (b) above, and up to the end of December, 1918, the Trustees 
had received from the Navy and Army Canteen Board the 
sum of about £24,000, being the rebates due for period January 1, 
1917, to June 30, 1918. It is estimated that a further sum of 
about £9,000 is now due for the half-year ended December 
31, 1918. 



448 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

In' addition to these amounts there is a sum of £36,960, 
credited in the books of the N.A.C.B. to the Canadian Forces 
as undistributed profits for the year ended December 31, 
1917, and it may reasonably be expected that a similar 
amount will be available for the year 1918. 

4. An agreement was also made in January, 1918, between 
the Expeditionary Force Canteens which operate in France 
and the representatives of Canadian, Australian and New 
Zealand Forces, that the contingents of the Overseas Forces 
should receive their profits as full partners in the organisation 
at the end of the War. It is impossible to say what amount 
will be available for distribution until the winding up of the 
affairs of the Expeditionary Forces Canteen Board. 

5. The Military Funds Trustees Board has decided that it 
is desirable to retain its funds, as far as possible, for transfer 
to Canada to meet cases of relief and assistance to soldiers 
and their dependants arising after the War. Up to date the 
only amount expended has been a grant of £750 to Mr. R. B. 
Barron for the relief and assistance of the dependants of 
Canadian soldiers in the British Isles since the beginning of 
the War. Mr. Barron has devoted the whole of his time as a 
voluntary worker in this Cause. 



449 



Navy and Army Canteens. 

When the first Canadian Contingent arrived in England 
in 1914, and went into camp at Salisbury Plain, all the canteens 
there, as at all the. other military camps in the British Isles, 
were conducted by civilian contractors. The canteens were 
then unattractive places. They were unfurnished, and in no 
way could be rightly called Soldiers' " Clubs," which the Army 
authorities intended the canteens to be. The supplies were 
very limited, and the quality of the goods sold was far from 
satisfactory. 

It was difficult in the early days of the War to make any 
drastic changes, but two years later an official organization 
was created to supervise as far as possible the activities of the 
canteen contractors. This organization standardized the quality 
of the goods sold, controlled the prices, and in general carried 
out its mission satisfactorily. It was, however, found that it 
did not possess sufficient authority, and the Army Canteen 
Committee was inaugurated. This committee had wider 
powers, but was still only a supervising committee. 

As time went on it became clear that the profits which were 
being made by civilian contractors should, if possible, be made 
by the Army, and the Army Council decided, during the latter 
part of 1916, that the whole of the canteen organization should 
be undertaken officially and financed by the Treasury. As a 
result the powers of the Army Canteen Committee were so 
extended that they were to conduct the canteens direct. The 
stocks of the civilian contractors were taken over by the com- 
mittee, and within the course of two months practically the 
whole organization had undergone a change. The benefits 
accruing from the new system soon became apparent. The 
canteens developed into real " Clubs " for soldiers ; the profits 
made by the Army Canteen Committee were all held in trust 
for the troops, and large sums of money were spent in painting 
and furnishing the various premises. Further, prices were 
controlled and the quality of the goods standardized, so that 
the complaints which in the past had been rife, both as to over- 
charges and the poor quality of the goods supplied, rapidly 
diminished. 

(642)' GG 



450 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Questions then arose as to whether the Canadian Military 
Authorities should undertake the conduct of their own canteens 
or whether they should become partners in the operations of 
the Army Canteen Committee. The matter was considered 
very carefully, and the whole of the facts placed before the 
Authorities of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, who 
finally decided that a representative of the Canadian Overseas 
Military Forces should be appointed a member of the Army 
Canteen Committee, and that the Canadian Forces should 
become full partners in the operations of the committee in the 
same way as the Australian Overseas Military Forces had already 
become partners. 

The chief reasons for these decisions were as follows : — 

1. The difficulty of creating a new organization to deal 
with the matter on the scale required. 

2. The undesirability of causing competition in already 
restricted markets. 

3. The necessity of using personnel which was urgently 
required for other purposes. 

4. The fact that the Canadian Headquarters were satisfied 
with the personnel of the new Board and with the 
lines upon which they conducted operations. 

Towards the middle of 1917, the functions of the Army 
Canteen Committee were extended to the Navy. The name 
of the committee was then changed to the " Navy and Army 
Canteen Board." 

The principal financial arrangements between the Canadian 
Overseas Military Forces and the Navy and Army Canteen 
Board are : — 

1. A rebate of eight per cent, of the gross takings is 
returned to the unit using the canteen to be spent 
on extra messing, an additional two per cent, being 
paid to the Canadian Military Funds Trustees Board 
for the benefit of the men. 

2. Of the total yearly profits of the Board a percentage 
representing their proportionate share is returned to 
the Canadian Military Funds Trustees Board. 

In many camps, including Bramshott, Witley and Kinmel 
Park, the Board erected theatres and conducted high-class 
entertainments for the benefit of the troops, all the expenses 
being borne by the Board. 



Navy and Army Canteens. 451 

Payments made by the Board to the Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada in 1917 and 1918 were — 

1917. 

£ s. d. 

Rebates paid direct to Units on an 

eight per cent, basis . . . . 58,572 14 10 

Rebates paid to the Canadian 

Military Funds Trustees Board 

on a two per cent, basis . . 14,821 3 5 

Share of total net profits of the 

Board due to the Overseas 

Military Forces of Canada . . 36,960 



Total .. .. £110,353 18 3 

1918. 

£ s. d. 

Rebates paid direct to Units on an 

eight per cent, basis . . . . 73,997 9 6 

Rebates paid to the Canadian 

Military Funds Trustees Board 

on a two per cent, basis . . 17,978 4 9 



Total .. .. £91,975 14 3 



The share of the total net profits of the Board for 1918 due 
to the Canadian Military Funds Trustees Board was not 
determined at the date of the completion of this report. 



(642) GG2 



453 



Canadian War Records. 



SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES. 

The activities of the Canadian War Records Office, under 
the direction of Lieut. -Colonel Lord Beaverbrook, the Officer 
in Charge, have been departmentalised under two general 
branches, namely — 

(1) The collection and compilation of historical data 
relating to the Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 
and 

(2) General Publicity. 

The following table will show at a glance the departments : — 

I. — Collection and Compilation of Historical Data. 
Historical Section — 

(a) War Diaries. 

(b) Histories. 

(c) Records. 

(d) Library. 

(e) Honours and Awards. 

(f) Collections. 

(g) Parcels. 

(h) Officers in France. 

(i) Photographs. 

(j) Prisoners of War. 

II. — General Publicity. 

{a) Literary. 

(b) Publicity. 

(c) Topical Films. 

(d) Exhibitions. 

(e) Canadian Daily Record. 

(f) Canadian War Memorials. 



454 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

HISTORICAL SECTION. 

(a) War Diaries. — Foremost among data collected by the 
historical section are the War Diaries ; some 300 of these have 
been received each month. To-day there are on file some 10,000 
diaries and, roughly, these diaries are treated as follows : — 

Upon their arrival they are accompanied by a check list ; 
this list is carefully gone over in order to see that the appendices 
attached to the file correspond with a number stated in the 
check list. After registration they are filed in their respective 
Unit folders. In the event of a Unit ceasing to render a diary, 
the authority is entered in the register, notes of which are kept 
and the missing parts immediately asked for. A list is also 
made of any duplicates sent instead of originals, in order that 
an exchange may be effected. The diaries are then very care- 
fully read (1) in order to discover any technical defects ; (2) 
to form an accurate estimate of their historical value. 

From time to time reports are submitted covering individual 
errors and omissions, accompanied by recommendations for 
improvements and suggestions. Photostat copies are made of 
the portions most valuable from an historical standpoint, in 
order to prevent wear and tear which inevitably follows usage. 

In addition to the registering and copying of diaries, other 
registers are compiled from the diaries themselves. All Opera- 
tion Orders are listed in this way, that missing ones may be 
secured. A similar register is kept of maps and plans. Finally, 
a card index is also kept showing the Commanding Officers of 
the chief combatant units in France. This section possesses 
unrivalled facilities as a bureau for historical research. Con- 
structive historical work is carried on without cessation. This 
comprises (1) historical synopsis of various units, and (2) 
elaborate and comprehensive notes of the great actions in which 
the Canadians have played a leading part. Clarity and concise- 
ness are the chief factors in notes of this kind, but due attention 
is given to all essential details. Maps required are drawn by a 
skilled cartographer from information contained in the diaries. 
Accommodation is provided for authorised officers and others to 
do historical research work. Thus, it will be readily seen that 
the history of each Unit is kept in compact form for ready 
reference Monthly reports and diaries of the Canadian Corps, 
the Canadian Railway Battalions and Canadian Forestry Units 
in France are received, and afford a comprehensive review of 
the activities in the Field. 



Canadian War Records Office. 455 

(b) Histories. — At irregular intervals there are forwarded 
to this office abridged narratives of deeds performed by Units 
and individuals in France. Such stories may range from a 
description of an action on a large scale to that of a paragraph 
detailing an act of bravery on the part of some otherwise 
unknown hero. Triplicate and quadruplicate war diaries and 
appendices thereto, maps, Operation Orders, photographs, etc., 
also come to hand from time to time. All this material is filed 
under the " Unit " system of the section, subdivided into 
periods of one month, and thus forms a useful addition to the 
cold facts contained in the monthly War Diaries. This 
miscellaneous material is proving of inestimable service to the 
historian and the literary staff. 

(c) Records. — Owing to the fact that War Diaries were not 
kept by Units in the early days of the War, it has been found 
necessary to complete records by applying direct to Officers 
who served with the Units. Through this channel much valuable 
information has been obtained which otherwise would have been 
lost. 

(d) Library. — The reference library, containing some 200 
odd volumes and pamphlets, has proved a most useful acquisi- 
tion. The aim of this library has been to include works by 
well-known authors and war correspondents relating to 
Canadian achievements. Added to this is the rather more 
interesting collection from an historical viewpoint, comprising a 
number of trench and camp magazines issued by the Canadian 
Forces ; these have originated from 52 different sources, and 
those still being published are received regularly. 

(e) Honours and Awards. — A list is received monthly from 
the Officer in Charge of Records, of all Officers, N.C.Os. and men 
who have been decorated for gallantry. These are placed on 
the unit file in the case of the V.C., D.S.O., M.C., D.C.M. The 
Officer Commanding the particular Unit is corresponded with 
and his narrative obtained and filed. 

(/) Collections. — A very complete and Valuable collection 
of regimental badges and distinguishing patches has been made. 
This collection has proved very useful to the War Memorials 
Fund Artists in completing minor details of portraits. 

(g) Parcels. — In compliance with routine order number 
2,985, dated 26/11/17, this office has received from the Officer 
in Charge of Records 1,700 parcels for safe keeping. These 



456 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

parcels have all been numbered and riled in order. Many 
boxes containing regimental documents have also been received, 
the total of these being 320. In addition, 673 parcels containing 
records of the A.A.G. Canadian Section, G.H.O. 3rd Echelon, 
have been forwarded to this office for safe keeping. These 
have not been numbered other than the number received from 
the Base where they were put in order. 

The contents of approximately 200 parcels have been care- 
fully gone through, the papers classified, and a detailed inventory 
placed on unit files. A card system has been devised whereby 
these parcels may be dealt with quickly, and a complete index 
of contents seen at a glance. 

The parcels have been found to contain very valuable 
material, such as maps and narratives of operations, and it is 
thought that many missing operation orders from the original 
war diaries will be recovered in the process of investigation. 

(h) Officers in France. — During the past few months the 
officers of the Canadian War Records Office in France have 
quickly increased their facilities for securing information 
desired,' and have come to a full realisation of the value of 
war diaries and documents of historical interest. They have 
also co-operated with the artists of the Canadian War Memorials 
Fund in facilitating the progress of their work ; many of these 
artists remained in France as long as two months, and all 
expressed their appreciation of the opportunities placed at their 
disposal by the Senior Records Office. 

(i) Photographic. — The Canadian official photographer has 
assiduously followed the movements of the Canadian Corps, 
and, as a result, his work is a valuable collection of battle, 
camp and billet photographs, each forming a permanent pictorial 
record of the activities of the Canadians in France. During 
the first nine months of 1918, over 1,000 new photographs were 
produced, bringing the total collection to over 4,000. 

Prints of all these have been mounted in albums as well as 
circulated throughout Canada, United States and France. 

The photographer in England has taken upwards of 500 
photographs of officers and nursing sisters who have been 
decorated by H.M. The King. The photographer has also 
pr.id visits to men of the Canadian camps scattered throughout 
the United Kingdom, and photographed camp life, sports, 
physical training and interesting events in general. 



Canadian War Records Office 457 

In order to provide a safeguard against any possible loss 
to the original negative, a glass positive has been made from 
each negative so that a copy may readily be made. 

A Canadian Section has been appointed at the Photographic 
Bureau of the Ministry of Information, and there is now on 
exhibition there practically a complete set of all Canadian 
photographs taken in France. This gives Canadians on 
leave in London an opportunity to see and purchase any 
pictures they may require. 

(j) Prisoners of War. — Previous to the signing of the 
Armistice, prisoners of war who managed to escape from the 
internment camps in Germany and make their way to Great 
Britain were interviewed by the Records Office. 

With -the signing of the Armistice, an officer was sent to 
each of the two reception camps (Dover and Ripon), to work in 
co-operation with the Imperial Parliamentary Committee. 
The officer interviewed each repatriated prisoner, enquiring 
especially into any ill-treatment, unnecessary punishment, food, 
sanitary accommodation, working conditions, etc., in the 
several camps in which the prisoner had been confined. Par- 
ticular attention was paid to securing the names, rank and 
regiment of officers, non-commissioned officers, men, or civilians, 
who were responsible for any ill-treatment reported. As a 
result, a very interesting and graphic amount of material has 
been received, This has been placed in charge of one of the 
interviewing officers, who is carefully going through each 
statement, making a summary which readily shows at a glance 
the many vicissitudes through which the soldier has passed. 

GENERAL PUBLICITY. 

(a) Literary. — The important work undertaken and produced 
by the literary staff of the office made it necessary to form a 
special sub-section. The vast amount of material available, and 
the work already produced or in course of production are 
sufficient to show that the department plays an important part 
in the compilation of historical data. 

A book of the deeds of Canadian V.Cs. has been recently 
published. A series of the histories of all Canadian Battalions 
on Active Service has also been commenced. 

Up-to-date, histories of the P.P.C.L.I., 10th, 13th, and 28th 
Battalions have been published. These average about 6,500 
words and are sold at sixpence per copy. 



458 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

" Canada's Triumph," by the Official Correspondent 
of the Ministry, Overseas Military Forces of Canada, covering 
the battles of the Canadian Corps from Amiens to Mons, has 
also been marketed. It is interesting to note that this book 
was for sale within three weeks of the completion of these 
operations. 

Historical summaries of each Canadian Brigade, from its 
organisation to its recent operations, have been written. 

A book of " Battle Pieces," etc., short, tense, true stories of 
personal interest taken from incidents of the War, has also been 
written. These stories are intended to bring home to the public 
the human side of the righting men. 

A volume covering the work of the Canadian Hospitals in 
the Near East is also being prepared. The five Canadian 
Hospitals which went out to Lemnos, Mudros, Egypt and 
Salonika in the early days are included. This section has dealt 
with the periodical publication of " Canada in Khaki," and 
' The Canadian War Pictorial." These two publications are 
illustrated with official photographs. 

Volume IV. of " Canada in Flanders " is in the Press, and 
will prove a further graphic contribution to this special history 
of the Canadian troops. This volume deals with the activities 
at Vimy Ridge. 

The following stories, narratives and articles have also 
been produced : — 

" Special Reports of Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele." 
" The Story of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade at 

Cambrai." 
" Narratives of Escaped Canadian Prisoners of War." 
" Les Poilus Canadiens " (7,000 words, written for the 

Ministry of Information). 
Short Articles on Canadian Corps Operations to date. 
Articles on Railway Troops and the Medical and 

Forestry Corps, for publicity purposes. 
A chronological record of Canadian Corps Operations 

on the Somme. 
Continuation of the chronological index of the Canadian 

Expeditionary Force. 
Numerous articles for Headquarters, Overseas Military 

Forces of Canada, the " Maple Leaf," " Canada in 

Khaki," and the " Canadian War Pictorial." 
Articles on various military subjects for the office 

files. 



Canadian War Records Office. 459 

Much research work has been done in addition to that 
required for the purposes shown above. 

The profits of all these works go to the Canadian War 
Memorials Fund. 

(b) Publicity. — In order that the activities of the Canadian 
Forces in France might receive their full share of public atten- 
tion, a vast amount of publicity material has been prepared 
and distributed to the Press of England, Canada and the 
United States. 

This includes despatches from official correspondents in 
France, and special articles on various branches of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada, as well as many articles directly 
intended to place before the general public the work of the 
Canadian Forces. 

(c) Topical Films. — The cinematograph operator with the 
Canadian Forces in France has filmed various activities. A 
series of cinematograph pictures, both of public interest and 
invaluable for record purposes, has been taken of various 
Canadian battles, a number of which have been forwarded to 
Canada, where they were well received. 

A great number of views have been taken exclusively for 
use in the " Pictorial News " — a bi-weekly film publication for 
exportation throughout the world. 

A special Canadian film was prepared for exhibition at the 
Canadian War Photograph Exhibition when on tour through 
the British Isles. This film is accompanied by a lecturer, 
who explains the various scenes and events. 

A new feature in cinematography has been developed in a 
diagrammatic film accurately worked out of the Battle of 
Courcellette, which has been inserted in a film of the 22nd, 
25th and 26th Battalions which took part in the battle, and the 
taking of Vimy Ridge. 

There is now being made for public exhibition a film 
depicting Canadian activities in the Cambrai area. 

(d) Exhibitions. — There have been four exhibitions of 
photographic work held during the year, which have attracted 
enormous crowds and most favourable Press comment 
throughout the United Kingdom. These exhibitions consisted 
of greatly enlarged coloured photographs shown in Royal 
Galleries. 



460 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

The first exhibition, after the second year's tour in Great 
Britain, has been sold to the Ontario Government to be used by 
the Department of Education. The duplicate of this has been 
touring the United States. The original of the second exhibition 
has been on tour in England ; the duplicate has been touring 
Canada, and is just now entering the United States. The 
third exhibition is on tour in England at the present time. 
The original of the fourth exhibition has just completed a most 
successful stay at the Grafton Galleries, and is now commencing 
a tour of the United Kingdom. The duplicate of this exhibition 
is on its way to Canada. 

The paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy are being 
forwarded to New York for exhibition after closing a most 
successful six weeks' stay in London. 

(e) Canadian Daily Record. — The circulation of this soldiers' 
newspaper has now reached 25,000 per day, and many letters of 
appreciation have been received showing its popularity with 
the Canadian troops. The daily news cable service from 
Ottawa keeps the Canadians abroad well posted as to events 
and developments in Canada. The paper is doubled in size 
twice a week, two of the pages being devoted every Wednesday 
to the doings of the Canadian Forces in France and the training 
areas in England. This news consists of personal items, results 
of athletic events, and a record of any interesting episodes. 
This enlarges the scope of the paper and is a means of keeping 
the scattered forces in touch with each other, as well as forming 
a link with the home country. 

(/) Canadian War Memorials Fund.— The profits derived 
from the sale of Official Photographs, Exhibitions, Publications, 
etc., are devoted to the acquisition of records of a different 
nature, and are placed to the credit of the Canadian War 
Memorials Fund. Approximately sixty artists are employed 
to paint pictures which provide a record of Canada's share in 
the War, and there should be a permanent monument to the 
memory of those who have fallen. Fourteen of these artists are 
Canadian officers, the remainder being civilians. With the 
exception of the pay of officers, all expenses are borne by the 
Canadian War Memorials Fund. 



461 



Overseas Disposal Board. 

No time was lost after the declaration of the Armistice in 
making arrangements for the disposal of all surplus Canadian 
ctothing, equipment, arms, ammunition, horses, and the stores 
generally, of all Departments of the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada which were no longer required for use Overseas or 
for return to Canada. 

The Overseas Disposal Board was, in fact, called into being 
on the day after the signing of the Armistice, and was constituted 
as follows : — 

The Quartermaster-General. 
The Deputy Quartermaster-General. 
The Assistant Deputy-Minister, and the 
Canadian Financial Representative of the Overseas 
Military Forces of Canada. 

The Board deals with all Departments, and the head of each 
Department is held responsible for notifying the Board as soon 
as any stores become surplus. The Director of Sales is then 
responsible for the disposal of all surplus articles, but only 
with the approval and under the sanction of the Board. As is 
customary in the case of Government stores, all sales are made 
by public auction, except in isolated cases where the articles 
to be disposed of can only be of service to some special industry. 
In these cases they are disposed of by public tender. 

All accounts are handled in the usual way through the 
Accounts Branch and the Paymaster-General. 

Up to March 1 the disposals had principally consisted of 
the horses of the Canadian Overseas Military Forces of Canada 
and Surplus Ordnance Stores and Equipment. 

Horses and Mules. — At the date of the Armistice, Canada 
had approximately. 24,000 horses and mules in France and 
2,000 horses in England, and on November 12, the day on which 
the Disposal Board began its work, the Imperial Authorities 
notified the Canadian Authorities that it would be impossible 
for them to take over any Canadian horses as they had very 
large numbers of their own to dispose of. The Imperial 
Authorities, however, offered to pool the Canadian horses 



462 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

with their own and sell them by auction, the Canadians to pay 
their share of the expenses involved and to receive the average 
price fetched by the horses on the total sales. 

This offer, however, would have entailed the provision of 
considerable Canadian personnel to look after the horses until 
such time as they were disposed of, and very likely have involved 
the retention of Canadian soldiers Overseas after the demobilisa- 
tion of the Canadian Overseas Military Forces as a whole. It 
would have also entailed the feeding and keep of large numbers of 
animals for which no employment could be found, a procedure 
which would probably have resulted in the total cost to the 
Canadian Government exceeding the returns from the sales. 

It was equally impracticable, and would have proved even 
more expensive, to return the animals to Canada. It would not 
have been possible to find transports for many months, at the 
end of which time, in addition to the expense of keeping the 
horses and personnel required to look after them in the interval, 
it would have become necessary to pay a very high freight rate 
for the return of the animals to Canada. The expense resulting 
from such an arrangement would, inevitably, have been very 
great and could not have been justified on economic grounds. 

It was, therefore, decided to enter into negotiations with some 
of the Allied Governments direct, and finally an agreement was 
arrived at with the Belgian Government whereby that Govern- 
ment took over all the Canadian horses and mules in France 
at the round price of £40 per head. 

In lieu of cash it was agreed to accept Belgian Government 
securities for the amount involved, the sum due to be payable 
to the Canadian Government at any time within 10 years, 
the Belgian Government meantime to pay interest on all out- 
standing amounts at the rate of five per cent, per annum. 
Up to March 1, approximately half of the horses in question 
had been handed over to the Belgian Government and the 
remainder will be handed over as they cease to be required for 
military purposes. 

Horses in England. — Approximately two-thirds of the 
Canadian horses in England have been disposed of by public 
auction, and up to March 1 fetched the average price of £43 
each. This distinctly high average was only secured by the 
Disposal Board getting first on the market. The price of horses 
in England has already dropped considerably, and at the 
present time the British Government is selling horses at an 
average of £30 to £40. 



Disposal Board, 463 

Ordnance Stores : M.T. in France. — All Ordnance Equip- 
ment Stores and Mechanical Transport with the Canadian 
Troops in France, including the Canadian Corps, Lines of 
Communication Units and Hospitals, are the property of the 
Canadian Government. 

These stores, of which there is an enormous quantity, are 
useful for military purposes only. Some idea of the extent 
of the transport may be gathered from the fact that there are 
upwards of 1,000 three-ton lorries in the Canadian Corps alone. 
The time that must have elapsed before it would have become 
feasible to move these stores and vehicles out of France, and the 
lack of storage accommodation in France, would have resulted 
in very great deterioration in value ; in addition, apart from 
the fact that Canada had no need of such vast supplies of stores 
and equipment, there would have been no proper storage 
accommodation available had they been returned to the 
Dominion. 

The Disposal Board, therefore, entered into negotiations 
with the Imperial Government, and these negotiations resulted 
in an agreement whereby the Imperial Government took over 
all Canadian stores and equipment in France, crediting the 
Canadian Government to the full for all equipment in a service- 
able condition. This equipment may still be drawn on by the 
Canadian Government from the Imperial Authorities in such 
quantities and at such times *as it may be required, and in the 
event of the Canadian Authorities not requiring the whole of 
the equipment financial arrangements will be made on the 
basis of the value of all serviceable equipment surplus to 
Canadian needs. 

Stores in England. — All surplus stores in England are being 
disposed of either under agreement with the Imperial Authorities 
or by public auction. The British War Office has accepted a 
great quantity of stores from the Canadian Ordnance Depot 
at Ashford, Kent, these stores being converted to the use of 
the British Army. Such stores as have not been taken over 
by the War Office have been disposed of by public auction. 
The advisability of disposing of stores in this manner is amply 
apparent from the following reasons : — 

[a) The abrupt ending of hostilities left the Canadian 
Government with considerable quantities of stores on 
its hands in Canada. 



464 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

(b) The major portion of the surplus stores in England 
had been used in the course of training in England, 
and in the majority of cases the condition of the 
material would not have warranted paying the high 
cost of freight across the Atlantic. 

(c) At the time of the Armistice there was a shortage of 
materials of all kinds in England, prices were high, 
and by taking advantage of an early market the Dis- 
posal Board was enabled to hold four, distinctly 
successful and profitable sales. 

It should be mentioned that in most cases, notwithstanding 
that they had seen service, the articles disposed of brought 
higher prices than they cost when new. The following is a 
typical example of such advantageous results : — 

At a sale held after the closing of the Canadian Training 
School the stores disposed of consisted of lumber, wire, wire- 
netting, iron sheets, etc., all of which had been in use for over 
two and a half years. Yet, while the original cost of this 
material amounted to approximately £400, the proceeds of 
the sale amounted to £851. 

The sale at the Ashford Depot realised approximately 
£40,000 ; the sale at Liphook Depot £9,000, and the sale at 
Seaford £3,300. 

It is proposed to carry on these sales from time to time as 
stores become surplus, not only in order to reduce the number 
of men employed in the Canadian Ordnance Services as rapidly 
as possible, but because it is not desired to retain one man more 
than is necessary in England after the Canadian Troops as a 
whole have returned to Canada. 



465 



Interned Prisoners of War. 

Report on Conditions existing in Holland. — During the 
year 1918 the subject of the conditions of our soldiers 
interned in Holland received the careful attention of the 
Overseas Administration. As a result of this it was decided 
to send a Canadian Representative to the Hague to investigate 
the conditions personally, and after negotiations with the 
Imperial Government, lasting several months, Major (now 
Lt.-Col.) Hume Blake was sent over in September. 

From his report made after a thorough investigation, during 
which every facility was accorded to him by the British and 
Dutch authorities, the following information is taken : — 

Those interned in Holland of all nationalities, numbered 
in all over 40,000. Of that number about 500 officers and 4,500 
other ranks were British Prisoners of War, and these were 
practically all located in the Internment Camp at the Hague 
and its suburb Scheveningen. 

Except a few officers who had been permitted to live else- 
where, all the Canadians, including about 53 officers and 314 
other ranks, were quartered there. 

Quarters and Billets. — The interned officers were for the 
most part housed in several large hotels near the sea front, 
which were taken over for the purpose by the Dutch Govern- 
ment. From all accounts these quarters were reasonably 
comfortable, and the food supplied was fair in quality, though 
much limited in quantity by the strict rationing that was in 
force. The other ranks were billeted in 11 different groups, 
widely scattered about the Hague and Scheveningen. The 
Canadians were in Group 6, known as the Colonial Group, and 
on inspection their billets were found to be fairly satisfactory. 

British Red Cross Society and British Y.M.C.A.— Both the 
British Red Cross Society and the British Y.M.C.A. built up 
large and comprehensive organizations in Holland, and both 
appeared to be under able, efficient and generous control. 

The British Red Cross Society, among its other activities, 
aimed at providing employment, instruction and education 
for the interned. Workshops, schools and classes of instruction 
in many subjects, both for officers and other ranks, had been 
organized, and were being satisfactorily attended. 

(642) H H 



466 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Of the three hospitals at the Hague for British Prisoners 
of War, the one for officers was entirely supported and ad- 
ministered by the British Red Cross Society. For this purpose, 
the Baroness de Brienen had handed over her residence 
" Clingendaal," and undertaken the duties of commandant. 

The two hospitals for other ranks were under Dutch Ad- 
ministration and Medical Service, but the British Red Cross 
Society assisted with supplies of extra comforts, and a fund for 
this purpose had recently been provided by the Canadian Red 
Cross Society. 

On inspection of these hospitals, the impression gathered 
was one of comfort, good order and competent direction, and 
the few Canadian patients spoke highly of the care and good 
treatment received. 

The British Y.M.C.A. had organized numerous well-equipped 
canteens and other centres for the comfort and recreation of 
prisoners, but, as the latter were located in various widely- 
distributed groups, it had been difficult to arrange these centres 
so as to provide for the requirements of all. 

Recreation. — One very good move which our Canadian 
officers made soon after their transfer to Holland was the 
formation of a Canadian Officers' Club. Modest quarters 
were found for the Club, consisting of one floor of a small building 
in Scheveningen, situated near the sea front, and it proved a 
great boon. It was run as economically as possible, and enabled 
its members to meet for social purposes, and to obtain light 
refreshment, much less expensively than at the Dutch cafes 
and restaurants. For the winter months it had been arranged 
to move the club to smaller, but more convenient, quarters in 
the British-America Club in the Hague. 

Another very successful Canadian organization was the 
Canadian Sports' Club. The British Y.M.C.A. Sports' Grounds 
being three miles from the Colonial group, and no provision 
having been made there for distinctively Canadian games, such 
as baseball and lacrosse, it was decided to form a separate 
sports' club, and suitable grounds, of about six acres, were found 
within 10 minutes' walk of the Canadian billets. A baseball 
league was formed with the American Legation and some 
Amsterdam clubs, and through the summer much good baseball 
was played, as well as some soccer and indoor baseball. Many 
winning Canadian entries were made at the Garrison Sports 
and Caledonian Games, and on July 1, a Dominion Day Sports 
Meeting was held, which was generally considered to be the 



Interned Prisoners of War. 467 

most successful sporting event of the summer. The best 
sports' ground in the Hague was secured, and no admission 
charged, all expenses being defrayed by the Canadian officers. 
Six or seven thousand people were present and altogether it 
was a great day for Canada. 

Food. — The Dutch and Imperial Military Authorities had 
many difficulties to contend with, the most material being the 
insufficiency of food. The shortage of food in Holland was very 
great, and the civil population strictly rationed. Food for all 
British interned other ranks were supplied by a Dutch Company, 
under a contract with the British Government, which provided 
that the soldiers' rations should be as sufficient as those allowed 
to the civil population. The company, however, did not fulfil 
this obligation, and the soldiers' food was not only altogether 
insufficient, but often so dirty and badly-prepared as to be 
almost uneatable. These conditions were much improved by 
the Imperial Government supplementing the rations provided 
under the contract, by sending supplies from England of bully- 
beef and meat and vegetable ration, and of ration biscuits. 
With these supplies the food was less insufficient, and there 
was also a considerable improvement in the way it was prepared. 

The nearest Y.M.C.A. canteen was about a half-hour's 
walk from the billets of the Colonial group, and, owing to the 
distance and the crowding and inconvenience at the canteens, 
it was necessary to use a local cafe. 

To better these conditions, the Canadian Y.M.C.A. intended 
to erect and equip a hut, with canteen and other equipment, 
conveniently near to the Canadian billets. This hut was to be 
large enough to serve not only the Colonial group, but an 
Imperial group located in the same area. 

It was the intention to try and provide at this hut a fairly 
substantial evening meal at a moderate charge, probably half a 
gulden (about one shilling) a head. 

General Conditions of Life. — Speaking generally, the con- 
ditions of life for all ranks interned in Holland were found 
to be better than was expected. It may be confidently stated 
that, with very few exceptions, the Canadians there were well 
and in good condition, physically, mentally and morally. They 
had come through the ordeal of the German prison camps 
remarkably well and with great credit to themselves. They 

(642) H H 2 



468 Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

were made welcome and treated kindly by the Dutch Govern- 
ment and the Dutch people. Their conduct and discipline 
were good, and they stood high in reputation and credit. Of 
course, their life in Holland had its drawbacks. The cost of 
living was excessive, food and all commodities, services and 
accommodation being at least twice as expensive as in London. 
Moreover, notwithstanding the efforts of the British Red Cross 
Society, it was necessarily difficult and, in fact, impossible, to 
arrange suitable employment or instruction for all. A great 
many were employed only on group or garrison duty, and in 
these, as indeed in most cases, work of any kind only occupied 
a short part of each day, and the life was one of comparative 
idleness and considerable tedium. 

Recommendations. — As a result of the investigation, 
several recommendations were made, particularly with reference 
to subsistence allowances, which were given effect to, except 
insofar as they were rendered unnecessary by the signing of 
the Armistice. 

Statistics. — The total number of Canadians captured as 
Prisoners of War on the Western Front was 236 officers and 
3,51 1 other ranks. Of these 28 officers and 273 other ranks died 
in captivity, 1 officer and 99 other ranks escaped, while 127 
officers and 311 other ranks were repatriated prior to the 
Armistice. The balance have since been repatriated, with the 
exception of a few who remained on duty after the Armistice. 
In October, 1918, there were 55 officers and 316 other ranks 
interned in Holland, who have since been repatriated. 

Repatriation. — Subsequent to the signing of the Armistice, 
the work of repatriation proceeded as quickly as possible. The 
repatriated Prisoners of War were brought to camps at Ripon 
and Dover, where they were outfitted, medically examined 
and paid, and given leave up to two months, as they desired. 
On the expiration of their leave, they returned to their regimental 
depots and were then given priority of return to Canada. 



469 



The I nter- Allied Permanent 
Committee for Disabled Soldiers. 

France and Belgium. — Belgium and France were first in 
the field in the development of institutional treatment for the 
re-education of their disabled soldiers ; Belgium because, deprived 
of most of her territory, she had nowhere to discharge her 
disabled soldiers at the conclusion of their stay in hospital ; 
France because, instead of discharging them from the army at 
the end of six months' stay in hospital, it was her custom to retain 
them in the primary hospitals until nothing more could be done 
for them. 

As a result of the severe fighting and heavy casualties the 
number of cripples accumulating in the French hospitals became 
so great that it could not be overlooked. It was in November, 
1914, that M. Heriot, Mayor of Lyons, obtained the approval of 
the Municipal Council for his scheme of the establishment of a 
school for the re-education of mutilated soldiers, and in December 
that school was opened. Other districts in France rapidly 
followed suit. 

The Belgian scheme was of necessity on a larger and more 
elaborate scale, but in July, 1915, there was opened the " Institut 
Militaire Beige des Mutiles, Invalides et Orphelins," at Port 
Villez on the Seine, half-way between Paris and Rouen. Here 
beside the necessary dormitories, administration and recreation 
rooms, there were no fewer than 30 separate workshops, in which 
an extraordinary diversity of technical training was pursued, 
clerical and commercial, agricultural, and training for the various 
trades. 

Canada. — A combination of the influences at work in the 
armies of Belgium and France led Canada to take a pioneer 
position as regards the invalid soldiers of Great Britain and her 
Dominions. If Canada suffered from no loss of territory, her 
troops, like those of Belgium, were not on home soil. Invalid 
soldiers could not be discharged from hospital in France or in the 
United Kingdom until they could be returned to active duty, or 
were fit to stand the voyage back to Canada. Very soon the 
C.A.M.C. had to develop a series of Convalescent Hospitals, to 
which all Canadian patients had to be transferred' from active 
treatment Hospitals, whether Canadian or Imperial. These 



Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 

Convalescent Hospitals formed, as it were, the narrow tube of the 
funnel through which all Canadian patients had to pass. Thus 
it was that, months before any active movement for the re- 
education of the maimed soldier took definite shape for the 
Imperial troops, the Granville Canadian Special Hospital (opened 
in November, 1915) was in working order at Ramsgate, with a 
well-developed system of functional re-education for the physical 
training of weak and partially paralysed muscles. This Hospital 
was also fitted with a number of workshops in which return to 
health and muscular strength was brought about by occupational 
pursuits — woodwork, ironwork, printing, ho